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EMISSION LEGISLATION & AFTER-TREATMENT DEVICES

Dr. K. C. Vora Head, ARAI Academy The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune

RED BLOOD CELLS EXPOSED TO PARTICLES


1 m particles 0.078 m particles

Smaller particles are more dangerous

EMISSION ROAD MAP FOR INDIA


Introduction of CO & HC
PUC all over the country Bharat Satage I for Metros Tractor emission norms Durability of Catalytic Converter Gen. Sets emission norms Bharat stage II for 2/3 wheelers in India Bharat Stage II for 4 wheelers in India Bharat Stage III for 4 wheeler in 11 select cities Bharat stage III for 2/3 wheelers in India Bharat Stage III for 4 wheelers in India Bharat Stage IV for 4 wheeler in 11 select cities

13 mode Diesel Emission > 3.5 T GVW CNG, LPG emission revision PUC revision for 2/3 wheelers, CO, HC & NOx for gasoline & cars & CVs diesel vehicles Bharat Stage I for 2/3 wheelers Evaporative emissions and cold start Bharat Stage I for 4 wheeler in India for petrol < 3.5 T GVW. Catalytic converters for gasoline cars Bharat Stage II for 4 wheeler in Metros in Metros

Before 2000

2000-2004

2005 onwards

VEHICLE EMISSION NORMS & SULPHUR REDUCTION SCHEDULE IN INDIA

FUEL SULPHUR LEVEL IN EUROPE (PPM)


Euro 2
500
400 300
India Cities 2005: 350 PPM India Cities 2010: 50 PPM

Euro 3

Euro 4

Euro 5

200
100 0
Gasoline Diesel

Fuel Quality (Sulphur Level) is critical for controlling Emissions Source: CAI-Asia
Ref: M. Walsh, Clean Fuels in China (June, 2003)

FUTURE GASOLINE EMISSIONS STANDARDS - COMPARISON

INDIAN EMISSION NORMS FOR 2 WHEELERS


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
14.25

Emissions g/km)

8.5* 4.5

3.6
2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0

1991

1996

2000 Year

2005

2010

- For Ref. Mass 170 kg ;

CO

HC+NOx

* Only for HC

INDIAN EMISSION NORMS FOR 3 WHEELERS - PETROL


30
30

Emissions, g/km

25 20 15 10 5 0 19911996 2000 2005 CO


* Only for HC;
12* 6.75 5.4

2.25 2.25

1.25

1.25

2010 HC+Nox

- For Ref. Mass 170 kg ;

INDIAN EMISSION NORMS FOR 3 WHEELER - DIESEL

35

30

0.14

0.16 0.14

Emissions, g/km

30 25 0.1
12*

20
15 10 5 0 0.05 5
2

0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04

2.72 0.97

0.5

1 0.85

0.5

0.02 0

1991-

1996

2000

2005

2010 CO

HC+Nox

For RM of 350 kg * Only for HC

PM, g/km

0.12

PM

INDIAN EMISSION NORMS FOR PASSENGER CARS- PETROL

**

**

- For 1020 Rm < 1250 & For cc 1400 ; * Only for HC;

INDIAN EMISSION NORMS FOR PASSENGER CARS - DIESEL

*
-

**

**

- For 1020 Rm < 1250 ; * Only for HC ; ** M Category Vehicles

DETERIORATION FACTORS IN INDIA


Category of Vehicles Gasoline Diesel

CO
HC NOx HC+NOx PM

1.2
1.2 1.2 NA NA

1.1
NA 1.0 1.0 1.2

Deterioration factors became applicable for gasoline and diesel vehicles (fitted with catalytic converter) from 1st December 2002. or 30,000 km Durability for 2-W & 3-W and 80,000km durability for four wheelers.

INDIAN DRIVING CYCLE FOR 2 & 3 WHEELERS


50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 TIME(sec)
Max. accel. m/s2 0.65

SPEED(km/hr)

80

100

Time sec IDC (6 Cycles) 648

Distance km 3.948

Avg. Speed km/h 21.93

Max. Speed km/h 42

Idle time Accel. Decel time Max Decel ratio Time ratio ratio m/s3 0.63 % 14.81 % 38.89 % 34.26

Cruise time ratio % 12.04

BS III INDIAN DRIVING CYCLE FOR 4 WHEELERS


Part 1: 780 sec Part 2: 400 sec

One Cycle of 195 sec

Max Speed 90 KPH

SALIENT FEATURES OF EURO III & EURO IV More stringent exhaust limits for Euro 3 and Euro 4

Separation of HC and NOx


Modified exhaust emissions test cycle Deletion of first 40 s idle, start of bag sampling at engine crank Onboard diagnostics requirements for Gasoline and Diesel (derived from US OBD II, but without Evapmonitoring). With threshold values for fault storage and warning.

