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Liquids
Water pressure, buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle, Floatation, and Pascal’s Principle

Fluids
 Molecules are not confined to fixed

positions as they are in a solid, so they have the ability to flow  !wo "inds#
 

Liquids# \$hapter %& 'ases# \$hapter %(

P )(*

Gen. 1:1-10 vs 9 “Then God said “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear” and it was so.” vs 10 “!nd God called the dry land earth, and the gathering o" the waters #e called seas and God saw that it was good.” Gen. 1:\$% &sa. 11':1(

m) F force.area# P = A N/m2 + % Pascal +% Pa  % Pascal is a very small pressure .Pressure  Pressure +  % -.

&ress.They have the sa/e weight0 .re on the table top. %& % )hich bric* e+erts the greater press.re vs. 1orce Fi.

t 10.  )eight 2ensity: weight o" the /ass in a given vol.  3ass4vol.    )eight4vol./e.ht /ensity  2ensity: a/o./e 5nits: 74/6 1-/6 o" water has a weight ./g0 o" abo./ensity and Wei./e.nt o" /ass in a given vol./e m D = 6  5nits: *g4/ V  1-/6 o" water has a /ass o" 1000-*g.000-7 W d= V .

re total press.id press.re.des air press.re incl./ o" the li9.  Li9.ids . . so it is the s.Liquid Pressure  8ince li9.re.re : weight density + depth P = d wh  7ote: "or now we will ignore the e""ect o" air press. the density does not change appreciably with depth o" li9.id.water0 are al/ost inco/pressible.id press.re and the at/ospheric press.

re be on hi/4her at that depth- P = d wh ." a diver swi/s to a depth o" 10 /.Liquid Pressure  Li9.re : weight density + depth  .id press. what will the press.

000 74/6 + 10 / P = d wh  : 100.000 - .Liquid Pressure  & : 10.

000 74/\$ )hat i" we decide not to ignore the e""ect o" air press.#ow does this change o.Liquid Pressure  & : 10.000 74/6  + 10 / P = d wh : 100.re.r answer-  .

re : 1 at/osphere 1 at/osphere : 100.Liquid Pressure  & : 10.000 74/6  + 10 / P = d wh : 100.000 74/\$    .re on the diver : 100.000 74/\$ Total press.000 < 100.000 74/\$ !ir press.

les to the surface on which pressure is exerted .Liquid Pressure Facts  Depth is what matters 0not volume1 0text p )&23)&%1  4xamples# /ams5 pressure in the ocean vs pressure in a swimmin.ht an. pool or lar.e shallow la"e vs small deep pool  Pressure is equal in all directions  Pressure is always at ri.

7 of 43 : 13-04Figure_FIG. %& ( 100 Kb 800 X 323 Pixels © 2006 Pearson Education.. publishin as !ddison "esle# . Inc.jpg Fi.

p = hd .

re in the tan* increases with depth- .re o" the railroad water tan* de/onstrates that the water press.)hat "eat.

/e dependent. . not vol.re is depth dependent.re is the sa/e "or any given depth.id press. %& 7 6>egardless o" container shape. li9.0 6)ater see*s its own level.Fi.&ress. .

r"ace.r"ace add .re is e+erted e9. %& 8 .id press.ally in all directions. Fi. F=p A • 1orces o" a li9.lar to the s.Li9.id pressing against a s.p to a net "orce that is perpendic.

%& 9 .1:p+ ! Fi.

with depth  .ed ob<ect displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume  -ote# Not equal to its own wei.ure %& *  -ote# a completely submer.:uoyancy  \$onsequence of the pressure increasin.ee fi.ht= 0Why>1 .

pward b.re and th.s the "orce on the botto/ o" s. %& * 6&ress.oyant "orce. 6>es. .17 of 43 : 13-09Figure_FIG.lt is an .jpg Fi.b/erged stone is greater than on top.

Fi. %& %2 .

1ig./e o" water e9.11 .ncrease in water level is the sa/e as i" yo.red in a vol.al to the stone?s vol. po./e. . 16.

 Note: Not equal to the object’s weight (Why?  .!rchi/edes? &rinciple  An immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.//ersed: co/pletely or partially s. .b/erged.

Fi.s the b. .oyant "orce. %& %& !pparent weight o" an ob@ect in a li9.id is the weight o" the ob@ect in air /in.

