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Module 5

Prepared by: Aaron Jasper Mina-Germino

Lesson 1: Leadership
to go before or with to show the way and to influence or induce --- Webster a social relationship in which one party has greater ability to direct and motivate the behaviour of another than to be influenced by him --- Gillies

Leadership Activities
A) Directing or pointing the way; B) Supervising or overseeing the action; C) Coordinating, or synthesizing the efforts of several individuals.

Leadership Styles:
Democratic Participative Laissez faire

Factors that determine the best leadership in a given situation include:

a) difficulty or complexity of assigned tasks

b) amount of time for task completion

c) size of the work group d) communication patterns, within the group e) educational and experiential background of the employees f) workers needs for information and achievement g) leaders personality and training.

first of the major activities of the leadermanager To direct activities of the employees, the leader manager may use assignments, orders, specifications, procedures, rules, regulations, standards, opinions, suggestions, or questions.

Supervision (Overseeing)
second major leadership activity of the manager Supervising consists of inspecting the work of another, evaluating the adequacy of performance, and either approving or correcting it

The following elements of performance should be appraised:

Quantity of production Quality of production Utilization of time

Utilization of resources

third type of leadership activity Coordination consists of activities by the supervisor that integrate subordinates work activities and efforts and allows them to work harmoniously coordination is becoming more and more important in ensuring effective patient care ---Gillies

Methods used by the manager to coordinate activities vary according to

a) difficulty and urgency of the tasks b) communication style of the manager

c) the size and sophistication of the work force

The usual methods for transmitting information within the work group are:
face-to-face conversations Memoranda Posters and

position papers

Lesson 2: Power in the Workplace

the ability and willingness on the part of the manager to influence the behaviour of others to produce certain intended effects

it is dynamic, and therefore, it can decrease or increase depending on circumstances

Five levels of power potentials

The Power to Be. The maintenance of a purely vegetative existence requires minimum force and ability. The Power of Self-affirmation. The drive to define oneself and establish ones significance within the world represents a degree of force greater than that required simply to exist. The Power of Self-assertion. Compelling the world to reckon with ones individuality and ones right requires greater force than that involved in self-affirmation.

Five levels of power potentials

The Power of Aggression. Moving into anothers territory and taking possession of it requires force beyond that needed to define ones identity and rights. The Power of Violence. The application of harmful force against ones own or anothers person or property constitutes a disturbance in definition of self, other or property.

Power Principles
anyone who fails to increase his power automatically decreases it use any means of control that can effectively manipulate circumstances in her favour total commitment to ones goals Restraint is needed to ensure the most effective use of power

Power Acquisition Skills

Peer Skills Leadership Skills Information Processing Skills

Conflict Resolution Skills

Skill in unstructured decision making Entrepreneurial skills

Lesson 3: Problem Solving in Nursing

The ability to solve problems is an important management tool

Problem-Solving Methods
trial and error scientific experimentation multistage situation critique

and metaphor-based creative approaches

Principles of Problem-Solving
Separate big from little problems, use policy to resolve smaller problems, and conserve expensive managerial time for handling major problems confronting the work force. Delegate smaller problems to subordinates

The manager should consult as necessary with experts inside and outside the institution

Principles of Problem-Solving
Be relaxed and calmed Perfection is impossible

Steps in Problem Solving

Problem definition Data collection Generation of possible solutions

Selection of one solution from several alternatives

Implementation of the preferred solution

And evaluation of the solution used

Ways to determine the root cause of problem are by:

Identifying the differences in the work situation when the desired goal is achieved and when it is not. Searching for evidence to refute the hypothetical cause. Observing the workplace, reviewing institutional records, conversing with patients, nurses and other health workers.

When interviewing the patients and personnel to obtain information for problem definition, the manager should keep in mind the following guidelines:
Ask questions that do not commit the respondent to a particular position relative to the problem solution. Invite respondents to describe rather than to evaluate situations, events and actions.

Stimulate respondents to answer questions from a subjective standpoint, so as to reveal feelings and attitudes that may have a bearing on problem generation or solution. Show attention to and respect for the respondents reactions to questions through active listening, nonjudgmental rephrasing, and accurate summarization.


