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The International Conference

on
Renewable Energies

ICRE-2010

April 5 8, 2010 Damascus, Syria
Design of High Efficiency DC-DC
Converter for Photovoltaic Solar Home
Applications

Diary R. Sulaiman Hilmi F. Amin Ismail K. Said


Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering,
University of Salahaddin-Hawler, Iraq

Topics
- Introduction to DC-DC converters
- Analysis of the Buck-Boost Converters
- Design of the Buck-Boost Converters
- The converter control loop
- Simulation Results
- Conclusion
- References


- The solar energy conversion system is very interesting alternative
on supplement the electric system generation, due to the persistent
cost reduction of the overall system and cleaner power generation.

- Buck-boost converters make it possible to efficiently convert a DC
voltage to either a lower or higher voltage.
- This paper analyzes and describes step by step the process of
designing, and simulation of high efficiency low ripple voltage buck-
boost DC-DC converter for the photovoltaic solar conversion system
applicable to a (typical) single family home based on battery-based
systems. The input voltage can typically change from (20V) initially,
down to (5V), and provide a regulated voltage within the range of
the battery (12V). The simulation results provide strong evidences
about the high efficiency, minimum ripple voltage, high accuracy,
and the usefulness of the system of the proposed converter when
applied to either residential or solar home applications.
Introduction
The Solar cell, module and array
Introduction Cont`d
There are two different types of solar energy
systems that will convert the solar resource into
electricity;

- one method is by collecting solar energy as heat
and converting it into electricity using a typical
power plant or engine;

- the other method is by using photovoltaic PV
cells to convert solar energy directly into
electricity
Introduction Cont`d
The basic block diagram of the solar energy
conversion system
Introduction Cont`d
-The solar energy conversion systems can be connecting to
a large electrical transmission grid, or to the storage or
auxiliary energy supply. If the photovoltaic route is chosen,
extra electricity may be stored, usually in storage
batteries, thereby extending the operating time of the
system, the (typical 12V) storage batteries are ordinary
used in the home solar conversion systems to satisfy its
operation and maximize power tracking purpose.
Introduction Cont`d
-The converter and switching topology of the proposed
buck boost DC-DC converter would result in higher
efficiency, lower ripple voltage, and significant increase in
the overall available power even in a sun lighting
condition. Although a small amount of power is generated,
given enough time, a battery will reach its full charge.
Analysis
The basic schematic structure of the buck-boost
converter, and the two operation states switch on
and switch off are shown:
Analysis Cont`d
Current and voltage waveforms of the buck-boost
converter are shown below:
Analysis Cont`d
Under the steady state operation of the converter
in the CCM, the analytical expression of (Vo/Vg),
(AiL), and (AVo) can be obtained. Equating the
integral to zero of the integral voltage over one
time period yields [12,13],
0
0 0
= + =
} } }
on
off
on
t
t
t
L L
T
L
dt v dt v dt v
0 ) 1 ( ) ( = + T D V DT V
o g
D
D
V
V
g
o

=
1
D
D
V
V
I
I
o
g
g
o

= =
1
--------(2)
--------(4)
--------(3)
--------(1)
Analysis Cont`d
For the buck-boost converter,
o g L
I I I + =
}
= A
DT
o
L L
dt v
L
i
1
) (
1
DT V
L
i
g L
= A
2
,
2
max , min ,
L
L L
L
L L
i
I i and
i
I i
A
+ =
A
=
R D
V
D
I
I
o o
L
) 1 ( ) 1 (
=

=
}
= = A = A DT
R
v
c
dt i
c
v v
o
c c o
1 1
Analysis Cont`d
The inductor current at the beginning of the cycle
is zero, its maximum value at (t=DT) is
L
DT V
i
g
L

=
max ,
And, during the off period (iL) falls to zero at the
end of the off-state, and then, the load current
(Io) equal to average diode current (ID,av), and
the diode current equal to the inductor current
during the off-state, therefore, (Io) is equal to,
o
g
o
g g
av D o
V L
T D V
V
D V
L
DT V
I I
2 2
1
2
2
,
= = =
Analysis Cont`d
Both (Vo/Vg), and (Io/Ig) are equal to
o
g
g
o
I L
T D V
V
V
2
2
=
T D V
I L
V
V
I
I
g
o
o
g
g
o
2
2
= =
Therefore, the output voltage gain (Vo/Vg) in the
continuous or CCM mode depends on the duty
cycle (D) only, but in the DCM mode depends on
the duty cycle (D), inductor value (L), input
voltage (Vg), and the output current (Io) [12].

