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Sk, Nift

Natural Fibres contains oils, fats and waxes together with other impurities Garments, Fabrics or yarns may contain oil and adventitious dirt collected during manufacturing Scouring Removal of all these impurities
{poor absorbency, improper dyeing, printing and finishing}

Scouring Destarching process Starch present in the sized yarn is liquefied (solubilised) by either hydrolytic or oxidative reactions and is removed in subsequent washing (also called kiering, kier boiling, boiling out)
This process consists in circulating hot alkaline liquors, usually under pressure (10-30psi, ie, 0.7-2 kg/ through a regularly packed column of desized fabric for 8-24hrs. (temp, pressure. Composition of kier liquor, time nature of the goods)

Removal of natural as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character as completely as possible and leave the fabric in a highly absorptive condition without undergoing chemical or physical damage significantly and also to make the goods suitable for removing the natural coloring matter of the cotton during the subsequent bleaching process

Main processes occurring during scouring

Saponifiable oils are converted into soaps Proteins are hydrolyzed into soluble degradation products Simpler amino compounds are dissolved or hydrolyzed to ammonia Pectose and pectin are changed into soluble salts of pectic or metapectic acids Mineral matter dissolved Unsaponifaible oils and waxes are emulsified by the soluble soaps formed from the saponifaible oils Dust particles are removed and held in a stable suspension form in the kier liquor by the detergent present therein

Veg. oil, animal fats and mineral oils are not soluble or miscible with water
Oil and water hate each other hydrophobic water hating surfaces Wetted with water easily hydrophilic surfaces or water loving surfaces

Grey cotton fabric water oil present on the size will not allow the water to spread on the fibre oil resists the wetting of the fabric by water But for subsequent processes cloth should be highly absorbent toward water Objective oil has to be removed

Veg.oil- glyceride of fatty acids like oleic, stearic, palmitic, ricinoleic acids Such oils are heated with a soln of sodium hydroxide in water, the oil is split up into its constituents fatty acid and glycerine latter is freely miscible with water Fatty acid reacts with NaOH present in soln forming its sodium salt - i.e. soap also soluble in water

This reaction is called saponification

Result of saponification insoluble and water-immiscible oil is converted into water soluble products

grey fabric resists wetting difficult for NaOH to wet and penetrate cotton fibre hence, difficult for the oils to get saponified High surface tension of water (73dynes/cm) resists the wetting of a hydrophobic surface with water

Dissolving soap in water 73 to 28 dynes/cm

Wetting or surface active agents

Surface tension of a liquid is a force which resists the wetting of a surface with the liquid Substances which reduce the surface tension of water wetting agents or surface active agents These agents bringing NaOH into intimate contact with the oil, which then gets saponified to water soluble products Ex. Lissapol, Teepol, Igepon, Indopon, Nekal. Gardinol etc. trade names

Wax in fibre can not be removed by saponification Esters of higher fatty alcohols and fatty acids wax Mineral acids hydrophobic cant be converted into water soluble products by boiling with NaOH Emulsion fairly stable mixture of two liquids, which normally do not mix with each other
Thus scouring soln should contain emulsifying agent, wetting agent in addition to NaOH

Starch desizing, veg. oils saponification, Mineral oils and waxes emulsification Remaining constituents of the size and other solid particles including dust and dirt particles have to be removed from the fabric Detergent keeps the solid particles removed from the fabric dispersed or suspended in the solution and doesnt allow them to settle on other parts of the fabric

Diff. Detergents
Detergent dissolved in water ionizes into cations (+) and anions(-) During ionization - Longer anions anionic agents cationic agents Do not ionize at all on dissolution in water non- ionic detergents

Surface tension
Grey cotton fabric placed in surface of water not sink in spite of higher density { cotton 1.52g/cc, water 1.g/cc} cos micro pores present in the yarn are not filled with water to displace the air present therein due to poor absorbency, imparted by the fatty matter Vacuum condn. - sinks

Wetting of surface involves the reduction of the interfacial tension- so that the liquid spreads as a continuous film, instead of remaining as drops Perfect wetting angle of contact between the liquid surface and solid surface should be zero { a state which is reached when the liquid is attracted by solid surface more than it attracts by itself}

Wetting two ways

By reducing the surface tension or cohesion of the liquid By increasing the adhesion b/w the liquid and the solid

Scouring - tendering
Absence of oxygen during scouring essential condn. Dilute solutions of alkali no action on cellulose in the absence of O2 Readily attacks the cotton in the presence of air forming oxy-cellulose tendering OC - Develops browning colour on storage