Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

Human relations theory is largely seen to have been born as a result of the Hawthorne experiments which Elton Mayo

conducted at the Western Electrical Company. However, the so called Hawthorne Effect was not foreseen by the study. Instead, the Western Electrical Company wished to show that a greater level of illumination in a working area improved productivity, hence encouraging employers to spend more money on electricity from the company. As such, they carried out a study of how productivity varied with illumination levels. However, the results of the study showed that any changes in light levels tended to increase productivity levels, and the productivity level also increased significantly within the control group. This was completely the opposite of what Mayo expected, and created an entirely new branch of management theory. The core aspect of Human Relations Theory is that, when workers were being observed and included in the research, they felt more important and valued by the company. As a result, their productivity levels went up significantly. This represented a significant departure from many of the classical theories, particularly Fordism, as it went against the notion that management needed to control workers, and remove their autonomy at every step. Instead, it showed that by engaging with workers and

THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES (1.) In the illumination experiments, the researchers were interested in determining how the level of lighting on the factory floor affected productivity. The researchers divided assembly line workers into four groups. In the first group, the level of lighting was kept constant. In the remaining three groups, the researchers manipulated the level of illumination in order to discover the optimum level of lighting that would increase productivity. The surprising result was that all four groups, regardless of the level of illumination, increased productivity. The "Hawthorne Effect" is the name given to the 112% increase in output by workers who perceive that they are being watched and studied somehow. It didn't hurt matters that Mayo and his good-looking male research assistants were studying an almost all-female group of workers. They found that output increased even when the lighting levels were decreased, even when salaries were adjusted downward, and even when worker complaints were ignored. By a process of elimination, the only explanation left was the attention Mayo and his assistants were paying to the workers. Over the years, managers have used the Hawthorne Effect successfully for quick gains in productivity by implementing self-study committees, announcing surprise audits, establishing task forces of various kinds, and in general, keeping the workers tied up with busy-work that has the appearance of ongoing research.

(2.) In the relay assembly room study, a group of employees were taken off the regular assembly line and placed in a special room. The researchers did this in an effort to isolate the employees who were being studied from the rest of the assembly line. The researchers wanted to see if this change in the work environment impacted productivity. The employees selected for assignment to the relay assembly room were treated differently from regular employees. For example, they were given extra break during the course of the shift and were allowed to leave thirty minutes before their shift would have normally been over with pay. In addition, the workers were given free lunches and assigned to work a five-day week, instead of the normal six day week required at that time. The researchers expected to see an eventual drop in productivity, but were surprised to see steady gains in productivity, and even a decline in absenteeism. This illustrated the hawthorne effect once again.

(3.) In the bank wiring room study, researchers were specifically interested in learning more about the social nature of work groups, so a group of fourteen employees who wired telephone switchboard banks were studied. A researcher continuously observed the behavior of the employees and took notes on his observations. The bank wiring employees were paid according to how many units they wired that met quality standards. However, virtually all of the employees wired approximately 6,600 units per day, which almost never varied from day to day or from week to week. The researchers discovered that most employees were capable of producing more than this number of units, but when they attempted to do so, their fellow workers put informal pressure on them to refrain from doing so. The researchers concluded that informal relationships among workers were more important than money for these workers. Mayo (1945) stated that the reason workers are more strongly motivated by informal things is that individuals have a deep psychological need to believe that their organization cares about them. Workers want to believe their organization is open, concerned, and willing to listen. When workers complain about something, they don't often have any factual basis for a valid complaint because all they want is some "validation" they are part of the organization. The sociological implications are that the human dimensions of work (group relations) exert a tremendous influence on behavior, overriding the organizational norms and even an individual's self-interests. This discovery of "social capacity" was nothing short of revolutionary for human resource management and ushered in a whole new era of "employee-centered management." The "Cult of Mayoism" became the dominant paradigm of the day, as administrators everywhere sought to re-train supervisors to play the role that Mayo's assistants played. This led to the establishment of "management retreats" where managers engaged in Rogerian therapies, Maslowian therapies, sensitivity training, Parent-Adult-Child training, and any other form of group dynamics to become more employee-centered.

