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Process Flow and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams

BY Bharat A Bhanvase

Assistant Professor

Chemical Engineering Department VIT, Pune- 37

Piping and Instrumentation

Diagram

Similarly to electrical schemas, the control industry (especially the chemical and process industry) describes its plants and their instrumentation by a

P&ID (pronounce P.N.I.D.) (Piping and Instrumentation Diagram), sometimes called P&WD (Piping and wiring diagrams)

The P&ID shows the flows in a plant (in the chemical or process

industry) and the corresponding sensors or actors.

At the same time, the P&ID gives a name ("tag") to each sensor and actor, along with additional parameters.

This tag identifies a "point" not only on the screens and

controllers, but also on the objects in the field.

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram

(P & I)

P & I should be included with

All process equipment identified by equipment number

All pipes identified by a line number. Pipe size and material of construction should be shown (material may include as a part of the identification number)

All valves with an identification no. along with their type & size should be shown

Ancillary fittings that are part of piping system such as inline sight glasses, strainers and stream traps with

an identification no. Pumps identified by a suitable code no. All control loops and instruments with identification

P&ID

The P&ID mixes pneumatic / hydraulic elements, electrical elements and instruments on the same

diagram

Examples of pneumatic / hydraulic symbols:

Instrumentation identification

Instrumentation identification

ISA S5.1 General instrument or

function symbols

Example of P&ID

Example of P&ID

Common connecting lines

Common connecting lines

P&ID (Piping & Instrumentation Diagram) Guidelines

The Facilities Services Subgroup designer shall clearly communicate the piping and instrumentation concepts and requirements for applicable systems. The P&ID is thep referred method for conveying this information. The following guidelines reflect the Owner’s P&ID content preferences for this particular CSI division of the Facility Services Subgroup. Division 25 Integrated Automation P&ID Guidelines

The P&ID should utilize industry recognized symbols and abbreviations.

A schedule should be presented on the P&ID or other referenced drawing, identifying all symbols, abbreviations and instrumentation function identifiers.

System directional flow arrows should be utilized on the P&ID.

Design flow quantities and temperature and pressure set points are to be presented on

the P&ID or corresponding schedule.

P&ID components are to be labeled with unique tags or identifiers.

Piping system lines are to be labeled at regular intervals to better facilitate the following of the lines on the drawing. Where P&ID lines extend to subsequent drawings, those drawings are to be incorporated into an off-sheet identifier, referencing the system line type and the location of the continuation of the piping system line.

The HVAC P&ID is intended to depict the Facilities Services systems including the distribution and generation of all HVAC water and steam systems.

All heat addition and rejection components are to be incorporated into the P&ID as well as heat exchanger components.

Terminal devices or multiple air handling equipment heat exchangers are appropriately presented in typical form to communicate expectations for repetitive component types.

Instrument identifiers are intended to be cross referenced to the Sequence of Operation

descriptions presented on the drawings or the specifications.

EXPERT SYSTEM

The Expert System is a means to develop a set of rules based up on a given method to allow ease of extendibility. It is a systematic approach that will allow all factors to be considered. This method is a basic extension of the factors as follows:

Step 1: Choice of Equipment

Is this appropriate for the substance?

Is its size appropriate for the process?

Is the Equipment working within its limitations?

Step 2: Necessity Is the equipment necessary for the correct operation of the process?

Is the equipment redundant?

Step 3: Isolation and or Maintenance Can the unit be isolated from the process for maintenance?

Can the unit be evacuated manually, if necessary? Step 4: Control System

Does the unit require a level control?

Is the unit dependant upon temperature? Control is limited to level and temperature, with in the scope of the project Step 5: Connectivity

Is order of operation important?

Where are valves required on unit?

Are any recycles, sub units or modifications necessary for units operation?

RULE DEVELOPMENT

General rules:

These general rules apply to the entire process,

not on specific equipment. These are as follows:

All equipment must have at least one process input and one process output.

Minimum of one valve between equipment

If more than one valve between equipment give warning

A continuous pipe must not have more than one control valve

Vents and overflows must not have valves

RULE DEVELOPMENT cont

..

 

TANKS

If the liquid is corrosive tank can be either floating of cone roof

If the liquid is volatile tank should be floating roof

If the liquid is neutral tank should be cone roof

If cone roof then tank must have either simple vent system or overflow

If overflow should have drain

If floating roof tank must have overflow with drain

If floating roof tank must have overpressure and vacuum relief

If tank does not have manual drain valve give warning

If tank does not have level control give warning

If tank has level control it should control input flow.

If pipe after tank does not have flow measurement give warning

If tank is not gravity feed process outlet pipe must be attached to booster pump.

RULE DEVELOPMENT cont

..

 

PUMPS

If liquid is volatile use rotary pump

If liquid is neutral or corrosive use centrifugal pump

Outlet (discharge) pipe should have a check valve followed by a control valve

HEAT EXCHANGERS

If heat exchanger does not have temperature control give warning

If heat exchanger does not have temperature control on entering line

give warning

REACTORS

If reactor does not have temperature control give warning

If reactor does not have temperature control on entering line give

warning

If reactor does not have manual drain valve give warning

If reactor does not level control give warning

warnings

The warnings given are shown in the list below. They correspond to the rules that were incorporated within the tools.

Pipeline should have a check valve

Pipeline has more than one check valve between equipment

Pipeline preceding tank with level control does not have a control valve

a control valve

Pipeline following the tank does not have flow measurement

Pipeline preceding heat exchanger with temperature control does not have

Pipeline preceding reactor with temperature control does not have a control valve

Closed tank is being used for a volatile liquid

Floating Tank is being used for a corrosive liquid

Tank does not have a manual drain valve

Tank does not have level control

Centrifugal pump is being used for a volatile liquid

Heat Exchanger does not have temperature control

Reactor does not have temperature control

Reactor does not have level control

Reactor does not have a manual drain valve

Distillation Column Piping and instrumentation diagram

Thank You