SALIENT FEATURES OF EURO III & EURO IV

Enhanced evaporative emissions requirements with new 24-hour diurnal test (temp profile 200C-350C)
Low temperature test for Gasoline vehicles Measurement of HC and CO at -70C during first 780 seconds of revised urban and extra urban cycle Reference fuel option with higher RVP and density In-use durability requirements Euro 3 : 80,000 km or 5 years. Euro 4 : 100,000 km or 5 years

LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES - EURO 3 AND CURRENT EURO 4

New

low temperature test at -7C

In-use conformity testing with durability distance of 100,000 km for Euro 4 Revised evaporative emissions test On-board diagnostics (OBD)

COMPARISON OF EURO I, EURO II & EURO III STANDARDS


V/S INDIAN REGULATIONS (FOR HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES)
13 Mode Cycle TA Limits in g/kwh COP Limits in g/kWh NOx PM CO HC NOx PM CO HC NOx PM 9.0 0.4 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 4.9 1.23 9.0 0.4 7.0 0.15 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 9.0 0.4* 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36* 4.9 1.23 9.0 0.4* -Euro III --0.61** ---

Euro I Euro II India 2000

--

0.68** -0.68**

--

ETC tests CH4 NOx PM CO HC NOx PM m-1 CO NMHC CH4 NOx PM 1.6 5.0 0.16 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10 0.8 5.45 0.78 1.6 5.0 0.16 ------0.13 -0.21 -------0.13 -0.21

ESC & ELR Tests

** for GVW < 3500 kg & power < 85 kW * for GVW < 3500 kg & power > 85 kW or GVW>3500 Kg
for engines having swept vol.<0.75 dm3 per cylinder and rated speed > 3000 min-1
ESC: Euro Steady State Cycle, ELR: Euro Load Response, ETC: Euro Transient Cycle

HEAVY DUTY ENGINES- EURO 4/5 LIMITS (2005-2008)

EURO 5 PROPOSAL

EURO 5 PROPOSAL

3-WAY (TW) CATALYTIC CONVERTER Catalytic converters transform NOx, CO & HC into N2, CO2 & H2O
Can Mat Ceramic Substrate with Catalytic Coating

N2 CO2 H2O

NOX CO HC

CERAMIC SUBSTRATES - UNIQUE EXTRUSION PROCESS

AUTOMOTIVE SUBSTRATES ENABLING TECHNOLOGY


FOR ULTRA-LOW EMISSIONS

400/6.5 (Euro 2)

900/2 (Euro 4)

GASOLINE EMISSIONS STANDARDS - COMPARISON

Achievable Today

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST CATALYSIS

AIR-FUEL MANAGEMENT COLD-START STRATEGIES CATALYST FORMULATION

Emission v/s Air Fuel Ratio

(Heywood)

Staying in the window

Closed-loop Control with HEGO Sensor & Fuel Injection

(eastwood)

Catalyst light-off (A/F 14.7)

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST CATALYSIS

AIR-FUEL MANAGEMENT COMPLETED COLD-START STRATEGIES CATALYST FORMULATION

Importance of Cold Start


Tailpipe HC Emissions (FTP Bag 1)
0.025
Tailpipe HC Mass (g/s) 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400
X Catalyst "Light-Off" Temperature

1500
1200 900 600 300 0 500 Temperature, (Deg F)

Trends of Catalytic Converter Configuration

Advantages of Close Coupled Catalyst

(Umicore)

Closed Couple Catalyst Design Criteria

Position of Catalysts in the Exhaust System

ADVANCES IN AUTOMOTIVE EXHAUST CATALYSIS

AIR-FUEL MANAGEMENT COMPLETED COLD-START STRATEGIES COMPLETED CATALYST FORMULATION

Characteristics of PGM Catalysts

Improvement in Oxygen Storage Capacity

Technology Options for a Sustainable Environmentally Friendly Mobility

GASOLINE ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES


MPFI precise control of fuel at all operating modes such as acceleration, idling, altitude, high and low temperature operation and enrichment based on load. 3-Way Catalytic Converter Greatly reduces all three emissions of CO, HC and NOx Close control of air fuel ratio is required through close loop with lambda sensor Variable Valve Timing - VVT Improvement in fuel consumption optimizes intake and exhaust valve actuation added torque reduces internal pumping losses reduces production of the pollutant Nox EGR helps to reduce NOx. OBD helps warning the user of malfunctioning of the system and its components.