Doing one's best in objective or difficult tasks and achieving recognition DEFERENCE Being agreeable to accepting the leadership of others and avoiding unconventionality ORDERLINESS Organizing one's work and habits and planning ahead systematically EXHIBITION Behaving so as to attract attention to one's self by appearance, speech, and manner AUTONOMY Doing as one chooses independently of others' opinions and avoiding conformity AFFILIATION Participating in friendships, sharing things with friends, and forming attachments to them

SENSITIVENESS Analyzing motives and putting oneself in other people's shoes in order to understand their behavior NEEDINESS

Seeking encouragement and support from others and appreciating being aided when in need
DOMINANCE Being a leader who supervises or wields influence over others ABASEMENT Feeling oneself blameworthy and inferior to others and experiencing timidity NURTURANCE Assisting those less fortunate and giving moral support to others CHANGE Participating in new activities and fashions and liking novelty in one's life

ENDURANCE Remaining with a task until it is completed and being able to work without being distracted HETEROSEXUALITY Engaging in social activities with the opposite gender and being interested in related matters. AGGRESSION Attacking contrary points of view and expressing disagreement or criticism of others openly.

Nature of personality Human personality is a complex construct that includes a number of influences , which are , however , often opposed in classical psychology genetic versus environmental factors free will vs . determinism and conscious versus unconscious behavior . The present is intended to analyze this spectrum through the prism of various psychological theories Freudian , or psychoanalytic approach , alleges that human behavior depends upon the instincts , manifested in Homo sapiens in more `socialized ' form . Freud (Carver and Scheier , 1995 ) divides personality into three parts : the Id , or the subconscious , or the reflection of human instincts and most egoistic and childish desires , the Alter Ego or human consciousness (the self , which provides mental determination of behavior , and Super Ego , or conscience , which acts as an internal censor and places restrictions on both the Id and the Alter Ego . The scholar suggests that human behavior is mostly determined by the Id , as it comprises the greatest part of personality , but the Alter Ego and the Super Ego develop throughout developmental course under the influence of social environment . Thus , psychoanalytic approach prioritizes environmental factors over genetic , unconscious behavior over conscious and determinism over free will (Cook , 1984

Neo-Freudians maintain most psychoanalytic concepts , but develop a unique framework of human Ego as not merely a mediator between the Id and the Super Ego , but rather as a separate force , less dependent upon the other two constituents and therefore more autonomous in personality formation . For instance , Erik Erikson held that the Ego 's main job was to establish and maintain a sense of identity . A person with a strong sense of identity is one who knows where he is in life , has accepted this position and has workable goals for change and growth . He has a sense of uniqueness while also having a sense of belonging and wholeness (Cook , 1984 , . 258 . Also Neo-Freudian or psychodynamic approach is viewed as a single doctrine , its proponents vary greatly in their views on the spectrum of human personality : for instance , earlier Neo-Freudians like Carl Jung stated the power of unconscious behavior over conscious and of determinism over free will , whereas the next generation of psychologists , who identified their views as `Neo-Freudian (like Erikson and Horney ) alleged that human behavior is mostly conscious and not necessarily determined by physiological or instinctual drives . All Neo-Freudians , however , consent to the notion that environmental influences are stronger than genetic (Cook , 1984 Funder , 1996 Biological perspective focuses on the dominance of genetic and physiological factors and stresses the influence of certain mode of neural activity on human personality (temperament . This approach highlights genetic factors as opposed to environmental , biological and genetic determinism as opposed to free will and unconscious behavior (for instance , the work of muscles , peculiarities of digestive process as they relate to human diurnal activity in both physical and social contexts ) as opposed to conscious

