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# sol. gen.

## the determine equation stic characteri the of roots the : note

equation stic characteri 0
0 ) (
0
ng, substituti
' ' ; '
ating differenti , let
solution, particular for the
0
ts Coefficien Constant with DE s Homogeneou
DE s homogeneou - non 0 ) ( if
DE s homogeneou 0 ) ( if : note
) (
Order of Equation al Differenti Linear
EQUATION AL DIFFERENTI ON REVIEW
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1 0
= + +
= + +
= + +
= =
=
= + +
-
=
=
= + + + +
-

B Am m
B Am m e
Be Ame e m
e m y me y
e y
By
dx
dy
A
dx
y d
x f
x f
x f y a
dx
dy
a
dx
y d
a
dx
y d
a
n
mx
mx mx mx
mx mx
mx
n n
n
n
n
n
x x
mx mx
ax
x m x m
e C e C y
m m
m m
m m
y y y
xe C e C y
bx C bx C e y
e C e C y

+ =
= =
= +
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
: hence
1 ; 2
0 ) 1 )( 2 (
0 2
is, equation stic characteri the : n sol'
solution general : d req'
0 2 ' ' ' : given
: on Illustrati I Case
Equal and Real Roots : III CASE
) sin cos (
Imaginary Roots : II CASE
is solution general The
Distinct and Real Roots : I CASE
2 1
x x
x
ax
xe C e C y
m m
m m
m m
y y y n
x C x C y
x C x C e y
bi a m
bx C bx C e y
i m
m
m
y y
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
) ( 0
2 1
2

2 ; 2
0 ) 2 )( 2 (
0 4 4 : n sol'
solution general : d req'
0 4 ' 4 ' ' : give
: on Illustrati III Case
2 sin 2 cos
) 2 sin 2 cos (
w/ and
) sin cos ( with
2
4
0 4 : n sol'
solution general : d req'
0 4 ' ' : given
: on Illustrati II Case

+ =
= =
= + +
= + +
= + +
+ =
+ =
=
+ =
=
=
= +
= +
Review on Newtons 2
nd
Law of Motion
2.3 0
0

= +
=
=

kx ma
kx ma
ma F
FREE VIBRATION
Undamped Free Vibration of Single-Degree-of-
Freedom Translational Systems

Undamped Free Torsional Vibration with Single-
Degree-of-Freedom Systems

or let
0
motion of equation 0
; since
) (
position, m equilibriu dynamic at
position, m equilibriu static at
) r" Osicillato Harmonic " - Position Vertical in System Mass - (Spring
Systems nal Translatio Freedom - of - Degree - Single of Vibration Free Undamped
2
m
k
m
k
x
m
k
x
kx x m
kx x m W k
x k W F x m
mg W k
n n
= =
= +
= +
= = A
+ A = =
= = A
- -
- -
- -
- -

e e
DE s homogeneou
order 2nd for n sol' gen.
2.16 sin cos ) (
) sin cos ( ) (
and let
) sin cos ( ) (
analogy, by
) sin cos ( ) (
Imaginary, Roots
II) (CASE roots imaginary
0
is, equation stic characteri the
0
2 1
2 1
) ( 0
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2

+ =
+ =
= =
+ =
+ =

=
=
= +
= +
- -
t A t A t x
t A t A e t x
A C A C
t C t C e t x
bx C bx C e x y
equency natural f r circular
i s
s
s
x x
n n
n n
t
n n
at
ax
n
n
n
n
n
e e
e e
e e
e
e
e
e
e
( )
2.21 ) cos( ) (
as, written be can 2.16 equation
angle phase tan tan
amplitude
sin and cos
2.16 sin cos ) ( with
: Motion Harmonic
conditions initial subject to n sol' gen.
2.18 sin
) 0 (
cos ) 0 (
(0) at and ) 0 ( at
sin cos ) (
0
0 1
1
2 1 -
2 1
2
0
2
0
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2 n
0
1 0
2 1
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
(
(
(

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
= =
+ =

+ =
= = = =
+ =
-

-
-
- -
| e
e
|
e
| |
e e
e
e
e
e
e e
t A t x
x
x
A
A
x
x A A A
A A A A
A t A t x
t
x
t x x
A x x A x x
t A t A t x
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
n n
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(
(

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
+ =
= =
-

-
0
0 1
2 1
2
0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0 2 0 0 1
tan ;
2.23 ) sin( ) (
) cos( and ) sin( using
x
x x
x A A
t A t x
A A A A
n
n
n
e
|
e
| e
| |
. cos ) ( zero, is velocity initial the If
. sin ) ( zero, is nt displaceme initial the If . 5
) cos( ) cos( ) ( on Accelerati . 4
)
2
cos( ) sin( ) ( Velocity . 3
2
1
since ;
2
1 1
: (hz) frequency Natural 2.
2
2
; 2 with
: n oscillatio of period Natural 1.
position l in vertica mass - spring for following the Note
0
0
0
0
2
0
2
t x t x x
t
x
t x x
t A t A x t x
t A t A t x
g
f
mg k
m
k
f
f
k
m
n
n
n
n n n n
n n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n n
n
e
e
e
t | e e | e e
t
| e e | e e
t
t t
t t
e
t
t t t e
t
=
=
+ = =
+ = =
A
=
= A = =
=
= =
-
-
- -
-
2.36 1
b, and a equations adding and squaring
b ) sin(
) sin( ) ( and
a ) ( cos
) cos( ) ( with
: freedom of - degree - single for plane phase or space State 6.
2
2
2
2
= +
= =
=
=
=
-
-
B
y
A
x
A
y
A
x
t
t A t x
A
x
t
t A t x
n
n
n n
n
n
e
| e
| e e
| e
| e
Solution:

