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# Exam 2 CE595 S.

Ramesh

350 ft.
40 ft. 30 ft. 230 ft.
Water
1 mile
full water head (hydrostatic pressure) no gravity.
full water head (hydrostatic pressure) with gravity.
f
c
=3500psi
Finite Element Model (For both Load Cases):
Finite Element Mesh (For both Load Cases):

Explain your choice of finite element for performing the analysis
2D plane strain is assumed (Length of dam>>>width, height of dam). Loading Conditions are
taken to be constant along the length of the dam.

The varying hydrostatic pressure and only in one side of the dam produces non-uniform moment distribution
along the height of the dam.

Stress and as well as strain distribution is not uniform along the height of the dam.

Non-rectangular elements have to be selected if quadrilateral elements are to be selected because of
the geometry of the cross section of the dam.

Hence, Q8 Element (CPE8R)(which has quadratic strain variation within the element) is better than other
2D elements to represent this model. (Strain is constant within the element in CST, Strain is linear within the
element in LST, The linear variation of the strain does not change along the length of the element in Q4 and
Q6 elements).

Reduced integration is used to reduce the effects from the over stiffness.

Total Number of Elements : 1134

ABAQUS/CAE Version 6.6-1 is used for FE analysis.
Load and Boundary Conditions (For Load case 2: Hydrostatic pressure with gravity):
Explain the boundary conditions used in the model.
1) full water head (hydrostatic pressure) no gravity.
2) full water head (hydrostatic pressure) with gravity.
have been analyzed. The calculations of the forces are shown below.

Boundary Condition Selected:

Keys are generally constructed to prevent the movement (in 1- and 2-directions)and rotation
(about 3-direction) of the dam mounted on soil profile. In this model also it is assumed to be
the same and it is assumed that the keys are provided all along the base of the dam to enough
depth to prevent movement and rotation of the dam. (However the actual situation is not
generally like this). Fixed boundary condition is assumed all along the base of the dam.
Calculations associated with:
Homogeneous, isotropic, elastic behavior
of concrete is assumed.
a) Calculations f or Material Properties
Given
f
c
3500psi :=
E
c
57
f
c
psi
ksi := E
c
3.37217 10
3
ksi =
For concrete, the poission ratio is in a range of 0.15~0.20
Assume a poission ratio v 0.17 :=
Assume a unit wieght of concrete
Concret e
150pcf :=
g 32.2
ft
sec
2
:=
MassDensit yOfConcrete

Concret e
g
:=
MassDensit yOfConcrete 2.24652 10
7
kip
sec
2
in

1
in
3
=
All the units entered in the ABAQUS are in kips and inches
Hence, the results are in kips and inches.
Hydrostatic Pressure
Say the unit wieght of water
wat er
62.4pcf :=
h
wat er.dat um
4200in :=
At the datum (base of the dam) the height of the water
Hydrost aticPressure
dat um

wat er
h
wat er.dat um
:=
Hydrost aticPressure
dat um
0.15167ksi =
At dam top (at a height of 4200 in f rom the datum)
Hydrost aticPressure
damt op

