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CHAPTER

Electronic Structure of
Atom
Electron Configuration

1
Summary :
(Previous Lecture)

Principal Quantum Number, n


Indicates main energy levels
n = 1, 2, 3, 4…
Each main energy level has sub-levels

Energy Sublevels

s p d f g
Summary :
(Previous Lecture)

The principle quantum number, n, determines


the number of sublevels within the principle
energy level.
Summary :
(Previous Lecture)

Orbital Quantum Number, ℓ


(Angular Momentum Quantum Number)
Indicates shape of orbital sublevels
ℓ = n-1
ℓ sublevel
0 s
1 p
2 d
3 f
4 g
Summary :
(Previous Lecture)

Orbital
The space where there is a high
probability that it is occupied by
a pair of electrons.
Orbitals are solutions of
Schrodinger’s equations.
Summary :
(Previous Lecture)

Orbitals in Sublevels
Sublevel # Orbitals # electrons
s 1 2
p 3 6
d 5 10
f 7 14
g 9 18
Summary (Previous Lecture) :
Shell – electrons with the same value of n
Subshell – electrons with the same values of n and l

Orbital – electrons with the same values of n, l, and ml

How many electrons can an orbital hold?

If n, l, and ml are fixed, then ms = ½ or - ½

Ψ = (n, l, ml, ½or


) Ψ = (n, l, ml, -½)
An orbital can hold 2 electrons
7.6
How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom?

n=2
If l = 1, then ml = -1, 0, or +1
2p
3 orbitals

l=1

How many electrons can be placed in the 3d subshell?

n=3
If l = 2, then ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2

3d 5 orbitals which can hold a total of 10 e-

l=2
7.6
Electron Configuration
The way electrons are arranged
around the nucleus.
Three rules are used to build the
electron configuration:
 Aufbau’s principle
 Pauli Exclusion Principle
 Hund’s Rule

9
Aufbau’s Principle
Electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy first.
Aufbau
Diagra
m
Energy of orbitals in a single electron atom
Energy only depends on principal quantum number n

n=3

n=2
1
En = -RH( )
n2

n=1

7.7
Energy of orbitals in a multi-electron atom
Energy depends on n and l

n=3 l = 2

n=3 l = 1
n=3 l = 0

n=2 l = 1
n=2 l = 0

n=1 l = 0
7.7
“Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals (Aufbau principle)

? ?

Li
Be
B
C5 6
34electrons
electrons

BBe
Li1s1s
1s
2s2s
2s
2p
2 222 12 1

H
He1 2electron
electrons

He
H 1s
1s12
7.7
Pauli Exclusion Principle
(Wolfgang Pauli, Austria, 1900-1958)
-Electron Spin Quantum Number
auli exclusion principle - no two electrons in an atom
can have the same four quantum numbers.
An orbital can hold only two electrons
and they must have opposite spin.

Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms):


+1/2, -1/2
Hund’s Rule
In a set of orbitals, the electrons will fill
the orbitals in a way that would give
the maximum number of parallel spins
(maximum number of unpaired
electrons).

Analogy: Students could fill each seat


of a school bus, one person at a time,
before doubling up.
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Hydrogen
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Helium
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Lithium
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Beryllium
Aufbau
Diagram
for Boron
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Carbon
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Nitrogen
Order of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron atom

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s
7.7
Notations of Electron
Configurations

Standard
Shorthand
Aufbau
Diagram
for
Fluorine
Standard Notation
Number of electrons
of Fluorine in the sub level 2,2,5

1s 2s 2p
2 2 5

r g y
n e
in E
l
Ma Leve
e r s
b
m
Nu , 2, 2 Sublevels
1
Shorthand Notation
Use the last noble gas that is
located in the periodic table right
before the element.
Write the symbol of the noble gas
in brackets.
Write the remaining configuration
after the brackets.
Ex: Fluorine: [He] 2s2 2p5
Periodic Table

8.2
Outermost subshell being filled with electro

7.8
Paramagnetic Diamagnetic

unpaired electrons all electrons paired

2p 2p
7.8
The most stable arrangement of
electrons in subshells is the one with
the greatest number of parallel spins
(Hund’s rule).

N
F
O
C
Ne96
7
8 10
electrons
electrons
electrons

Ne
N
O
C
F 1s
1s
1s222s
2s
2s2p
2p
2p2346
2 222 5

7.7
What is the electron configuration of Mg?

Mg 12 electrons

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s

1s22s22p63s2 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 12 electrons

Abbreviated as [Ne]3s2 [Ne] 1s22s22p6

What are the possible quantum numbers for the last


(outermost) electron in Cl?

Cl 17 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s

1s22s22p63s23p5 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 5 = 17 electrons

Last electron added to 3p orbital

n=3 l=1 ml = -1, 0, or +1 ms = ½ or -½


7.7