( ) | |
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0 ; 0
solution, particular the
s homogeneou - non
note
Law, 2nd s Newton' from
) 0 (
2
) (
momentum, of on conservati from
2
2
1
PE - KE with
, hits before right
2
2 2 1
1
2 1 2 1
0
2 1
2
2 1 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
1 2
= =
= =
= + +
= A
+ A + = = +
= =
+
=
+ =
=
=
A = A
- - -
- -
- -
- - -
-

p p
p
x x
C g m x
g m kx x m m
g m k
x k g m m F x m m
x x
m m
gh m
x
x m m m
gh
h g m m
m m
v
v
v
( )
( )
2 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2 2 1
2
2
2 2 1
2
) 0 ( , 0 @
2 cos sin ) (
, respect to w/ e diffentiat
1 sin cos ) (
solution, general the
; where

0

m m
gh m
x t
t A t A t x
t
k
g m
t A t A t x
m m
k
m m
k
m m
g m
x
m m
k
x
g m kx x m m
k
g m
C
g m kC
g m kx x m m
n n n n
n n
n n
p p
+
= =
+ =
+ + =
+
= =
+
+
=
+
+
= + +
=
= +
= + +
-
-
- -
- -
- -
e e e e
e e
e e
( )
( )
( )
( )
t
m m k
gh m
t
k
g m
t x
k
g m
t
m m
gh m
t
k
g m
t x
A A
k
g m
A
k
g m
A A
x t
m m
gh m
A
A A
m m
gh m
t A t A t x
n n
n
n
n
n
n n
n n n n
e e
e
e
e
e
e e
e e e e
sin
2
cos 1 ) (
sin
2
cos ) (
1 eq. to and ng substituti
0 sin 0 cos 0
ng substituti , 0 ) 0 ( , 0 @
1, equation from
2
0 cos 0 sin
2
cos sin ) (
, to ng substituti
2 1
2 2
2
2 1
2 2
2 1
2
1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
+
+ =
+
+
+ =
=
+ + =
= =
+
=
+ =
+
+ =
-
Assignment: 1.) A cantilever
beam carries a mass M at the
free end as shown. A mass M
falls from a height h onto the
mass M and adheres to it
without rebounding.
Determine the resulting
transverse vibration of the
beam and the natural
2.) A 25-kg mass is suspended from a
spring with a modulus of 2N/mm,
which is in turn suspended at its upper
end from a thin steel cantilevered
beam with a thickness of 3 mm, a
width of 20 mm, and a length of 250
mm. Determine the natural frequency
of the motion of the weight. Hint:
1. Take the beam as spring and derive
its spring constant. 2. Consider two
springs connected in series.
3.)Determine the
natural frequency of the
horizontal pendulum
shown. Neglect the
mass of the arm. Hint:
Newtons Law in Polar
Coordinate
4.) The uniform wheel of mass m is supported in the vertical
plane by the light flexible band ABC and the spring, which
has a stiffness k. The wheel has a moment of inertia about
the geometric center O, and rolls without slipping on the
band ABC. Determine the natural frequency of the system.
Hint: 1. Apply Newtons Law in both Cartesian and Polar
Coordinate. 2. When the wheel rotates angle , the springs
tail has a displacement of r.
40 . 2 0
: motion of Equation

32
: constant spring Torsional
32
inertia of moment polar torque, where
twist of angle from
Freedom - of - Degree - Single with Vibration Torsional Free Undamped
0
4
0
4
0
0
0
= +
= = =
=
= =
=
- -
u u
t
u
t
u
t
t
t
t
t
t
k J
l
Gd
l
GI M
k
k
d
I
I M
G I
l M
disk the of weight W diam.,
thickness, density,
disk for the
8 32
(cylinder) inertia of
moment mass polar
2
1
where
2
1
: hz in Frequency
2
: s in vibration of Period
2.41
: freq. circular Natural
2 2
0
2
0
0
0
n
0
n

= =
=
=
=
=
D
h
g
WD D h
J
mr J
J
k
f
f
k
J
J
k
t
n
n
t
t
n

t
t
t t
t
e
e
ans
d, and c equations the equating
d
c
sin angle, small for
by created torque restoring ) sin (
: Solution
moment). (or force restoring with the associated
frequency natural the and constant spring equivalent the determine
pendulum, the of nt displaceme angular an g Considerin
. mass of bob a with length of pendulum simple a shows 1.34 Figure
Pendulum Simple a of Vibration Harmoniic : Example
=
=
=
~
=
mgl k
k T
mgl T
mg l mg T
m l
t
t
u u
u
u
where
motion of DE 0
0
equations above equating
Law 2 s Newton' from
sin
: on Continuati
2
nd
=
=
= +
= +
=
=
~ =
- -
- -
- -
- -

l
g
l
g
l
g
g l
ml mg
ml F
mg mg F
n
n
e
e
u u
u u
u u
u
u u
u