Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

NEIGHBOURHOOD OUR PLAN PLANNING

PRAJJWAL JOSHI RIZWAN BAIG

NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT
It is a ubiquitous phenomenon in every urban and nonurban area. Geographically localized community within a larger city, town or suburban area.

An integrated, and planned urban area related to the larger community of which it is a part , and consisting of residential districts, a school or schools, shopping facilities, religious buildings, open spaces, and perhaps a degree of service industry.
Arnold Whittick (1974)

NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT
FACT OF NATURE, which comes into existence whenever a group of people share a place Since the early ages of humanity, for practical, economical, sociological and psychological reasons, people have tended to live close together in sections of an area and form communities. Have some particular physical or social characteristics that distinguish from other.

Clustering of these neighborhoods has formed towns, villages, and cities. Lewis Mumford

NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT
Population 7000 10000. Primary school. Recreational spaces Retail shopping facility.

Community facilities at 10 to 15 minutes.


Tree-shaded, pedestrian & bicycle-friendly streets.

Safe from major traffic areas.


Local employment opportunities.

EVOLUTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT

CLARENCE A. PERRY
UNIT OF URBAN PLANNING Population as a criteria to decide the size of neighbourhood unit. FACILITIES Primary school, shopping centre, spaces for outdoor recreation, community centre, sports centre. POPULATION optimal to support its elementary school (5000-6000).

CLARENCE A. PERRY
STREET SYSTEM Major traffic routes should not pass through residential neighbourhood. Minor streets to connect the dwelling unit. Interior street pattern: cul-de-sacs, curved layout and light duty surfacing . An independent system of footway linking together school sites, play areas and shopping centers.

CLARENCE A. PERRY
SECTOR Combination of two or more neighbourhood units. Facilities like secondary school, entertainment centers, big markets, major parks and large site recreation spaces. Population 12000 15000. SIZE AND DENSITY Maximum walking distance mile. Density should be 10 families per acre.

Clarence A. Perrys Neighborhood Unit of 1929

N.L. Engelhardt
Elementary school -center of the unit and within a 1/2 mile radius.

Small shopping center located near the school.

Cul-de-sac or "dead-end roads to eliminate through traffic.

CLARENCE STEIN

Grouping of 3 neighborhood units served by a high school and 1 or 2 major Commercial centers -radius for walking distance to these facilities being 1 mile. Clarence Steins 1942 Diagram of Neighborhoods

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN
It is a written document that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of a defined area. It also provides practical actions that will result in an improved neighbourhood.

It outlines a vision for a neighbourhood with greater detail on land use and land use policies circulation or network parks and open space infrastructure and servicing

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN
In turn, this informs what happens in the planning area with respect to zoning and rezoning development permit areas & guidelines subdivision and development

provides a VISION for your ----- sets out clear GOALS ----gives you an ACTION PLAN

WHO SHOULD INVOLVE?


The parish council or town council for the area need to initiate the process along with community

The involvement of a broad range of local stakeholders will strengthen community and make it implementation easier.
List of stakeholders that the parish/town council should seek to involve in the process Residents Community organization Elected representatives Businesses Landowners Developers

BENEFITS FROM A NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN


Everyone who lives, works and plays in the neighbourhood

Benefits the larger community and the city as a whole.


Will help government departments and other organizations better understand the priorities of our neighbourhood so that they can serve you better.

BENEFITS OF A NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING PROCESS It brings residents, businesses, and community organizations together to share ideas and work together on issues that are important to everyone

It improves communication and focuses ideas;


It helps a neighbourhood identify its strengths and evaluate its own resources;

BENEFITS OF A NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING PROCESS It helps to build consensus about what needs to be accomplished; It encourages creativity and builds partnerships both within and outside the neighbourhood; and, It enables others to become more informed and responsive, and can direct the policy and financial decisions of local government.

STEPS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING PROCESS


Establish a Neighbourhood Planning Team of residents, 1 landlords, business owners, community organizations, local agencies and other neighbourhood stakeholders Develop your neighbourhood Vision by gathering information about the area (i.e. the community profile) 2 describe the neighbourhoods strengths and weaknesses describe its opportunities and assets Based on your neighbourhood assessment and your community consultation , draft a Vision Statement

STEPS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING PROCESS


4 Confirm the vision with your community

Develop the Action Plan Goals Objectives 5 Action statements Measurable indicators Project descriptions and budgets
Distribute the plan and seek community approval through 6 open houses, workshops, meetings, questionnaires, etc. formal plan approval by Citys Community Committee

STEPS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING PROCESS


Implement the plan Develop projects 7 Develop budgets Solicit funding Oversee implementation Evaluate the plan using the measurable indicators identified What did we do well? 8 What have we learned? Where do we go from here? Review the plan and adjust, if necessary

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Should be a distinctive physical area from other clear physical or conceptual boundaries. Topographical feature of land such as streams woodland, hill etc will serve to give its own physical identity with its own character, distinct form other units.