A deliberative, cognitive process consisting of sequential steps that can be analyzed, refined, and integrated to yield greater precision and accuracy in solving problems and initiating action It is the last step in the process by which an individual chooses one alternative from several in an effort to achieve a desired goal The most important tasks of leading and the core of management process, since a decision is necessary to instigate any significant action by the manager or the subordinate ---Gillies

Types of Decisions:
Strategic Administrative Operational

Decision strategy
Optimizing strategy Satisficing strategy Opportunistic strategy

Do-nothing strategy
Strategy of solving for the critical limiting factor

Decision strategy
The maximax strategy The maximim strategy The strategy of mini-regret

The precautionary strategy

Evolutionary strategy The chameleon strategy

Steps in Decision making

1) Determination of institutional goals and priorities 2) Perception of a challenge or problem 3) Identifying criteria for a successful method of meeting the challenge or solving the problem 4) Search for acceptable alternative courses of action 5) Weighing of alternatives

Steps in Decision making

6) Selection of one alternative from the many that were examined 7) Deliberation regarding commitment to the selected actions

8) Implementation of the decision

9) Confirmation of the decisions

Methods of Decision making

Manager usually selects one of five methods for decision making depending on her personal characteristics, her perception of the problem, and her assessment of her own and her subordinates capabilities --- Vroom and Yetton

Five Methods:
Autocratic I Autocratic II Consultive I

Consultive II
Group II

Lesson 5: CHANGE
To continue to survive and to grow one has to change Change is inevitable and the only thing in this life that does not change

Change is both content and process. It applies both to an altered future state or significant departure from the status quo and as process of moving from one system to another --- Gillies

Accidental change

homeostatic or reactive, it occurs in response to an outside stimulus of some kind and is directed toward reestablishing balance between the system and its environment
Planned change is the result of a conscious, deliberate, collaborative effort that is intended to improve the operation of a system and to facilitate acceptance of that improvement by involved parties

Planned change proceeds through the three stages of:

Unfreezing the forces the status quo, Implementing the change process by which the present system is converted to future system, and

Refreezing the forces that will stabilize the new system by integrating it into organizational routines.

First level change is change in the agent of change herself. The second level change is one in which the altered behavior of the change agent results in behavioral changes in others. Third level change consists of more complicated alternations that affect the whole organization or department.

Strategies for change

Work through the line organization to change organizational structure. Work through a staff officer or outside consultant to alter employees attitudes and behavior, by using a therapeutic approach. Decide the amount of authority for change that is to be retained by the change agent and the amount of authority to be given to the change target

Strategies for change

Systems approach to the change process The authoritative approach Persuasive mode strategy

When there are serious deterrents to change it is not advisable to initiate change effort. Here are some examples:
The organization has as a long history of unresponsiveness to change. When there re administrators, managers or employees who wish to make use of the change agent as a pawn in a game of power politics. When personnel have already decided upon and are committed to a certain position. When the change targets are powerless within the organizational influence network. When the client system displays numerous symptoms of social-psychological pathology, such as lying, manipulation, scapegoating, rigidly, or obsession.


Conflict is defined as a clash between hostile or opposing parties or ideas Conflict was looked at as unhealthy to an organization, but today, conflict was recognized as a natural that strengthens an organization by reconciling divergent opinions and resolving Conflict is seen as unifying rather than divisive

Conflict is cyclical and is of the following four stages:

The conflict is latent and there is no overt manifestation of the conflict although the employees concerned are already developing hostile and suspicious feelings toward one another. In the second stage, there is an outbreak of open hostility in the form of verbal or physical behavior between those involved. In the third stage each participant of the conflict situation reacts to the behavior of the other by temporarily withdrawing from the conflict. Finally, the cycle is complete and the hostilities are less manifested for a while though each party may harbor antagonistic feelings that make provoke even more severe hostilities with further provocation.

Two Phases:
a) the phrase of differentiation
the protagonists enumerate and elucidate the issues that divide them and ventilate their feelings about these differences

b) the phrase of integration

the protagonists explore similarities, acknowledge agreement on certain matters, and identify elements of positive feeling toward one another and situation

Analysis of conflict
Through observation and investigation of the conflict Identify the participants, issues involved, type of conflict, stage of conflict, conflict related behaviors, possible consequences to participants and co-worker

Persons involved in a conflict situation

Aggressor Victim Instigator

Intervention in conflict
After the manager has assessed and diagnosed the nature, type, cause, duration, severity and extent of the conflict she can decide to either ignore or to appropriately intervene.

When not to intervene?

One should not intervene in a conflict situation at a time when there is little hope of conciliation.

Guidelines in Mediating
Determine each partys motivation for conflict for negotiation The mediator should maneuver events The mediator is responsible for showing and clarifying the arguments of the participants to each other To facilitate fee and full expression of feeling during negotiation, the mediator must respect the self-respect of both participants

tactic where issues dividing the participants are directly expressed. Two Stages:
In stage one, the participants make a direct the basic problematic issues, stating their positions in simple and concrete terms. Participant argues the importance and validity of her own the conflict issues. In stage two, participants search for points of agreement and similar intentions so as to mend difference.