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Accounting in Action

Chapter 1-1

Accounting Principles, Ninth Edition

Study Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explain what accounting is. Identify the users and uses of accounting. Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept. Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle. Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. State the accounting equation, and define its components. Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

8.

Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Chapter 1-2

Accounting in Action
Using the Basic Accounting Equation Transaction analysis Summary of transactions

What is Accounting?

The Building Blocks of Accounting Ethics in financial reporting Generally accepted accounting principles Assumptions

The Basic Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Owners equity

Financial Statements

Three activities Who uses accounting data

Income statement Owners equity statement

Balance sheet
Statement of cash flows

Chapter 1-3

What is Accounting?
The purpose of accounting is to:
(1) identify, record, and communicate the economic events of an
(2) organization to (3) interested users.

Chapter 1-4

SO 1 Explain what accounting is.

What is Accounting?
Three Activities
Illustration 1-1 Accounting process

The accounting process includes the bookkeeping function.


Chapter 1-5

SO 1 Explain what accounting is.

Who Uses Accounting Data?


Internal Users Management IRS

Human Resources
Finance

Investors

There are two broad groups of users of financial information: internal users and external users.
Customers SEC

Labor Unions Creditors External Users

Marketing

Chapter 1-6

SO 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting.

Who Uses Accounting Data?


Common Questions Asked
1. Can we afford to give our employees a pay raise? 2. Did the company earn a satisfactory income? 3. Do we need to borrow in the near future? 4. Is cash sufficient to pay dividends to the stockholders? 5. What price for our product will maximize net income? 6. Will the company be able to pay its short-term debts?
Chapter 1-7

User

Human Resources
Investors

Management
Finance

Marketing
Creditors

SO 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting.

Who Uses Accounting Data?

Discussion Question
Q1-1: Accounting is ingrained in our society and it is vital to our economic system. Do you agree? Explain.

See notes page for discussion


Chapter 1-8

SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept.

The Building Blocks of Accounting


Ethics In Financial Reporting
Standards of conduct by which ones actions are judged as right or wrong, honest or dishonest, fair or not fair, are Ethics.
Recent financial scandals include: Enron, WorldCom, HealthSouth, AIG, and others. Congress passed Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

Effective financial reporting depends on sound ethical behavior.


Chapter 1-9

SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept.

Ethics

Review Question
Ethics are the standards of conduct by which one's actions are judged as:
a. right or wrong.

b. honest or dishonest.
c. fair or not fair. d. all of these options.

Chapter 1-10

SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept.

The Building Blocks of Accounting


Various users need financial information Financial Statements
Balance Sheet Income Statement Statement of Owners Equity Statement of Cash Flows Note Disclosure

The accounting profession has attempted to develop a set of standards that are generally accepted and universally practiced.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

Chapter 1-11

SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle.

The Building Blocks of Accounting


Organizations Involved in Standard Setting:
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
http://www.sec.gov/

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)


http://www.fasb.org/

International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) http://www.iasb.org/


Chapter 1-12

SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle.

The Building Blocks of Accounting


Cost Principle (Historical) dictates that companies
record assets at their cost. Issues: Reported at cost when purchased and also over the time the asset is held. Cost easily verified, whereas market value is often subjective.

Fair value information may be more useful.

Chapter 1-13

SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle.

Assumptions
Monetary Unit Assumption include in the
accounting records only transaction data that can be expressed in terms of money.

Economic Entity Assumption requires that

activities of the entity be kept separate and distinct from the activities of its owner and all other economic entities. Proprietorship.

Partnership.
Corporation.
Chapter 1-14

Forms of Business Ownership


SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption.

Forms of Business Ownership


Proprietorship
Generally owned by one person. Often small service-type businesses Owner receives any profits, suffers any losses, and is personally liable for all debts.
Chapter 1-15

Partnership
Owned by two or more persons. Often retail and service-type businesses

Corporation
Ownership divided into shares of stock Separate legal entity organized under state corporation law Limited liability

Generally unlimited personal liability


Partnership agreement

SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption.

Assumptions

Review Question
Combining the activities of Kellogg and General Mills would violate the
a. cost principle.

b. economic entity assumption.


c. monetary unit assumption. d. ethics principle.

Chapter 1-16

SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption.

Forms of Business Ownership

Review Question
A business organized as a separate legal entity under state law having ownership divided into shares of stock is a
a. proprietorship. b. partnership. c. corporation.

d. sole proprietorship.
SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption.

Chapter 1-17

The Basic Accounting Equation


Assets Liabilities Owners Equity

Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. Assets are claimed by either creditors or owners. Claims of creditors must be paid before ownership claims.

Chapter 1-18

SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

The Basic Accounting Equation


Assets Liabilities Owners Equity

Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. Assets Resources a business owns.

Provide future services or benefits.


Cash, Supplies, Equipment, etc.
Chapter 1-19

SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

The Basic Accounting Equation


Assets Liabilities Owners Equity

Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. Liabilities Claims against assets (debts and obligations).

Creditors - party to whom money is owed.


Accounts payable, Notes payable, etc.
Chapter 1-20

SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

The Basic Accounting Equation


Assets Liabilities Owners Equity

Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. Owners Equity Ownership claim on total assets.

Referred to as residual equity.


