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Monroe L.

Weber-Shirk
School of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Viscous Flow in Pipes
CEE 331 Fluid Mechanics
February 23, 2014

Types of Engineering Problems
How big does the pipe have to be to carry a
flow of x m
3
/s?
What will the pressure in the water
distribution system be when a fire hydrant is
open?
Can we increase the flow in this old pipe by
adding a smooth liner?

Viscous Flow in Pipes: Overview
Boundary Layer Development
Turbulence
Velocity Distributions
Energy Losses
Major
Minor
Solution Techniques
Transition at Re of 2000
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Reynolds apparatus
Re
VD

= =
damping
inertia
Boundary layer growth:
Transition length
What does the water near the pipeline wall experience?
_________________________
Why does the water in the center of the pipeline speed
up? _________________________
v
v
Drag or shear
Conservation of mass
Non-Uniform Flow
v
Entrance Region Length
1
10
100
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Re
l
e
/D
( )
1/ 6
4.4 Re
e
l
D
=
0.06Re
e
l
D
=
laminar turbulent
( )
Re
e
l
f
D
=
Distance
for
velocity
profile to
develop
Shear in the
entrance region vs
shear in long pipes?
Velocity Distributions
Turbulence causes transfer of momentum
from center of pipe to fluid closer to the pipe
wall.
Mixing of fluid (transfer of momentum)
causes the central region of the pipe to have
relatively _______velocity (compared to
laminar flow)
Close to the pipe wall, eddies are smaller
(size proportional to distance to the boundary)
uniform
Shear velocity
Dimensional analysis and measurements
Velocity of large eddies
Log Law for Turbulent, Established
Flow, Velocity Profiles
*
*
2.5ln 5.0
yu u
u v
= +

t
0
*
= u
u/u
max
rough
smooth
y
f
0
4
h d
l

t =
f
*
4
gh d
u
l
=
Force balance
Turbulence produced by shear!
*
f
8
u V =
Valid for
*
20
yu
v
>
Pipe Flow: The Problem
We have the control volume energy
equation for pipe flow
We need to be able to predict the head loss
term.
We will use the results we obtained using
dimensional analysis
Viscous Flow: Dimensional
Analysis
in a bounded region (pipes, rivers): find C
p

flow around an immersed object : find C
d
Remember dimensional analysis?


Two important parameters!
Re - Laminar or Turbulent
c/D - Rough or Smooth
Flow geometry
internal _______________________________
external _______________________________
, Re
p
D
C f
l D
c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
2
C
V
p
p

A
=
Re
VD

=
Where
and
Dimensional Analysis
Darcy-Weisbach equation
Pipe Flow Energy Losses
f , Re
p
D
C f
L D
c
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
2
2
C
V
p
p

A
=
2
2
C
V
gh
l
p
=
f
2
2
f
gh D
V L
=
2
f
f
2
L V
h
D g
=
l
gh p = A
Always true (laminar or turbulent)
Assume horizontal flow
More general
l
gh p g z = A A
2
*
2
f=8
u
V
2
*
f
8
2
u L
h
D g
=
Friction Factor : Major losses
Laminar flow
Turbulent (Smooth, Transition, Rough)
Colebrook Formula
Moody diagram
Swamee-Jain
Hagen-Poiseuille
Darcy-Weisbach
Laminar Flow Friction Factor
2
32
l
h gD
V
L

=
f
2
32 LV
h
gD

=
2
f
f
2
L V
h
D g
=
g
V
D
L
gD
LV
2
f
32
2
2
=

64 64
f
Re VD

= =
Slope of ___ on log-log plot -1
f
h V
f independent of roughness!
4
128
l
gh D
Q
l
t

=
Turbulent Flow:
Smooth, Rough, Transition
Hydraulically smooth
pipe law (von Karman,
1930)
Rough pipe law (von
Karman, 1930)
Transition function for
both smooth and rough
pipe laws (Colebrook)
1 Re f
2log
2.51
f
| |
=
|
\ .
1 3.7
2log
f
D
c
| |
=
|
\ .
2
f
f
2
L V
h
D g
=
(used to draw the Moody diagram)
1 2.51
2log
3.7
f Re f
D c
| |
= +
|
\ .
*
f
8
u V =
Moody Diagram
0.01
0.10
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r

laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
|
.
|

\
|
=
l
D
C
p
f
D
c
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
Swamee-Jain
1976
limitations
c/D < 2 x 10
-2
Re >3 x 10
3

less than 3% deviation
from results obtained
with Moody diagram
easy to program for
computer or calculator
use
0.04
4.75 5.2
2
1.25 9.4
f f
0.66
LQ L
D Q
gh gh
c v
(
| | | |
= + (
| |
(
\ . \ .