Design
TABLE 1
DAILY ELECTRICAL CONSUMPTION OF VARIOUS
DEVICES IN A HOUSE
device Power Operating
Time (hour)
Electrical
Consumption
Lighting
Television
Sat. Receiver
Computer
Refrigerator
500W
160W
40W
50W
250W
5
5
5
5
5
2500W/h
800W/h
200W/h
250W/h
1250W/h
Total 1kW 5kW/h
Design Cont`d
When MOSFET switch is on the voltage across the
inductor is equal to (Vg) and when diode switch is
on it is equal to (Vo). Then the duty ratio can be
related to (Vo) by equation 3. The input and
output currents are determined by the switching
states of equation 4, [IoD=Ig(1-D)]. Theoretically,
if (D=0), the output is zero, if (D=1) the output is
infinity, and if (D=0.5), then the output is equal to
the input voltage [14].
Design Cont`d

To find the switching frequency (f) for which
(L>Lcr), the (Io) values, the time period, and (D)
must be known, because the value of (Lcr) is
dependant upon them. To determine (Io), the uses
of analytical equations are possible [15]. For a
typical (12V) batteries, and (1kW) home devices
shown in table 1, the output current of the
converter will be (83.34A). Then the calculated
results of duty ratio (D) and inductor current
(IL=Io/1-D) of table 2 are obtained.
Design Cont`d
TABLE 2
CALCULATED DUTY RATIO FOR DIFFERENT V
IN

V
g

(V)
V
o

(V)
D
%
I
L

(A)
V
g

(V)
V
o

(V)
D
%
I
L

(A)
5 12 70.58 283.2 13 12 48.00 160.2
6 12 66.66 249.9 14 12 46.15 154.7
7 12 63.15 226.1 15 12 44.44 150.0
8 12 60.00 208.3 16 12 42.85 145.8
9 12 57.14 194.4 17 12 41.37 142.1
10 12 54.54 183.3 18 12 40.00 138.9
11 12 52.17 174.2 19 12 38.70 135.9
12 12 50.00 166.6 20 12 37.50 133.3
Design Cont`d
To make the regulator operate in continuous mode
and the design will have a good load transient
response with an acceptable output ripple voltage,
and according to the simulation results, the (AiL)
considered to be (3%), so we can select its value
equal to (3%)
L L
I i 03 . 0 = A
L
g
i f
D V
L
A

=
Design Cont`d
The switching frequency of high efficiency buck-
boost converters applicable in solar systems
typically will be between (20kHz-100kHz) [14].
Choosing the minimum and maximum input
voltage values for only these two frequencies to
determine the inductor value is shown in table 3.
TABLE 3
DETERMINATION OF L
CR

Switching
frequency
f=20kHz f=100kHz
I nput Voltage V
g
=5V V
g
=20V V
g
=5V V
g
=20V
L (H) 20.76 93.77 4.15 18.75
Design Cont`d
The minimum or critical capacitor value (Ccr) for a desired
output ripple and load current/voltage is
o
o
V f
D i
Ccr
A
A
=
Then, the critical value of the capacitor (Ccr) operating
on the frequency (46kHz) and minimum/maximum input
voltages (5-20V) regarding the output ripple voltage
(Avo<50mV), using (Avo=40mV) is calculated as shown in
table 4
TABLE 4
DETERMINATION OF C
CR

Input Voltage V
g
=5V V
g
=20V
C (F) 3258 815
Design Cont`d
The possible capacitance value for our design
should be (C>Ccr), So, we can choose (C=1000F).
The complete design parameters values of the
proposed DC-DC converter are shown in table 5.
TABLE 5
THE COMPLETE DESIGN PARAMETERS
VALUE
f (Hz) L (H) C (F)
46K 40 1000
The converter control loop
Digital PWM (DPWM) controllers can offer a
number of advantages over analog controllers,
including flexibility, lower sensitivity, high
frequency switching, and programmability without
external components
The converter control loop cont`d
block
schematic of
DPWM, (b) The
control signals
Simulation Results
TABLE 6
THE SIMULATION RESULTS FOR VIN=5-20V
V
g
(V)
V
ripple
(mV)
I
o
=100A
q(%)
Io=100A
V
ripple
(mV)
I
o
=83.34A
q(%)
I
o
=83.34A
5 11.12 87.51 10.94 88.20
6 11.10 88.72 10.90 89.41
7 11.08 89.92 10.82 91.05
8 10.96 90.88 10.77 91.97
9 10.93 91.93 10.70 92.78
10 10.92 92.11 10.72 93.11
11 10.89 93.34 10.63 94.08
12 10.94 93.98 10.70 94.27
13 10.88 94.02 10.63 94.61
14 10.91 94.46 10.70 95.05
15 10.92 94.68 10.66 95.27
16 10.93 94.85 10.69 95.44
17 10.87 94.96 10.63 95.94
18 10.90 95.23 10.68 96.11
19 10.93 95.69 10.66 96.28
20 10.82 95.87 10.58 96.55
Simulation Results
Conclusion
The simulations have demonstrated that, the design can achieve (88.20%)
efficiency at (5V) input, scaled up to (96.55%) efficiency at (20V) input,
producing acceptable ripple voltage (<11mV) for the inputs (5-20V), all at
(46kHz) switching frequency under a (83.34A).

The advantages of this design are: the ability to choose the constant output
voltage and current, the procedure is simple, the converter and controller has a
simple structure, improved efficiency up to (96.55%), reduced output ripple
voltage-less than (11mV), the complete converter circuit is small and
inexpensive, and finally, the designed converter circuit topology operates
effectively for different input and output operating conditions.

It is, therefore, feasible for common solar DC-DC conversion applications.

This design procedure in principle opens the possibility to additional work in
converter design and modeling, and could allow further improvements in
efficiency, ripple, and usable power range. Other control schemes are also
possible, and it could provide a way for controlling other converter topologies.
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Thank You