Mental hygiene is the Science of maintaining mental health and preventing disorders to help people function at their full mental potential. It includes all measures taken to promote and preserve mental health: rehabilitation of the mentally disturbed, prevention of mental illness, and aid in coping in a Mental hygieneScience maintaining the relation between stressful world. Community mental healthof acknowledges mental health and preventing disorders to mental health, population pressures, and social unrest. It also deals with help people function at their full mental social problems, from drug It addiction to measures suicide prevention. Treatment of the potential. includes all taken to mentally ill through the ages has ranged from neglect, ill treatment, and promote and preserve mental isolation to active treatment and integration into the community, often in response to crusading reformers. Prevention of mental illness includes prenatal care, child-abuse awareness programs, and counseling for crime victims. Treatment includes psychotherapy, drug therapy, and support groups. One of the most important efforts is public education to combat the stigma still attached to mental illness and encourage those affected to seek treatment.

Personality is taken to mean the essential integration of the individual in terms of hi own needs and goals. It refers primarily to inner stability and as such may occur as cause or effect in adjusting the person to the world about him. Adjustment, howeve will emphasize this second aspect of human behavior, namely, the necessity of responding to things, conditions and persons outside oneself. There is no clean-cu line of demarcation between disturbances of personality and disturbances in social adjustment. The two interact, for they are indeed both only aspects of the larger question of human behavior in general. For purposes of convenience the questions dealt with in this chapter cover experiences which are chiefly meaningful to the person involved. After discussing the role of physical disabilities in personality adjustment, the authors describe disturbances in personality adjustment that includ thumbsucking, nail biting and stuttering. They also discuss the results of measuring nervous habits and problem tendencies, and genetic aspects of these maladjustments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Stress is natural and belongs to life itself. To sustain it and even grow with it biology invented different mechanisms, since stress resistance is obligatory. These pathways, we surmise, can be activated and learned intentionally, through professional stress management training or 'mind-body medicine', or endogenously and automatically through autoregulation. Since the primary goal of various stress-reducing approaches is corresponding, we expect to find an overlapping physiology and neurobiological principle of stress reduction. These common pathways, as we speculate, involve some of the very same signalling molecules and structures.

METHODS: Concepts of stress and stress management are described and then associated with underlying molecular and neurobiological pathways. Evidence is gathered from different sources to substantiate the hypothesis of an overlapping neurobiological principle in stress autoregulation. RESULTS: Stress describes the capacity and mechanisms to sustain and adjust to externally or internally challenging situations. Therefore, organisms can rely on the endogenous ability to self-regulate stress and stressors, i.e., autoregulatory stress management. Stress management usually consists of one to all of the following instruments and activities: behavioral or cognitive, exercise, relaxation and nutritional or food interventions (BERN), including social support and spirituality. These columns can be analyzed for their underlying neurobiological and autoregulatory pathways, thereby revealing a close connection to the brain's pleasure, reward and motivation circuits that are particularly bound to limbic structures and to endogenous dopamine, morphine, and nitric oxide (NO) signalling. Within this work, we demonstrate the existence of opioid, opiate, dopamine and related pathways for each of the selected stress management columns.

Discussions: Stress management techniques may possess specific and distinct physiological effects. However, beneficial behaviors and strategies to overcome stress are, as a more general principle, neurobiologically rewarded by pleasure induction, yet positively and physiologically amplified and reinforced, and this seems to work via dopamine, endorphin and morphine release, apart from other messenger molecules. These latter effects are unspecific, however, down-regulatory and clearly stress-reducing by their nature. CONCLUSIONS: There seems to exist a common neurobiological mechanism, i.e., limbic autoregulation, that involves dopamine, morphine and other endogenous signalling molecules, e.g., other opioid receptor agonists, endocannabinoids, oxytocin or serotonin, many of which act via NO release, and this share seems to be of critical importance for the self-regulation and management of stress: stress management is an endogenous potential.