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Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia


(UTHM)
Engineering Mechanics :
SOLID MECHANICS I
Shear Force and Bending Moment
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Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. determine stress in members caused by bending
2. discuss how to establish shear and moment diagrams for a beam or shaft
3. determine the largest shear and moment in a member, and specify where
they occur



Topics:

Beam
Shear force and Bending Moment
Diagram
Graphical Method for
Constructing Shear and Moment
Diagrams
CHAPTER 2 : SHEAR FORCE AND
BENDING MOMENT
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2.0 APPLICATION

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As shown, failure of this table occurred at the brace support on its right
side. The bending moment diagram for the table loading would indicate
this to be the point of maximum internal moment
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2.1 BEAM

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INTRODUCTION
Beams structural members that are slender and
supporting transverse loads at various points along
the longitudinal axis of the member.
Transverse loadings of beams are classified as
concentrated loads or distributed loads.
Applied loads result in internal forces consisting
of a shear force (from the shear stress
distribution) and a bending couple (from the
normal stress distribution).
In order to design a beam, it is necessary to
determine the maximum shear and moment in the
beam which is express V and M as functions of
arbitrary position x along axis.
These functions can be represented by graphs called
shear and moment diagrams
Engineers need to know the variation of shear an
moment along the beam to know where to reinforce
it
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Classification of Beam Support
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2.2 SHEAR AND MOMENT
DIAGRAMS

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Shear and Bending Moment
Sign conventions for shear forces V and V
and bending couples M and M
Shear and bending-moment functions must be determined for each region of
the beam between any two discontinuities of loading
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Procedure of Analysis
Support reactions
Determine all reactive forces and couple moments acting on beam
Resolve all forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to beams axis
Shear and moment functions
Specify separate coordinates x having an origin at beams left end, and extending
to regions of beam between concentrated forces and/or couple moments, or where there
is no discontinuity of distributed loading
Section beam perpendicular to its axis at each distance x
Draw free-body diagram of one segment
Make sure V and M are shown acting in positive sense, according to sign convention
sum forces perpendicular to beams axis to get shear
Sum moments about the sectioned end of segment to get moment
Plot shear diagram (V vs. x) and moment diagram (M vs. x)
If numerical values are positive, values are plotted above axis, otherwise, negative
values are plotted below axis
It is convenient to show the shear and moment diagrams directly below the free-body
diagram
Shear and moment Diagram
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Example 1
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below.
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Example 2
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below.
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Example 3
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for beam shown below.
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Example:4
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3.3 GRAPICAL METHOD FOR
CONSTRUCTING SHEAR
AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS
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Relation between Distributed Load,
Shear Force and Bending Moment
( )
x w V
x w V V V F
y
A = A
= A A + =

0 : 0
}
=
=
D
C
x
x
C D
dx w V V
w
dx
dV
Relationship between load and shear:
( )
( )
2
2
1
0
2
: 0
x w x V M
x
x w x V M M M M
C
A A = A
=
A
A + A A + =

'
}
=
=
D
C
x
x
C D
dx V M M
V
dx
dM
Relationship between shear and bending moment:
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dV
dx
= w(x)
dM
dx
= V
Slope of
shear diagram
at each point
Slope of moment
diagram at each
point
= distributed load
intensity at
each point
= shear at
each point
SUMMARY :
AV = w(x) dx
= -F
AM = V(x) dx
= M
o
Change in
shear
Change in
moment
= area under
distributed loading
= area under shear
diagram
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EXAMPLES OF DIAGRAM :
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Procedure of Analysis
Support reactions
Determine support reactions and resolve forces acting on the beam into
components that are perpendicular and parallel to beams axis

Shear diagram
Establish V and x axes
Plot known values of shear at two ends of the beam
Since dV/dx = w, slope of the shear diagram at any point is equal to the (-ve)
intensity of the distributed loading at that point
To find numerical value of shear at a point, use method of sections and
equation of equilibrium or by using AV = w(x) dx, i.e., change in the shear
between any two points is equal to (-ve) area under the load diagram between
the two points
Since w(x) must be integrated to obtain AV, then if w(x) is a curve of degree
n, V(x) will be a curve of degree n+1
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Procedure of Analysis (Cont.d)
Moment diagram
Establish M and x axes and plot known values of the moment at the ends of
the beam
Since dM/dx = V, slope of the moment diagram at any point is equal to the
shear at the point
At point where shear is zero, dM/dx = 0 and therefore this will be a point of
maximum or minimum moment
If numerical value of moment is to be determined at the point, use method of
sections and equation of equilibrium, or by using AM = V(x) dx, i.e., change
in moment between any two pts is equal to area under shear diagram between
the two pts
Since V(x) must be integrated to obtain AM, then if V(x) is a curve of degree n,
M(x) will be a curve of degree n+1
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Example 5
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam in figure
below.
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Example 6
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for beam shown below.
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Example 7
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Example 8
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Example 9
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Example 10
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