wat er
0.0 :=
Hydrost aticPressure
damt op
0ksi =
GravityAcceleration 386.4
in
sec
2
:=
Entered as -386.4 in component 2
2) Present the results from the finite element analysis of each loading condition. For each analysis, present
the contour plots of all the normal, shear, and principal stresses. Indicate the maximum values (locations
and magnitudes) on the plots.
S11
S22
S33
S12
Maximum in-plane principal stresses
Minimum in-plane principal stresses
Out-of-plane principal stresses
S11
S22
S33
S12
Maximum in-plane principal stresses
Minimum in-plane principal stresses
Out-of-plane principal stresses
350 ft.
40 ft. 30 ft. 230 ft.
Water
1 mile
A
B C
3]. Calculation of Applied forces and Comparison with Reactions got from FEM Analysis
Node
Distance from B
(1_direction) (in) RF1 (kip) RF2 (kip)
1 0 -1.01E+06 -1.59E+06 1217 1900 -1.27E+06 -2.51E+06
2 100 -7.98E+05 -7.86E+05 1221 2000 -1.25E+06 -1.34E+06
3 200 -5.40E+05 -4.84E+05 1224 2100 -1.04E+06 -8.41E+05
4 300 -4.88E+05 -3.39E+05 1227 2200 -9.24E+05 -5.55E+05
5 400 -4.35E+05 -2.16E+05 1230 2300 -8.32E+05 -3.34E+05
6 500 -3.96E+05 -1.18E+05 1233 2400 -7.62E+05 -1.48E+05
7 600 -3.65E+05 -3.04E+04 1236 2500 -7.06E+05 1.91E+04
8 700 -3.41E+05 4.96E+04 1239 2600 -6.61E+05 1.74E+05
9 800 -3.20E+05 1.25E+05 1242 2700 -6.24E+05 3.20E+05
10 900 -3.04E+05 1.96E+05 1245 2800 -5.96E+05 4.59E+05
11 1000 -2.92E+05 2.63E+05 1248 2900 -5.73E+05 5.89E+05
12 1100 -2.82E+05 3.26E+05 1251 3000 -5.57E+05 7.09E+05
13 1200 -2.76E+05 3.83E+05 1254 3100 -5.47E+05 8.16E+05
14 1300 -2.72E+05 4.33E+05 1257 3200 -5.41E+05 9.04E+05
15 1400 -2.70E+05 4.71E+05 1260 3300 -5.38E+05 9.66E+05
16 1500 -2.68E+05 4.95E+05 1263 3400 -5.33E+05 9.91E+05
17 1600 -2.65E+05 4.97E+05 1266 3500 -5.18E+05 9.60E+05
18 1700 -2.42E+05 4.65E+05 1269 3600 -4.76E+05 8.22E+05
19 1800 -7.51E+04 1.59E+05 Total -20180601 2306349
Reactions are reported in the Reaction Files also.
Node
Distance
from B
(1_directi
on) (in) RF1 (kip) RF2 (kip)
1 0 -7.08E+05 -7.45E+05 1217 1900 -8.16E+05 4.18E+04
2 100 -5.49E+05 4.45E+05 1221 2000 -8.74E+05 1.12E+06
3 200 -3.90E+05 7.29E+05 1224 2100 -7.79E+05 1.57E+06
4 300 -3.79E+05 8.60E+05 1227 2200 -7.44E+05 1.82E+06
5 400 -3.63E+05 9.55E+05 1230 2300 -7.18E+05 1.97E+06
6 500 -3.54E+05 1.02E+06 1233 2400 -7.04E+05 2.08E+06
7 600 -3.49E+05 1.06E+06 1236 2500 -6.96E+05 2.15E+06
8 700 -3.46E+05 1.09E+06 1239 2600 -6.92E+05 2.20E+06
9 800 -3.46E+05 1.11E+06 1242 2700 -6.93E+05 2.22E+06
10 900 -3.47E+05 1.12E+06 1245 2800 -6.96E+05 2.23E+06
11 1000 -3.50E+05 1.11E+06 1248 2900 -7.03E+05 2.22E+06
12 1100 -3.53E+05 1.10E+06 1251 3000 -7.11E+05 2.19E+06
13 1200 -3.58E+05 1.08E+06 1254 3100 -7.21E+05 2.13E+06
14 1300 -3.63E+05 1.05E+06 1257 3200 -7.29E+05 2.04E+06
15 1400 -3.67E+05 9.97E+05 1260 3300 -7.35E+05 1.92E+06
16 1500 -3.68E+05 9.27E+05 1263 3400 -7.32E+05 1.76E+06
17 1600 -3.63E+05 8.33E+05 1266 3500 -7.08E+05 1.53E+06
18 1700 -3.31E+05 7.03E+05 1269 3600 -6.47E+05 1.19E+06
19 1800 -1.02E+05 2.16E+05 Total -20180602 48044323
Calculation of Applied Forces:
Hydrost aticPressure
dat um
0.15167ksi =
Hydrost aticPressure
damt op
0ksi =
Total Force due to hydrostatic Pressure:
Say the f orward f ace of the dam (the sloped f ace near to the water) make an angle u with
horizontal
L
dam
5280ft :=
Length of the Dam
BC 40ft := AC 350ft :=
AB BC
2
AC
2
+ := AB 352.2783ft =
Sinu
AC
AB
:=
Tanu
AC
BC
:= Cosu
BC
AB
:=
F
Hydrost aticPressure
1
2
Hydrost aticPressure
dat um
Hydrost aticPressure
damt op
+
( )
AB L
dam
:=
F
Hydrost aticPressure
2.03115 10
7
kip =
acting in an angle u with vertical
Total Force due to Gravity:

