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the original inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley, but their origins are shrouded in mystery speak a Tibeto-Burmese language,

which indicates they originated in the east Language known as Nepali Bharsa or Nepal bhaye responsible for the valley's superb art and architecture Malla kings, reign, particularly in the 1600's and 1700's, that many of the valley's finest temples and palaces were built They developed a division of labour and a sophisticated urban civilization According to Nepal's 2011 census, the 13,21,933 Newars , nation's sixth largest ethnic group

According to the 2001 Nepal Census, 84.13% of the Newars were Hindu and 15.31% were Buddhis Patan is the most Buddhist containing the four stupas Bhaktapur and kathmandu is primarily Hindu The major cults are Vajrayana Buddhism and Tantric Hinduism Hindus worship goddess(including living goddess Kumari) and Bhairav whereas Buddhists worship in stupas and at Swayumbhunath Jha , Shrestha , Rajopadhya are hindus where as Vajracharya,Shakya ,Urey are buddhists

According to their caste system

Newari brahmins- Jha, Bhatta ,Rajopadhyaya Kshatriya -Shrestha, Pradhan, Malla, Pradhananga, Joshi, Mool, Amatya, Maskey, Rajbanshi, Rajbhandari, etc

Gubhaju-Bare-the Gubhajus or Bajracharyas, and Bares or Shakyas

Uray -Tuladhar, Kansakar, Tamrakar, etc Jyapu group-Maharjan, Dangol, Awale, Prajapati, etc Ekthariya -Sayami, Kau, Naye, Chitrakar, etc

Newar religious culture is rich in ceremony and is marked by frequent festivals throughout the year.

Mohani(dashain) Ihi or Bel Bibaha

Gufa rakhney or Bara Tayegu ( marriage with sun)

Vintuna(new year),celebrated through doing Mha puja S Pru (Gai Jatra) Yenya (Indra Jatra)

Foods items include :

Kwti () kachil ( spiced minced meat) chhoyl,sekuwa wo ( lentil cake), paun kw ( sour soup) syen ( fried liver) bara mari ( sweets) Chatamari (newari pizza )

Drinks items include: Raksi Aila

Hyangu Thwon (similar

to red wine)

Kaa Thowon

Masked(Lakhe)dance,use of masks known as Dyah Pyakhan

Dhime(a drum played with a stick and a hand) dance

Ghtu (summer music)

Mohani (festive joy music )

Rjamati (music about young lovers)

Sitl Mju (music for children expelled from the Kathmandu Valley)

Macha Janku, the rice feeding ceremony, is performed at the age of six or eight months for boys and at the age of five or seven months for girls male child approaches puberty, the Kayta Puja, a rite of initiation, is performed For a female child, Ihi (also called Bel Bibaha) is performed between the ages of five to nine next ceremony is Baray when a girl approaches puberty. She is kept in a room for 12 days hidden from the sun

Janku is an old-age ceremony which is conducted when a person reaches the age of 77 years, seven months and seven days
After death,offerings and rituals are conducted four, seven, eight, 13 and 45 days following death and monthly for a year and then annually

social organization or simply a clan that is used to maintain the social order of Newar society
consists of a thakali or the eldest person of the guthi, for the formulation of most of the norms of the guthi traditionally a relation based on certain norms that are moderated by the guthi members maintaining a harmony in Newari society and in preventing anarchy

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