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Sexually Transmitted Infections

Four Classes of STDs


Bacterial
Fungus Parasites Viruses- NOT curable

What is a Sexually Transmitted Infection or STI?


STIs are infections that are spread from person to person through intimate sexual contact. STIs are dangerous because they are easily spread and it is hard to tell just by looking who has an STI. 1 in 4 sexually active teens has an STI.

Prevention is the Key


Abstinence, or not having oral, vaginal or anal sex, is the best way to protect yourself. It is possible to get an STD even without having intercourse through skin-to-skin contact. Use latex condoms correctly for any type of sex (vaginal, oral or anal) from start to finish.

Common STIs
Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes (HSV-2) Genital Warts (HPV) Hepatitis B HIV and AIDS Pubic Lice Syphilis Trichomoniasis

How do I know if I have an STI?


Most people who have an STI have no symptoms. A test from your health care provider or local health clinic may be the only way to tell for sure if you're infected. If you do become infected, symptoms may appear right away. Or, they may not show up for weeks or months or even years. They may come and go. Even if the signs and symptoms go away, you can still infect other people if you have sex with them. Or, they can still infect you!

Common Symptoms for Girls


Some symptoms you may have are: Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus (butt hole) or mouth Burning or pain when you urinate (pee) Itching, bad smell or unusual discharge from your vagina or anus (butt hole) Bellyache (pain in your lower abdomen) Bleeding from your vagina between your menstrual periods Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for weeks or months or years.

Common Symptoms for Guys


Some symptoms you may have are: Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus or mouth Burning or pain when you urinate Drip or discharge from your penis Itching, pain or discharge from your anus Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for weeks or months.

What do I do if I have symptoms?


If you think you have an STI you need to see a healthcare provider for treatment. If you feel nervous about getting checked for STDs, take a few deep breaths and try to relax. You may be shy about having doctors and nurses look at your genitals. The tests are usually quick, and it may help to remember that the nurses and doctors are there to help you, and do this kind of test all the time.

How will they know I have an STI?


The doctor or nurse will probably ask for you to pee in a cup. They can look under a microscope at the organisms in your urine. Some STIs are diagnosed by taking a swab of the vagina or penis for secretions. Other STIs can be diagnosed by looking at the sores or bumps on your genitals. Some STIs are diagnosed by testing your blood.

Treatment and Facts


Know the Facts!

Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial infection You get it from douching, others believe it is caused by an over growth of bacteria normally found in the vagina.Very Common STD. Symptoms: You may or may not experience symptoms. Known to cause unpleasant fishy odor, sticky, milky thin gray or white vaginal discharge, which causes itching and irritation.

BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

CDC / Center for Disease Control and Prevention/ Division of STD Prevention

A fungal infection commonly called yeast infection or thrush.

The 2nd most common cause of vaginal irritation or vaginitis and can also occur on male genitals. It can also appear in the mouth and throat as white sores. Some symptoms include: In Women: A thick white discharge that looks like cottage cheese, itching and burning as well as a rash on the outer lips of the vagina. In Men: Soreness, itching and redness of the head of the penis, scrotum and foreskin. (Uncircumcised men are more likely to develop yeast because it thrives in moist areas)

Various anti-fungal creams are used to treat this infection.

Candidiasis: Mouth Boston University

Candidiasis: Anal
CDC / Center for Disease Control and Prevention/ Division of STD Prevention

Candidiasis: Groin
UC Davis School of Medicine

Chlamydia
Caused by bacteria called Chlamydia Trachomatis. Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydia is curable. Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics for treatment. Anyone with whom youve had sex will also need to be treated

Signs & Symptoms


Most infected women have no symptoms Include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods Lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods

Effects on Pregnancy
Chlamydia can spread to other reproductive organs causing PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
Can lead to long-term pelvic pain, blocked fallopian tubes, infertility and ectopic pregnancy

Effects on Pregnancy
Evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery
Babies born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts

Drips

Normal Cervix

Source: Claire E. Stevens, Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Drips

Chlamydia Cervicitis

Source: St. Louis STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Drips

Mucopurulent Cervicitis

Source: Seattle STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Gonorrhea
Bacterial Infection Spread through contact with penis,vagina,mouth or anus with An infected person. Ejaculation does not have to occur. Also mother to child. Affects mouth, eyes,pharynx,anus and other Mucosal tissues

Symptoms: Occur within 2-9 days


Men: Pus is discharged from penis and burning during urination. Women: Usually show no symptoms.Sometimes whitish, greenish discharge or bleeding from vagina. Bad Odor.