2
0.9
0.25
f
5.74
log
3.7 Re D
c
=
(
| |
+
|
(
\ .

no f
Each equation has two terms. Why?
5/ 2
f
3
f
log 2.51
3.7 2
2
gh L
Q D
L D gh D
t c
v
| |

= +
|
\ .
Colebrook
Pipe roughness
pipe material pipe roughness
c
(mm)
glass, drawn brass, copper 0.0015
commercial steel or wrought iron 0.045
asphalted cast iron 0.12
galvanized iron 0.15
cast iron 0.26
concrete 0.18-0.6
rivet steel 0.9-9.0
corrugated metal 45
PVC
0.12
c
d
Must be
dimensionless!
find head loss given (D, type of pipe, Q)
find flow rate given (head, D, L, type of pipe)
find pipe size given (head, type of pipe,L, Q)
Solution Techniques
0.04
4.75 5.2
2
1.25 9.4
f f
0.66
LQ L
D Q
gh gh
c v
(
| | | |
= + (
| |
(
\ . \ .

2
f
2 5
8
f
LQ
h
g D t
=
2
0.9
0.25
f
5.74
log
3.7 Re D
c
=
(
| |
+
|
(
\ .

Re =
4Q
D t v
5/ 2
f
3
f
log 2.51
3.7 2
2
gh L
Q D
L D gh D
t c
v
| |

= +
|
\ .
Example: Find a pipe diameter
The marine pipeline for the Lake Source Cooling
project will be 3.1 km in length, carry a maximum flow
of 2 m
3
/s, and can withstand a maximum pressure
differential between the inside and outside of the pipe
of 28 kPa. The pipe roughness is 2 mm. What diameter
pipe should be used?
Minor Losses: Expansions!
We previously obtained losses through an
expansion using conservation of energy,
momentum, and mass
Most minor losses can not be obtained
analytically, so they must be measured
Minor losses are often expressed as a loss
coefficient, K, times the velocity head.
2
ex
2
V
h K
g
=
( )
f geometry, Re
p
C =
2
2
C
V
p
p

A
=
2
2
C
ex
p
gh
V
=
2
C
2
ex p
V
h
g
=
Venturi
High Re
Sudden Contraction
V
1 V
2
EGL
HGL
vena contracta
Losses are reduced with a gradual contraction
Equation has same form as expansion equation!
g
V
C
h
c
c
2
1
1
2
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
A
A
C
c
c
=
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
A
2
/A
1
C
c
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
A
2
/A
1
C
c
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
A
2
/A
1
C
c
c 2
2
2
ex
1
2
in in
out
V A
h
g A
| |
=
|
\ .
g
V
K h
e e
2
2
=
0 . 1 ~
e
K
5 . 0 ~
e
K
04 . 0 ~
e
K
Entrance Losses
Losses can be
reduced by
accelerating the flow
gradually and
eliminating the
vena contracta
Estimate based on
contraction equations!
Head Loss in Bends
Head loss is a function
of the ratio of the bend
radius to the pipe
diameter (R/D)
Velocity distribution
returns to normal
several pipe diameters
downstream
High pressure
Low pressure
Possible
separation
from wall
D
R
g
V
K h
b b
2
2
=
K
b
varies from 0.6 - 0.9
2
V
p dn z C + + =
(
(
]
R
n
high
Head Loss in Valves
Function of valve type and
valve position
The complex flow path through
valves can result in high head
loss (of course, one of the
purposes of a valve is to create
head loss when it is not fully
open)
g
V
K h
v v
2
2
=
Can K
v
be greater than 1? ______
2
2 4
8
v v
Q
h K
g D t
=
What is V?
Yes!
Solution Techniques
Neglect minor losses
Equivalent pipe lengths
Iterative Techniques
Using Swamee-Jain equations for D and Q
Using Swamee-Jain equations for head loss
Assume a friction factor
Pipe Network Software

Solution Technique: Head Loss
Can be solved explicitly






f l minor
h h h = +

2
2
minor
V
h K
g
=

2
f
2 5
8
f
LQ
h
g D t
=
2
9 . 0
Re
74 . 5
7 . 3
log
25 . 0
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
D
f
c
2
2 4
8
minor
Q K
h
g D t
=

v tD
Q 4
Re =
Find D or Q
Solution Technique 1
Assume all head loss is major head loss
Calculate D or Q using Swamee-Jain
equations
Calculate minor losses
Find new major losses by subtracting minor
losses from total head loss
0.04
4.75 5.2
2
1.25 9.4
f f
0.66
LQ L
D Q
gh gh
c v
(
| | | |
= + (
| |
( \ . \ .

