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Global Organizational Behavior

MHR 3200 Dr. Larry Inks Department of Management and Human Resources Fisher College of Business The Ohio State University

Societal Culture and Organizational Behavior Ethnocentrism and Models of Cultural Diversity - Hofstede - GLOBE Other Cultural Differences

Human Capital Management Issues

Global Leadership Interacting with People from Other Cultures Thoughts on Global Careers, Travel, etc.

Culture Influences Organizational Behavior

Organizational Culture

Economic/ technological setting Political/ legal setting Ethnic background Religion

Societal culture Customs Language

Personal values/ethics Attitudes Assumptions Expectations

Organizational Behavior

Ethnocentrism and Global Diversity

Ethnocentrism Belief that ones native country, culture, language and behavior are superior to that of others. Very natural; similar to me effect Often due to lack of knowledge or experience Negatively impacts individual and organizational success Greater awareness, training, exposure helps immensely (e.g., personal and/or professional travel)

Recognizing differences vs. assumed superiority in culture

Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions

Cultures (and people) can be characterized using four basic dimensions related to cultural beliefs: - Power Distance: comfort w/ distance in power - IndividualismCollectivism - MasculinityFemininity (aka AssertivenessNurturing) - Uncertainty Avoidance - Short-term vs. Long-term Orientation

One Example of An Assessment Technique

For each of the Hofstede dimensions below, write the name of the country/culture on the appropriate point on the scale:
Low High Coll. Fem. High Long-term

Power Distance
IndividualismCollectivism MasculinityFemininity Uncertainty Avoidance
Short-term Ind. Masc. Low

Time Orientation

The 9 GLOBE Cultural Dimensions

Power Distance: Extent to which power is distributed equally or not Uncertainty Avoidance: Extent of comfort with uncertainty/ambiguity Institutional Collectivism: Extent of reward for individual vs. group focus In-Group Collectivism: Extent of individuals pride/loyalty for the larger group Gender Egalitarianism: Extent of gender discrimination/role inequality Assertiveness: Extent of confrontation/attempt to control in relationships Future Orientation: Extent of focus on the future vs. the present Performance Orientation: Extent to which performance is rewarded Humane Orientation: Extent to which kindness, generosity, etc. rewarded

Country Rankings on GLOBE Dimensions

Power Distance

Morocco, Argentina, Thailand, Spain, Russia

Denmark, Netherlands, Israel, Costa Rica

Uncertainty Avoidance

Switzerland, Sweden, Germanformer West, Denmark, Australia

Russia, Hungary, Bolivia, Greece, Venezuela

Societal Collectivism

Sweden, Korea, Japan, Singapore, Denmark

Greece, Hungary, Germanyformer East, Argentina, Italy

Country Rankings on GLOBE Dimensions

Dimensions In-Group Collectivism Highest Iran, India, Morocco, China, Egypt Lowest Denmark, Sweden, New Zealand, Netherlands, Finland

Gender Egalitarianism

Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Denmark, Sweden Germanyformer East, Austria, Greece, US, Spain

South Korea, Egypt, Morocco, India, China


Sweden, New Zealand, Switzerland, Japan, Kuwait

Country Rankings on GLOBE Dimensions

Dimensions Future Orientation Highest Singapore, Switzerland, Netherlands, Canada English speaking, Denmark Lowest Russia, Argentina, Poland, Italy, Kuwait

Performance Orientation

Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Taiwan, US

Russia, Argentina, Greece, Venezuela, Italy Germanyformer West, Spain, France, Singapore, Brazil

Humane Orientation

Philippines, Ireland, Malaysia, Egypt, Indonesia


Other Notable Cultural Differences

Communication: High Context vs. Low Context Time Orientation (Polychronic vs. Monochronic)

Social Customs, Norms, Taboos, etc.

Use of Space (personal space, work space, etc.) Religion


High-Context vs. Low-Context Cultures

High-Context Cultures Situational and non-verbal cues carry tremendous meaning - China - Japan - Korea - Mexico - Saudi Arabia Low-Context Cultures Meaning based primarily on verbal and written communication - United States - Canada - Many European Countries (including Germany, France) - Netherlands, Norway, Sweden


Global Human Capital Management Issues

Balancing cultural issues

Selection and staffing issues

Developing cross-cultural awareness and skills Performance management

Compensation and total rewards

Team dynamics and technology etc.

The use of expatriates offers both benefits and challenges


Reasons Why U.S. Expatriates Fail

Individuals spouse/significant other cannot adapt to the new situation

The individual cannot adapt to the new surroundings

Family problems (children, relatives, etc.) Emotional immaturity (inability to deal with others, etc.) Inability to handle the new role and responsibilities Lack of necessary technical skills/knowledge Lack of motivation/willingness to learn new things

Selection, preparation, training are critical to success here


Global Leadership Attributes

Leader Attributes universally Liked Leader Attributes Universally Disliked Like/Dislike Contingent on Country Culture

Trustworthy Dynamic Motivational Decisive Intelligent Dependable Plans Ahead Excellence Oriented Team Builder Encouraging

Uncooperative Irritable Egocentric Ruthless Dictatorial Loner/Self-Centered

Subdued Intragroup Conflict Avoider Cunning Sensitive Provocateur Self-Effacing


Interacting with People from Other Cultures

Know and understand your own culture and values - Know your own level of ethnocentrism and deal with it

Learn about the other culture(s) - Look for strengths in the other culture(s) rather than focusing on weaknesses or differences
Respect the other culture(s) and keep in mind the strength of bringing together diverse viewpoints and perspectives Use management techniques/behaviors that are appropriate and respect the differences in culture(s) and people
Diversity is an enormous benefit when its handled correctly


Interested in A Global Assignment or Career?

Become fluent in one or more foreign languages, and travel.
Let your interests in a global assignment be known, but Recognize that it might take time to be given a global assignment (if ever)it is a significant cost/commitment. Learn about international opportunities in your company (many companies moving away from use of ex-patriates). Clearly demonstrate critical skills for a global assignment (adaptability, interpersonal skills, results orientation, etc.). Build a network of supporters/sponsors within the company.

Your family (if applicable) need to be fully supportive of this


Suggestions For International Travel

Learn about your destination(s), the culture, etc. before you travel - Learn the Dos and Donts, any taboos, etc. If not fluent in the language, try to learn/use at least a little bit of it Prepare yourself for big differences in little/basic things

Use all your senses

Appreciate the differences (history, customs, architecture, etc.) Treat others with respect

Get out and immerse yourself in the environment/culture but

Be smart and be safe


What Questions Do You Have?