GASOLINE ENGINE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT


BSV ? Direct in-cylinder injection BSIV Multi-brick catalytic converter (CC+UF) Lean burn, OBD Fuel Cells Electric/ ElectricHybrid

Fuel injection + catalytic converter (CC/UF) Variable EGR Variable valve timing Fuel injection Multi valve 3-W Catalytic converter CNG / LPG (pt/rh)

BSIII

BSII

Fixed EGR CNG / LPG

BSI

MPFI PCV O2 sensor Knock Sensor 2-Way/ 3-Way Cat. Con.

System Development

DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES


TCIC offers a great advantage in reducing emissions. Fuel Injection system holds the key to combustion and emission optimization. Electronic control is more required to control precise amount of fuel and injection timing. Cooled EGR is another way to reduce NOx but optimization is necessary. After treatment devices such as oxidation catalysts and particulate traps reduce tailpipe CO, HC and PM. Sulphur reduction of fuel is essential if aftertreatment devices are to be used Lean Nox Trap and SCR are under development which help in reducing Nox emissions
NO+O2 NO2 Pt Base metal Catalyst Support NO3HC, CO, H2 CO2, H2O, N2 Base metal Catalyst Support NOx nitrate Pt

Lean Operation (NOx Trapping)

Rich Transient (Reduce Stored NOx)

DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT


BS V ? TC & inter cooling Multi valve Low swirl Injection pressure > 1200 bar Unit injector / common rail injection Rotary pump and pilot injection rate shaping Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) Oxycat DOC/SCR/CDPF System EGR (hot/cooled) Electronic injection control1
NOx sensor
feedforward

BSIV

Biodiesel/ Alcohol blends? Turbo charging Inter cooling (based on specific power) Moderate swirl Injection pressure > 800 bar Rotary pump VCO nozzle EGR (need based) Conversion to CNG/ LPG

BSIII

NOx Trap Particulate trap Common rail injection Injection pressure > 1600 bar On-board diagnostic system VGT Cooled EGR
aqueous urea
feedback

NOx sensor

deltaP CDPF

Ox Cat

SCR catalyst

BSII
optimized ports, combustion BSI chambers turbo charging moderate to high injection pressures (600 800 bar) Inline/rotary

HC, CO control NO NO2

NOx control

PM control HC/CO/NH3 control

System Development

KEY DRIVERS FOR CNG


Economy of operation Reduction of harmful emissions PM emissions Relevant to India where diesel consumption is five times the petrol consumption High safety, quieter operation, less odor than diesel Regulatory imperatives Supreme court directive covering 11 cities
Running Cost in Rs./km
Economy
10
8 6 4 2 0 4 wheelers (Cars) 3 wheelers (Auto rickshaw) Bus

8.56
Petrol CNG LPG

5.97

2.84 0.99 1.69 1.7 0.6 1.01

Emissions in g/km and % Reduction


60

% reduction in Emissions

83% reduction 58% reduction

97% reduction

40 20 0

21 2.4 0.4
CO 2.4 0.4 21 8.9

8.9
Nox

0.38 0.012
PM 0.38 0.012

Gujarat Govt.: Ordinance for compulsory use of CNG

diesel CNG

diesel

CNG

Source : Ernst and Young Pvt. Ltd.

DIESEL EMISSION CONTROL


REQUIREMENTS DIESEL OXIDATIOCATALYST (DOC): For CO & HC reduction. It does not alter NOx Reduce SOF portion of PM It should not oxidize SO2 to SO3 The catalysts such as the precious metals (Pt, Pd), which are active to oxidize the SOF are also active towards the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. Adding base metal Oxides (Vanadia) to high Pt loaded catalyst to suppress the sulphate making reactions. At low temperature SOF is adsorbed in pores & at high temperature H2SO4 is released. This is avoided with washcoat additives such as silica, zirconia, titania.

NOx / PM Trade-off

critical diesel tuning


PM

NOx

NOx vs PM

Parameter change
Cycle temperature increases

Effect on NOx

Effect on PM
Better Combustion conditions prevails Towards complete
combustion

There is excess air in bowl Longer premixed combustion phase

Improved initial mixing, chances of better combustion

NOx PM Emission Control Strategy PM


A 2-V config 4-V config Increased inj. rate Inj. Timing retard Electronics in injection Variable swirl Oxicat, EGR DPF, DeNOx Cat

100%

A B

B C D E F G H

50%

C D
E H G

F
100%

50%

NOx

Particulate Matter (PM) Reduction

Diesel Engine Euro III Technology Options

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Or Catalyzed Soot Filter (SCF)

Plugged channel honeycomb Particulates trapped on wall Regenerated to burn particles Catalyzed or uncatalyzed

Performance Requirements for DPF Four basic requirements which DPF must meet: adequate filtration efficiency to satisfy particulate emissions legislation; low pressure drop to minimize fuel penalty and conserve engine power; high thermal shock resistance to ensure filter integrity during soot regeneration; high surface area per unit volume for compact packaging.