2
2 4
8
ex
Q
h K
g D t
=
f l ex
h h h =

5/ 2
f
3
f
log 2.51
3.7 2
2
gh L
Q D
L D gh D
t c
v
| |

= +
|
\ .
Find D or Q
Solution Technique 2: Solver
Iterative technique
Solve these equations
f l minor
h h h = +

4 2
2
8
D g
Q
K h
minor
t
=
2
f
2 5
8
f
LQ
h
g D t
=
2
0.9
0.25
f
5.74
log
3.7 Re D
c
=
( | |
+
|
(
\ .
v tD
Q 4
Re =
Use goal seek or Solver to
find discharge that makes the
calculated head loss equal
the given head loss.
Spreadsheet
Find D or Q
Solution Technique 3: assume f
The friction factor doesnt vary greatly
If Q is known assume f is 0.02, if D is
known assume rough pipe law
Use Darcy Weisbach and minor loss
equations
Solve for Q or D
Calculate Re and c/D
Find new f on Moody diagram
Iterate
1 3.7
2log
f
D
c
| |
=
|
\ .
Example: Minor and Major
Losses
Find the maximum dependable flow between the
reservoirs for a water temperature range of 4C to
20C.
Water
2500 m of 8 PVC pipe
1500 m of 6 PVC pipe
Gate valve wide open
Standard elbows
Reentrant pipes at reservoirs
25 m elevation difference in reservoir water levels
Sudden contraction
Directions
Spreadsheet
Example (Continued)
What are the Reynolds numbers in the two
pipes?
Where are we on the Moody Diagram?
What is the effect of temperature?
Why is the effect of temperature so small?
What value of K would the valve have to
produce to reduce the discharge by 50%?
0.01
0.1
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f r i c
t i o
n
f a
c
t o
r
laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
90,000 & 125,000
140
c/D= 0.0006, 0.0008
Spreadsheet
Example (Continued)
Were the minor losses negligible?
Accuracy of head loss calculations?
What happens if the roughness increases by
a factor of 10?
If you needed to increase the flow by 30%
what could you do?
0.01
0.1
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f r i c t i o n f a c t o r
laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01 0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001 0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
Yes
5%
f goes from 0.02 to 0.035
Increase small pipe diameter
Pipe Flow Summary (1)
linearly
experimental
Shear increases _________ with distance
from the center of the pipe (for both laminar
and turbulent flow)
Laminar flow losses and velocity
distributions can be derived based on
momentum (Navier Stokes) and energy
conservation
Turbulent flow losses and velocity
distributions require ___________ results

Pipe Flow Summary (2)
Energy equation left us with the elusive head loss
term
Dimensional analysis gave us the form of the head
loss term (pressure coefficient)
Experiments gave us the relationship between the
pressure coefficient and the geometric parameters
and the Reynolds number (results summarized on
Moody diagram)
Pipe Flow Summary (3)
Dimensionally correct equations fit to the
empirical results can be incorporated into
computer or calculator solution techniques
Minor losses are obtained from the pressure
coefficient based on the fact that the
pressure coefficient is _______ at high
Reynolds numbers
Solutions for discharge or pipe diameter
often require iterative or computer solutions
constant
Pressure Coefficient for a Venturi
Meter
1
10
1E+00 1E+01 1E+02 1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06
Re
C
p

Re
Vl

=
2
2
C
V
p
p

A
=
0.01
0.1
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f r i c
t i o
n
f a
c
t o
r
laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
Moody Diagram
0.01
0.1
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r

laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
|
.
|

\
|
=
l
D
C
p
f
D
c
Minor Losses
LSC Pipeline
cs
1

cs
2

2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2
l
p V p V
z z h
g g
o o

+ + = + + +
z = 0
Ignore minor losses
0
28 kPa is equivalent to 2.85 m of water
-2.85 m
D m =154 .
0.04
4.75 5.2
2
1.25 9.4
0.66
f f
LQ L
D Q
gh gh
c v
(
| | | |
(
= +
| |
| |
(
\ . \ .

3
6 2
2 /
10 /
3100
0.002
2.85
f
Q m s
m s
L m
m
h m
v
c

=
=
=
=
=
1.07 / V m s =
KE will be small
2
2
2
0.06
2
V
m
g
o =
Directions
Assume fully turbulent (rough pipe law)
find f from Moody (or from von Karman)
Find total head loss (draw control volume)
Solve for Q using symbols (must include
minor losses) (no iteration required)
0.01
0.1
1E+03 1E+04 1E+05 1E+06 1E+07 1E+08
Re
f r i c
t i o
n
f a
c
t o
r
laminar
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.001
0.0008
0.0004
0.0002
0.0001
0.00005
smooth
Pipe roughness
f l minor
h h h = +

Solution
Find Q given pipe system
f l minor
h h h = +

4 2
2
8
D g
Q
K h
minor
t
=
2
2 5
8
f
f
LQ
h
g D t
=
2
2 5 4
8
f
l
Q L K
h
g D D t
( | | | |
= +
| |
(
\ . \ .

5 4
8 f
l
gh
Q
L K
D D
t =
( | | | |
+
| |
(
\ . \ .