1ig. 16.pward "orce acting on the s.1A .b/erged bloc* is the sa/e at any depth.The di""erence in the .

\$hec" ?uestion#  !wo solid bloc"s of identical si@e are submer.reater>  Ans# :uoyant force is the same on each. since the volumes are the same .ed in water one is lead and the other is aluminum Apon which is the buoyant force .

ht of the liquid displaced. only volume .hape of ob<ect does not matter.Bey to buoyancy#  Loo" at the wei.ht> . not the wei.ht of the ob<ect   Cow does the buoyant force compare to the ob<ects wei.

to the scale reading b.ilibri. it is in e9./ its weight is balanced by the b. %& %9 is equal to the weight of the .1loating Bb@ects )hen an ob@ect is "loating.t the weight o" the water displaced is re/oved "ro/ the scale reading.oyant "orce. this will occur if the density of the object is less than the The weight o" the wood is added density of the liquid. For a solid object. The scale reading doesn?t change The weight of the liquid displaced Fi.

r"ace.nder the water s. this will occur if the density of the object is less than the density of the liquid. For a solid object./e o" water in the c./e o" the wood below the water s. The vol.oyant "orce./e o" wood .1loating Bb@ects   )hen an ob@ect is "loating.p is e9.al to the vol. it is in equilibrium its weight is balanced by the b.r"ace displaces the water in the c.p. The volume of liquid displaced is less than the volume of the . The vol.

r"ace and the less the vol. the greater the vol. 8ince (0C o" the wood is below the water the density o" this wood is (0C o" water?s density. it is in e9./ its weight is balanced by the b.id density. %& %9 density of water is 1000 kg m!" ./e below the s.oyant "orce. this will occur if the density of the object is less than the density of the liquid. The greater the li9./e above the s.r"ace. Fi.1loating Bb@ects   )hen an ob@ect is "loating.ilibri. For a solid object.

oyant "orce b. the b. it is also in equilibrium. b. Fi. The e+tra vol./e provided by the air increases the b.ct./e o" water to be displaced. %& %D . !s with solid ob@ects.nt o" weight.al to the weight o" the ship.re o" the ship is high density.ch as a ship is floating.t adds a neglible a/o.oyant "orce on the ship is e9. The str.t since it is not solid the air between the sides allows a large vol.1loating Bb@ects )hen an ob@ect s.

 922 lb of fresh water is displaced by the boat  !he buoyant force is lar.er in salt water than in fresh  the boat displaces a lar. The increase in density and the decrease in volume work together to maintain the same buoyant force.nder water.ht of the displaced salt water is .her in salt water  the boat displaces %)22 lb of salt water  the wei.er volume of salt water than fresh  the buoyant force in fresh water is %)22 lb  the boat rides hi. .reater than the fresh The density of the salt water is greater. \$alt water is more dense than fresh water./e . 3ar* each o" the correct state/ents.t then goes into salt water. The boat is in equilibrium regardless of what it floats in. .1loating Bb@ects ! 1\$00 lb boat is "loating in "resh water with \$46 rd o" its vol. so the boat displaces a smaller volume of salt water than fresh.

/e o" water displaced . 1ig. b.oyant "orce eno. The e+tra vol./ the ob@ect sin*s so/e. . 16.1loating Bb@ects )hen )eight is added to a "loating ob@ect /ore water /./e to the swi//er.t it is b.ilibri.1D ! li"e preserver is light weight.gh to *eep the swi//er a"loat. not adding /.ch weight to a swi//er.st be displaced to *eep the ob@ect in e9.l*y adding vol.ncreases the b.

ravel approaches a low brid.e loaded with . \$hec" Eourself.hould .e that it cannot quite pass under .ravel be removed from or added to the barge? .  p )&9 A river bar.

e Gn pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid .FFFPascal’s Principle  A chan.

\$1 The press.id and is the sa/e on piston E.re e+erted on piston ! is trans/itted . A : .ndi/inished thro.&ascal?s &rinciple "ig. 16.t the "l.gho.

the "orce on ! is /.&ascal?s &rinciple Fi.te+t p \$6%0 .ltiplied '0 ti/es on piston E. 8ince 1 : &∙A. .re applied to piston ! is trans/itted .ndi/inished to piston E. %& )) A : The press.

lics .#ydra.&ascal?s &rinciple Fi. %& )& &ractical !pplication .