Concret e
150pcf :=
CrossSect ionalAreaofDam
1
2
30ft 300ft + ( ) 350 ft :=
CrossSect ionalAreaofDam 5.775 10
4
ft
2
=
L
dam
5280ft :=
Length of the Dam
F
Gravity

Concret e
CrossSect ionalAreaofDam L
dam
:=
F
Gravity
4.5738 10
7
kip =
acting downward
Comparison of Applied Forces with the Reactions got from the FEM Analysis for Loading
Case1
Total Horizontal Froce
F
H1
F
Hydrost aticPressure
Sinu :=
F
H1
2.01802 10
7
kip =
From the FEM Analysis
RF
1
2.01806 10
7
kip :=
The Total Reaction in the 1-direction
For equlibrium the Applied Forces (FH1)+The Reactions(RF1)=0 O.K
Total Vertical Froce
F
H2
F
Hydrost aticPressure
Cosu :=
F
H2
2.3063 10
6
kip =
From the FEM Analysis
RF
2
2.30635 10
6
kip :=
The Total Reaction in the 2-direction
For equlibrium the Applied Forces + The Reactions=0
Forces and reactions are almost equal in magnitude and opposite in direction O.K
Comparison of Applied Forces with the Reactions got from the FEM Analysis for Loading
Case 2
Total Horizontal Froce
F
H1
F
Hydrost aticPressure
Sinu :=
F
H1
2.01802 10
7
kip =
From the FEM Analysis
RF
1
2.01806 10
7
kip :=
The Total Reaction in the 1-direction
For equlibrium the Applied Forces (FH1)+The Reactions(RF1)=0 O.K
Total Vertical Froce
F
H2
F
Hydrost aticPressure
Cosu F
Gravity
:=
F
H2
4.80443 10
7
kip =
From the FEM Analysis
RF
2
4.80443 10
7
kip :=
The Total Reaction in the 2-direction
For equlibrium the Applied Forces + The Reactions=0
Forces and reactions are almost equal in magnitude and opposite in direction O.K
Are there any other simple calculations you can suggest or perform to check
the analysis results?
For a point in a horizontal section along the length of the dam (can be base of the dam), stress due to gravity
of the part above that section (P/A + Pey/I) and the stress due to moment coming from the hydrostatic
pressure (My/I) can be calculated and checked with S22 obtained from the FE Analysis.

One of the principal stresses would be zero at the free boundary.

One of the principal stresses would be equal to (-) Hydrostatic pressure at the boundary adjacent to the Water.
Hydrostatic pressure can be calculated along the face of the dam and checked with the principal stresses.

Can pick one element and check for equilibrium. This is normally approximately satisfied.

Displacements at fixed points are zero. For example at Node 1: U1=725.362E-33 in, U2=1.61748E-30 in
Checking the Finite Element model for convergence
Load Case 1: Mesh is refined with 4752 Elements (almost 4 times)instead of 1134 elements
(which were earlier) and the displacements are compared.