Capital, Drawings, etc. (Proprietorship or Partnership).
SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

Chapter 1-21

Owners Equity
Illustration 1-6

Revenues result from business activities entered into for the purpose of earning income. Common sources of revenue are: sales, fees, services, commissions, interest, dividends, royalties, and rent.
SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

Chapter 1-22

Owners Equity
Illustration 1-6

Expenses are the cost of assets consumed or services used in the process of earning revenue. Common expenses are: salaries expense, rent expense, utilities expense, tax expense, etc.
SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define its components.

Chapter 1-23

Using The Basic Accounting Equation


Transactions are a businesss economic events
recorded by accountants.
May be external or internal.

Not all activities represent transactions.


Each transaction has a dual effect on the accounting equation.

Chapter 1-24

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions (Question?)
Q1-15: Are the following events recorded in the accounting records? Owner Event
Supplies are purchased on account. An employee is hired.

withdraws cash for personal use.

Criterion

Is the financial position (assets, liabilities, or owners equity) of the company changed?

Record/ Dont Record


Chapter 1-25

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions

Discussion Question
Q1-18: In February 2010, Paula King invested
an additional $10,000 in her business, Kings Pharmacy, which is organized as a proprietorship.

Kings accountant, Lance Jones, recorded this


receipt as an increase in cash and revenues. Is this treatment appropriate? Why or why not?
See notes page for discussion
Chapter 1-26

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (1). Investment By Owner. Ray Neal decides to open a computer programming service which he names Softbyte. On September 1, 2010, he invests $15,000 cash in the. The effect of this transaction on the basic equation is:

Chapter 1-27

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (2). Purchase of Equipment for Cash. Softbyte purchases computer equipment for $7,000 cash.

Chapter 1-28

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (3). Purchase of Supplies on Credit. Softbyte purchases for $1,600 from Acme Supply Company computer paper and other supplies expected to last several months.

Chapter 1-29

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (4). Services Provided for Cash. Softbyte receives $1,200 cash from customers for programming services it has provided.

Chapter 1-30

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (5). Purchase of Advertising on Credit. Softbyte receives a bill for $250 from the Daily News for advertising but postpones payment until a later date.

Chapter 1-31

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (6). Services Provided for Cash and Credit. Softbyte provides $3,500 of programming services for customers. The company receives cash of $1,500 from customers, and it bills the balance of $2,000 on account.

Chapter 1-32

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (7). Payment of Expenses. Softbyte pays the following Expenses in cash for September: store rent $600, salaries of employees $900, and utilities $200.

Chapter 1-33

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (8). Payment of Accounts Payable. Softbyte pays its $250 Daily News bill in cash.

Chapter 1-34

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (9). Receipt of Cash on Account. Softbyte receives $600 in cash from customers who had been billed for services [in Transaction (6)].

Chapter 1-35

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Transaction (10). Withdrawal of Cash by Owner. Ray Neal withdraws $1,300 in cash from the business for his personal use.

Chapter 1-36

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Transactions Analysis
Summary of Transactions
Illustration 1-8 Tabular summary of Softbyte transactions

Chapter 1-37

SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.

Financial Statements
Companies prepare four financial statements from the summarized accounting data:

Income Statement

Owners Equity Statement

Balance Sheet

Statement of Cash Flows

Chapter 1-38

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Review Question
Net income will result during a time period when:
a. assets exceed liabilities. b. assets exceed revenues. c. expenses exceed revenues. d. revenues exceed expenses.

Chapter 1-39

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Income Statement

Reports the revenues and expenses for a specific period of time. Net income revenues exceed expenses. Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and Net loss expenses exceed revenues. their interrelationships
Chapter 1-40

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Net income is needed to determine the ending balance in owners equity.

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

Chapter 1-41

Financial Statements

Owners Equity Statement

Statement indicates the reasons why owners equity has increased or decreased during the period.
Chapter 1-42

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

The ending balance in owners equity is needed in preparing the balance sheet

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

Chapter 1-43

Financial Statements

Balance Sheet

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

Chapter 1-44

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

Chapter 1-45

Financial Statements
Statement of Cash Flows
Information for a specific period of time.

Answers the following: 1. Where did cash come from?


2. What was cash used for? 3. What was the change in the cash balance?

Chapter 1-46

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Statement of Cash Flows

Illustration 1-9 Financial statements and their interrelationships

Chapter 1-47

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Review Question
Which of the following financial statements is prepared as of a specific date?
a. Balance sheet.

b. Income statement.
c. Owner's equity statement. d. Statement of cash flows.

Chapter 1-48

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Financial Statements

Discussion Question
Q1-19: A companys net income appears directly on
the income statement and the owners equity statement, and it is included indirectly in the

companys balance sheet. Do you agree? Explain.

See notes page for discussion


Chapter 1-49

SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.

Accounting Career Opportunities


Public Accounting
Careers in auditing and taxation serving the general public.

Private Accounting
Careers in industry working in cost accounting, budgeting, accounting information systems, and taxation.

Opportunities in Government
Careers with the IRS, the FBI, the SEC, and in public colleges and universities.

Forensic Accounting
Careers with insurance companies and law offices to conduct investigations into theft and fraud.
Chapter 1-50

SO 9 Explain the career opportunities in accounting.

Copyright
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

Chapter 1-51