The population size to support service functions, shopping and primary school to be 5000 and 10000 for secondary school and other community facilities.

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighbourhood unit shall have 1000 to 2000 dwelling units, within clearly defined limits of major roads, railways, watercourse etc. Vehicular traffic is minimised so that no child is endangered in its walk to the school. Housing to be provided for the wide variety income groups, each forming a cluster of 50 to 100 dwelling units to maintain face to face relationship, with immediate common space of children play area and other social activities and local shops.

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


These clusters to be planned to have their own identity which could be achieved with different arrangement of grouping, building heights, colours, materials etc.

The neighbourhood units focal point is the center with main shopping, branch library, local offices, club and community buildings and local bus-stop and each of these to be within 10 min. walking distance. The location of the primary schools to be within 5 min. walking distance from the residences.

Source: Institute of Town Planners, India

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Land requirements for each 10000 population based on U.D.P.F.I guidelines
LANDUSE Residential Commercial Public and semi-public Recreational Transport and communication Ha 20 1 4.5 6 5

excluding any natural features 36.5 Ha Average density 275 person/Ha

Source: Institute of Town Planners, India


EDUCATION Nursery School -1 for 2500 persons For 4NOs X 0.08 Ha =.32 Ha Primary School -1 for 4000 persons For 2.5NOs X 0.04 Ha =1 Ha Secondary School -1 for persons For 1.33NOs X 1.6 Ha =2.21Ha SOCIO CULTURAL FACILITIES COMMUNITY ROOM 2X.66 Ha=.132 Ha COMMUNITY HALL + LIBRARY =.20 HA 7500 HEALTH CARE FACILITIES DISPENSARIES 1N = .48Ha

COMMERCIAL CENTER FOR FORMAL, INFORMAL GENERAL RETAIL SERVICE AND REPAIR CLUSTER CENTERS 2.5x880 SQ. M=.22 Ha SECTOR CENTER .5x 6000 SQ. M=.3 Ha OTHERS ETC. =.45 Ha RECREATIONAL FACILITES @ 6 SQ. M /PERSON = 6 Ha RESIDENTIAL AREA AT NET DENSITY OF 500 PER/Ha= 20Ha

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA Ha

Housing

1,400 dwelling units at a theoretical 30 units/hectare grouped in cells of 10 units. Densities will vary from 10 U.P.H. to 60 U.P.H.
3 Primary school sites per neighbourhood, each 1.6 ha, with nursery 4.8 facilities 2 Primary schools represent 4 streams of pupils 1 Primary school would accommodate a single stream, but would be combined with a Community Education Centre (CEC); the assembly hall and basic CEC facilities would be built immediately.

46.0

Primary schools, school facilities

4.8

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA Ha

Sports (included in school allocations above)

Sports facilities include: 1 - Football/soccer field (grass) 50 x 70 m; northsouth orientation 1 Multi-purpose paved area, containing 2 basketball courts at 20x30m 1 Field sports area, containing broad jump pit 5 x 20 m; high jump pit 5 x 20 m; pole vault pit 5 x 20 m 1 Track included around the periphery of football/soccer field.

46.0

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA Ha

Playground (included in school allocations above)

Play space approximately 10 x 30 m unpaved. Contains creative building area and facilities, which allow for swimming, jumping, sliding and climbing activities. Shade/sun variations desirable. Water supply and sand pit essential.
Fruit/vegetable area Flower area Site should be approximately 30 x 30 m with good sun orientation. Requires equipment storage shed, water supply and perhaps security.

46.0

Garden (Shamba) (Included in school allocations above)

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA Ha

Passive study/sitting areas (included in school allocation Above)


Nursery school (included in school allocation above) Clinic Library TANU Branch Office

Small scale spaces interspersed throughout the school site. Flowering plants with shade trees desirable along with good ventilation, benches and quiet sites.
Associated with, or part of primary school. Preferably one per school. Community facilities included in primary school. Located in conjunction with primary school. Located in primary school. Included near the CEC.