Mesh with 1134 Elements Mesh with 4752 elements
Max U1= 0.3579 in Max U1= 0.3579 in
Max U2= 0.08462 in Max U2= 0.08464 in
Max U magnitude = 0.3662 in Max U magnitude = 0.3662 in
Load Case 2: Mesh is refined with 4752 Elements (almost 4 times)instead of 1134 elements
(which were earlier) and the displacements are compared.

Mesh with 1134 Elements Mesh with 4752 elements
Max U1= 0.1984 in Max U1= 0.1985 in
Max U2= -0.1224 in Max U2= -0.1224 in
Max U magnitude = 0.2301 in Max U magnitude = 0.2301 in
The displacement pattern and the values are seemed to be very similar. This implies the convergence of the model.
Stresses and reactions are calculated from the displacements by FEM. They are generally approximately similar.

4) From your analysis results, identify the maximum compressive and tensile stresses
in the concrete dam. Determine whether the structure will crack (in tension) or crush
Let us use Rankine Theory for concrete (Brittle Material).

Compressive strength of the concrete = 3.5 ksi

Modulus of Rupture of the concrete =7.5*(3500)^0.5*1/1000 ksi =0.44 ksi

From the FE Analysis the maximum maximum principal stress =0.713 ksi (Tension) >0.44 ksi cracking
(0.889 ksi (Tension) from refined mesh>0.44 ksi)

max. (in magnitute ) minimum principal stress =0.1925 ksi (compression) <3.5 ksi No Crushing
(0.1944 ksi (Com.) from refined mesh <3.5 ksi)

From the FE Analysis the maximum maximum principal stress =0.3457 ksi (Tension) <0.44 ksi No cracking
(0.4737 ksi (Tension) from refined mesh>0.44 ksi
cracking )

max. (in magnitute ) minimum principal stress =0.2927 ksi (compression) <3.5 ksi No Crushing
(0.2927 ksi (Com.) from refined mesh <3.5 ksi)

[Note: Tensile strength of the concrete = 6(fc)^0.5. ACI 318-2005 suggest to consider the modulus of rupture to check for cracking.
US Army Corps of Engineers Manual also recommends to consider modulus of rupture for checking for cracking.]

5) From the analysis results, discuss which of two loading conditions (i) or
(ii) dominates the problem.
For mesh with 1134 elements (coarse mesh)
Condition
p1
(max)
(ksi)

p3
(max in
mag.)
(ksi)

U1
(max)
(in)

U2
(max)
(in)

U(mag)
(max)
(in)

1 0.713

0.1925

0.3579 0.08462 0.3662

2 0.3457

0.2927

0.1984 -
0.01224
0.231

condition 1 dominates the Problem.

Due to the gravity, compressive stress increases and tensile stress decreases. Concrete can take up to 3.5 ksi
of compressive stress (with out no load factors and reduction factors). Hence the loading case 2 is more safe
US Army Corps of Engineers Manual for gravity dam design list the following loading
cases to be considered.

(1) Uplift.
(2) Forces due to temperature effects.
(3) Earth and silt pressures.
(4) Ice pressure.
(5) Earthquake forces.
(6) Wind pressure
(7) Wave pressure. (hydro dynamic forces).
(8) Reaction of foundation.
Citation: US Army Corps of Engineers Manual for gravity dam design (1995)
http://www.usace.army.mil/publications/eng-manuals/em1110-2-2200/toc.htm

6) Identify some of the other loading conditions or design criteria that must be checked for the
concrete dam structure. Provide a reference (citation only) that you used to determine these.
Will the finite element model you developed be useful for these additional cases?
If there is life load during construction or after construction, vehicle loads if there
will be a road along the top of the dam they also should be considered.

The Finite element model developed here will be useful for these additional cases. Dynamic analysis For
earthquake and hydrodynamic forces, and thermal analysis for forces due to temperature effects should be done.