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A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon the world. -Albert Camus

Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900)

Egoism- It is ethical to maximize ones self interest (everyone doing this collectively will create moral equilibrium). Intuition based on Morality


Duty-Based of De-Ontological
Duty-Based or De-ontological ethics is concerned with the morality of what people do according to a priori theories of right and wrong, not just consequences. Euthyphro was the consummate example of this.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Based morality on the Categorical Imperative the idea that right and wrong were clearly defined principles derived from human reason and unchanging regardless of situation. Always act in such a way that you would be willing for it to become a general law that everyone else should do the same in the same situation.

There are real objective moral truths that are independent of human beings. These are fundamental truths that can't be broken down into parts or defined by reference to anything except other moral truths.

Human beings can discover these truths by using their minds in a particular, intuitive way.

G.E. Moore (1873-1954)

If I am asked, What is good? my answer is that good is good, and that is the end of the matter. Or if I am asked How is good to be defined? my answer is that it cannot be defined, and that is all I have to say about it. But disappointing as these answers may appear, they are of the very last importance. My point is that good is a simple notion, just as yellow is a simple notion; that, just as you cannot, by any manner of means, explain to anyone who does not already know it, what yellow is, so you cannot explain what good is.
Principia Ethica

One should assess persons, actions, and institutions by how well they promote human (or otherwise) happiness

Jeremy Bentham
Bentham was a Dualist.
He argued that humans are ruled by only two concepts: pleasure and pain.

Bentham was a Hedonist

All that is pleasurable is good; all that is painful is bad.

Bentham was an Egoist

An individuals personal happiness is the only moral compass he/she should follow (even when considering the happiness of others, it is the happiness the individual derives from the happiness of others that should be assessed

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Suggests that the only way to prevent hedonism and utilitarianism from being seen as just doing whatever one wants, the ethicist must delineate between higher and lower pleasures.
Higher pleasures: Success, Knowledge, Security Lower Pleasures: Sexing, Farting,

So, how do we know what is pleasurable/desirable?

Jeremy Bentham:
Try to quantify what is the most pleasurable using the following criteria intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, propinquity or remoteness, fecundity (replicability), purity, and extent

John Stuart Mill:

The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible is that people actually see itIn a like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable is that people do actually desire it (18).

G. E. Moore:
The fact is that desirable does not mean able to be desired as visible means able to be seen. The desirable means simply what ought to be desired or deserves to be desired; just as the detestable means not what can be but what ought to be detested (66-67).

Alain Badiou (1993)

1. Man defines himself positively. 2. The basis of evil is the refusal of positive action 3. There is no ethics in general, only situations (16)