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE Dukas, including one sub post office in a duka Small workshop, handicrafts and service area SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA 15-20 dukas on sites throughout the neighbourhood and adjacent to the CEC. Total floor area 1000 to 1500 m2 Related to the CEC. Approximately 0.4 hectares, including 1,200 m3 of storage floor area. Ha 0.5

0.4

Churches, Mosques

One per neighbourhood at 0.4 ha each. Proper landscape development and parking to be accommodated on site.
Safe, convenient routes, interconnecting the entire neighbourhood Standards variable, depending on site conditions.

0.4

Bicycle/walkways in linear open space

2.0

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE Passive park areas SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA Park-like, landscaped areas of 2.5 ha per neighbourhood for informal leisure time pursuits. included in primary school allocation. Ha 2.5

Playing fields

0.4

Sports clubs: tennis swimming, etc. lawn active parks reserv

Convenient sites related to the primary schools. 2 ha reserve is recommended.

2.0

Project Planning Associates Limited, Toronto, Canada

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NEGHBOURHOOD UNIT


Neighborhood Unit of 7,000 Population
LANDUSE
Local and collector roads % Right of way for adjacent major collector roads and bus way shambas

SPACE REQUIREMENTS/DESIGN CRITERIA


Allow

Ha
6.4

Allow

In addition to those at the school sites, shambas will be located outside the neighbourhood, but no allocation is made for these here. Total Land Area in Neighbourhood

2.0

70

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING CASE : CHANDIGARH


The master plan for the new town was prepared by Architect Le Corbusier assisted by Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew of England. The master plan aimed to accommodate about 1,50,000 persons with future expansion up to about 5,00,000 persons.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Capital Complex City Center University Industrial Area

5. 6. 7.

Grain and Tiber Market Lake Town

CHANDIGARH -MASTER PLAN

PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

CASE : CHANDIGARH

Chandigarh is planned on the principle superblock and are termed SECTORS. Each sector measures about 1.21km in Length and 0.81 km in width.

The rectangular Sectors are framed with the layout of Grid of the main roads.
Each sector accommodates population ranging from 15,000 to 25,000 depending upon the exact area of the block and the density of development adopted.

PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

CASE : CHANDIGARH

There are usually three to four neighbourhood units in each block. Le corbusier conceptualized the idea of the design of Chandigarh from the human body. The government building forms the head; the business area or commercial centre is the heart; the university area and the museum are the brain; the industrial areas are the hands, the leisure valley and parks are the lungs, the roads are the arteries.

URBAN ORGNAISATION

CASE : CHANDIGARH

He gave the differentiation between means of locomotion and the hierarchy within the road grid. His previous theories led him to distinguish four functions of planning i.e. living, working, care of the body and spirit and circulation. The location of capital consists of four main government buildings, situated at the northern end of the town; the buildings are the Assembly hall, the Secretariat, the High court and the Governor's palace.

URBAN ORGNAISATION

CASE : CHANDIGARH

The Southern sector is reserved for the industrial development and is segregated by a wide green belt from the residential zone. The central sector contains the city's civic and commercial buildings which serves to all the residential sectors. The cultural centre with the university in a park is situated in the north-west side.

Thus the city plan contains clear and well defined "URBAN ORGANISATION CENTRES".

INTERACTIVE MAP OF CHANDIGARH

NEIGHBOURHOOD AS AN URBAN SPACE

CASE : CHANDIGARH

Each sector is bisected on its long axis by a strip of continuous open space or green strip for recreation and on its shorter axis, by a street called the bazaar street containing local shops, market, and recreation buildings. The cycle tracks and footpaths are accommodated in green strip and thus they are segregated from the main thoroughfares. Schools, health centers etc. are located in the interior of each sector so that children and others need not cross the main roads for their normal daily requirements.

NEIGHBOURHOOD AS AN URBAN SPACE


The sector contains the schools, shops, clinics, clubs, social centers, places of worship etc. and is virtually a self contained unit, as an urban space, for city planning. The larger public buildings are well distributed in the town in suitable locations and some of them are placed in the town centre.

CASE : CHANDIGARH

Urban Spaces in Sector

COMPARING WITH GUIDELINES


Landuse % Area ( CHANDIGARH) 64.82 5.04 8.92 1.12 9.96 9.65 % Area ( U.D.P.F.I) 57.5 12.32 16.43 13.69 -

Residential Commercial industrial Public and semi-public Recreational Transport Agricultural and water body Special area

THANK YOU