Epididymitis:Complication of Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea
Caused by a bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonorrhea is treatable. Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics for treatment. Anyone with whom youve had sex will also need to be treated

www.afraidtoask.com

Drips

Gonorrhea

Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Drips

Gonorrhea Gram Stain

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Drips

Nongonococcal Urethritis

Source: Diepgen TL, Yihune G et al. Dermatology Online Atlas

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Herpes Simplex Virus I & II. Herpes Simplex I is commonly seen around the mouth area, however it can spread all over the face. Herpes Simplex II is known as Genital Herpes. Its transmitted by sexual or skin to skin contact. Symptoms: include painful blister-like sores that appear on and in the penis, vagina, and/or cervix, mouth, pubic area, thighs, and buttocks.

Genital Herpes (HSV-2)


HSV-2 is caused by the herpes virus. You can still get HSV-2 even when you use a condom. After contracting the herpes virus you will have it FOREVER. There is NO cure. A doctor can prescribe antiviral medication to help control recurring outbreaks and clear up painful sores.

Sores

Genital Herpes Simplex

Source: Diepgen TL, Yihune G et al. Dermatology Online Atlas

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Sores

Genital Herpes Simplex in Females

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Sores

Genital Herpes Simplex

Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Genital Warts (HPV)


Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). There is NO cure for the virus. You may have more outbreaks and you can spread the virus to anyone you have sex with. You can still get HPV even when you use a condom. Some warts can be dissolved with special medication or the doctor can freeze them off with a special chemical.

Human Papilloma Virus


Known as Genital Warts. NOT Curable!!! It causes growths of tiny, skincolored, cauliflower-like warts to appear on the penis, vulva, vagina, and the cervix, in or around the anus or the throat. Spread by sexual or skin to skin contact with someone who has HPV. Symptoms: Irritation or itching in both men and women. HPV is extremely dangerous for women because it can lead to cervical cancer. Warts caused by HPV are treated with an ointment, laser surgery, burning it with acid or freezing it with liquid nitrogen! OUCH!

www.skinchoice.com

HPV and Cervical Cancer

HPV Warts on the Thigh

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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HPV and Cervical Cancer

Perianal Wart

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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HPV and Cervical Cancer

HPV Cervical Warts

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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HPV and Cervical Cancer

HPV Penile Warts

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Is a Viral infection, which causes inflammation of the liver. Spread through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breastmilk, tears, saliva and open sores. Most commonly spread through sexual contact. Symptoms may vary. May experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, body aches, vomiting and nausea as well as jaundice. The best protection is to get Immunized!!

Its a Virus! A person contracts Hep C by direct contact with blood contaminated with HCV such as; blood transfusions, injection drug users sharing contaminated needles and sharing drug paraphernalia and also contaminated needles used in tattooing and body piercing. If contaminated blood is present during unprotected anal, vaginal or oral sex, infection may occur. Sharing personal hygiene products (razors, toothbrushes).

Yellow Eyes Cirrhosis-Scarring of the liver due to Hepatitis C. Causes Inflammation.

Hepatitis B
Hepatitis is a disease of the liver. Hepatitis B is transmitted person to person through blood and body fluids. There is no treatment for the virus after it has been contracted. The only treatment is prevention:
Abstain from sex Always use latex condoms Avoid contact with other peoples blood Get immunized

HIV and AIDS


AIDS is one of the most deadly diseases in history. AIDS is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). HIV destroys the bodys defense system (the immune system). Thousands of teens in the U.S. become infected each year.

HIV?

AIDS?

How do you get HIV?


HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another person through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. People who have another STD are at higher risk for contracting HIV during sex with infected partners.