DPF Regeneration

Passive Regeneration

DPF Regeneration

Source: CAI-Asia

Post Injection Regeneration for an Uncoated DPF

(Umicore)

Continuous Regenerative Trap (CRT)

Oxidises CO and HC to CO2 and H2O NO is oxidised to NO2 Collects Soot in wall-flow particle filter NO2 reacts with trapped soot to form CO2 & NO Requirements: Fuel S < 50 ppm & NOx/PM > 20 Passive system - no external heating necessary provided Temperature is high enough (>260C for 40% of the time) CO, HC, PM reduction > 90%

CRT Particulate Filter


Outlet Section

Inlet Section

Catalyst Section

Filter Section

Honeycomb Catalyst

Wall-flow Filter

NO2 Reaction in a CRT

NO+CO2
NO O2 CO O2 HC O2 NO2 NO2

CO2
NO+CO2

H2O+CO2

Flow Through Catalyst

Wall Flow Filter

NOX CONVERTERS HC De-Nox: Fuel is injected downstream of catalyst which acts as a NOx redundant. Operating temp. window 200 to 300 deg C. NOx Adsorber ( Lean NOx Trap ): Base metal Barium Alumina absorbs and stores NOx in lean burn operation. Regeneration reqd to avoid deposition on catalyst material. Occasionally rich mixture is fed which converts adsorbed Nitrate into N2 . Urea SCR: Urea in solid or aqueous form is used. In the presence of catalyst urea decomposes to produce NH3, which reacts with NOx selectively. NH3 reacts with NO and NO2 converting to N2 molecules and H2O.

HC DeNOx Catalyst Or Diesel Lean NOx Catalyst (DLNC)

Reducing NOx by HC under the excess of oxygen is currently the most advanced diesel DeNOx concept Zeolite absorbs HC during Cold Start and when the temp is high enough for light-off, HC is released for reduction of NOx. HC emissions are used to reduce NOx at around 300C The catalyst for the HC DeNOx is Pt on support oxide (Al2O3, SiO2,TiO2, ZrO2..) This method requires reasonable amounts of HC in the exhaust gas, which can be achieved, either by post injection using CRDi or by secondary fuel injection. NOx reduction up to 30% possible. However, there is fuel penalty (3-6%) and expensive system cost.

HC DeNOx Mechanism

NO + O2= NO2 [NO activation, requires reducible site] CxHy + NO2= CO2 + N2 + H2O (Preferred) [Competition for HC, on oxidizable sites] CxHy + O2 =CO2 + H2O (Not preferred) [HC oxidation, very fast]

NOx Adsorber Catalysts Lean conditions (lambda > 1): Oxidises CO and HC to CO2 and H2O Oxidises NO to NO2 NO2 is stored as Nitrate

Rich conditions (lambda < 1): Nitrates are reduced to NO2 NO2 is released and reduced to N2.
NOx reduction > 70% possible. Requirements: S < 10 ppm

NOx Adsorber Catalyst Functions LEAN: NO2 generation NO2 storage (CO, HC, VOF oxidation)

RICH:
NOx release NOx conversion (Desulfation)

Urea SCR Within Europe, the principal NOx control strategy starting in 2005, is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia, derived from urea as the reductant. Here ammonia reacts with NOx selectively on a catalyst, such as V2O5TiO2, under oxygen rich exhaust gas Urea/water solution reacts at > 200 C to form NH3 and CO2. NH3 reduces NO and NO2 to N2. NOx reduction > 80 % possible. Fuel with S up to 500 ppm can be used.

Urea SCR System Schematic

Urea Injector

FLOW

Oxidation Catalyst

2 x SCR Catalysts

1 x Pt Clean-up Catalyst

Vehicle dependent Applicability of NOx Converters


100

Urea SCR
80

NOx adsorber
60

40

HC De-NOX

20

Euro-4 limit
20

Vehicle Weight (kg)

3000

EMISSION CONTROL FOCUS ON PM + NOx

DPF+SCR

DPF+SCR+AMOX

A Cleaner Future for India (Mobile Emissions)

Capabilities Exist. Tighter Regulations in EU, Japan, US are in place Technology is available and in production Cost to implement is reasonable Experiments in various R&D Centres have been initiated
To Get Ahead of the Curve. Growth Tighter Regulations required Various refined fuels to be evaluated including Hydrogen Lower Fuel Sulphur (to 50 PPM) Retrofit Diesel (especially HD)

Thanking You !

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