How do people know they have HIV?


Many people do not know they have it. Symptoms may not appear for up to 10 years. Some people may feel and look healthy for years while they are infected with HIV. It is possible to infect others with HIV, even if the person has absolutely no symptoms.

Symptoms of AIDS
Extreme weakness and fatigue Rapid weight loss Frequent fevers with not explanation Heavy sweating at night Swollen lymph glands Minor infections that cause skin rashes and mouth, genital, and anal sores. White spots in the mouth or throat Chronic diarrhea A cough that wont go away Short-term memory loss

How is HIV treated?


There is NO cure. If you think you or your partner may have HIV or AIDS you need to see a healthcare provider who can do blood tests. Prevention is the only way to protect yourself from contracting the virus.

Kaposis sarcoma (Cancer associated with AIDS)

Oral Leukoplakia

Oral Thrush (yeast infection) Common infection associated with AIDS

Also known as Crabs.They are parasites that live in the hair around the genitals. Transmitted through sexual contact or close physical contact (skin-to skin). It can also be passed through infected towels, toilet seats, clothing and bedding. Extremely Contagious!!! Symptoms: Itching, Itching, and more Itching!!! It is recommended to cut the pubic hair and wash all contaminated clothing, bedding, etc. in hot water or dry clean to avoid re-infection.

Each Crab lays 15,000 eggs and in 8-10 days the eggs hatch repeating this process every 15 days.

Pubic Lice (Crabs)


Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl from the pubic hair of one person to the pubic hair of another person during sex. You will be prescribed or told to buy medication that kills the lice and their eggs. You will also need to dry clean or use very hot water to wash all of your bedding, towels, or recently worn clothing to kill the lice. Tell your partner. Pubic lice can be spread even when you use a condom.

Bacteria that enters the body through sexual contact, it can also be passed from an infected person through an open cut or wound. Passed from mother to child. Symptoms: 3-staged disease. 1st stage-10-90 days of initial exposure. Leaves tiny hard, red spots at the initial site of contact and usually goes away 7-14 days. 2nd stage-90-180 days. Flulike symptoms, sore throat, fever, itching.Rash may cover parts of the body . Symptoms may go away and return for Final stage. 3rd stage may affect the brain, spinal cord or heart without treatment. Untreated Syphilis can be fatal!

SYPHILIS

Syphilis
Caused by bacteria called Trepenoma pallidum. If not treated Syphilis can be very dangerous and can cause brain damage and other serious health problems. If you are diagnosed as having the disease you can be treated with antibiotics. Anyone with whom youve had sex will also need to be treated

Sores

Primary Syphilis

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Sores

Primary Syphilis Chancre

Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Sores

Secondary Syphilis

Source: Diepgen TL, Yihune G et al. Dermatology Online Atlas

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Sores

Secondary Syphilis Rash

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Sores

Secondary Syphilis Condylomata Lata

Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Sores

Secondary Syphilis Rash

Source: Florida STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

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Sores

Secondary Syphilis: Generalized Body Rash

Source: CDC/NCHSTP/Division of STD Prevention, STD Clinical Slides

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Late Syphilis ulcerating gumma


CDC / Center for Disease Control and Prevention/ Division of STD Prevention

Trichomoniasis
Sometimes called trich it is a parasite that can be passed from person to person during sexual intercourse. One of the most common STDs Can be passed on via damp towels, washcloths, and bathing suits if someone has the parasite. If you have the disease your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics. Anyone with whom youve had sex will also need to be treated.

What Happens if I dont get treated?


If you have an STD and dont get treatment you can have some long-term effects such as:
Infertility (Unable to have babies) Cancer Long-term pain Can pass disease from mother to baby Death

Drips

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Source: Cincinnati STD/HIV Prevention Training Center

88

Conclusion
It is much easier to prevent an STI than to cure one. The ONLY way to prevent STIs is to abstain from ALL types of sexual intercourse. However, if you have sex, you must use a latex condom, EVERY TIME. However, condoms do not always protect you from STIs such as HSV-2, HPV, and Pubic Lice.