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Classification of Resistor

Resistors
Fixed Carbon Wire wound metal film
Carbon Composition Carbon film Carbon Precision type

Variable potentio meters

1. 2. 3. 4. Wire wound 5.

Rheostats LDRs Thermistors Varistors Trimmers

Power type

Fixed Resistors
Resistors whose ohmic values remain fixed at a constant value
Carbon Resistors: (i) Carbon composition resistors (ii) Carbon film resistors

Carbon composition resistors


made of finely divided carbon or graphite mixed with a resin binder in suitable proportion needed for the desired resistance value available in values of 1 to 20 M power rating 1/10, 1/8, , , 1, 2 watts

Advantages smaller in size compared to wire wound resistors very wide resistance range is available cheapest resistors

Disadvantages No precision and have very high tolerance Get easily heated and crack down on soldering Resistance values vary with aging Not useful for applications involving power above 5W Application Used for all general purpose circuits (Radio, T.V. etc)

Carbon film resistors


Manufactured by depositing very thin film of carbon on to a substrate of ceramic or glass tube Thin film (<5m) and thick film (>5m) resistors Advantages Available in all resistor values, from <1 to many M available in very miniature size used in ICs and high voltage applications Good high frequency properties and low cost

Disadvantages: Can not withstand high temperatures Can not withstand to mechanical shocks Can not withstand to atmospheric moisture and humidity Chemically reactive Applications: Used in high frequency performance circuits (computers, telephonic circuits and amplifiers)

Wire wound resistors


The higher the resistivity of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The longer the length of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The lower the cross-sectional area of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The higher the temperature of a conductor, the higher its resistance.

Constructed from a long fine wire (nickel-chromium) wound on a ceramic core Two types: (i) power wire wound resistors (ii) precision wire wound resistors Power wire wound resistors types: low power-----3, 5, 10 watts medium power----- 10 to 60 watts high power-----60 to 1000 watts

Precision wire wound resistors : available up to 5 W with 0.5% and 1% tolerances and useful upto 5 to 10 MHz

Advantages: accurate resistance values, very low tolerance (0.01%) withstand large power dissipation used in high temperature situations Capable of carrying large currents Can withstand mechanical shock and vibration Used in high voltage circuits Do not change much with aging i.e. stable resistance values.

Disadvantages: very large in size and weight Very costly Power type wire wound resistors are not suitable beyond 200 KHz due to inter-winding inductance and capacitance Wires can break, leads to breakdown of the circuit in which these resistors are used Applications: Power type---loads in TV receivers Precision type----bridges, voltmeters and other instruments

Variable resistors can have two or three terminals. Most have three. Variable resistors are classified as a rheostat or a potentiometer, depending upon the application.
Rheostat: Two- or three-terminal device used as a variable resistor Potentiometer: Three-terminal device used for controlling potential levels

Rheostats
used to vary relatively large values of currents either ac or dc nichrome wire is wound on a grooved cylindrical tube Wire is coated with various enamel Silicone cement is used for secure the wire permanently to the ceramic body

Some have a sliding contact, some have fixed tapping Ends of resistance wire and movable contact are connected to three lug terminals circular type rheostat provided with an enclosure for dust and moisture, called dimmer stats or toroids Available from 1 to 10 K with a power rating up to 100 watts Can withstand max temp. 300 degree C.

Circuit symbols

Applications: heater, oven controls, light dimming controls, dc motor speed control, arc welding etc

Potentiometer
Most potentiometers have three terminals as shown. Two of them connected to the ends of the carbon track the other terminal is connected to the arm that contacts the resistor element by a metal spring wiper. As the shaft of the control is rotated the variable arm moves the wiper to make contact at different points on the resistive element.` Figure 3.24

Smaller variable resistors----pots Three terminals Arrow indicates the movable contact Position of arrow determines the resistance value Types: Carbon potentiometers and wire wound potentiometers

Parameter
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Element Resistance values Power rating Taper operation Applications

Carbon pots
Carbon composition High

Wire wound pots


Wire Low High Difficult Noisy Small motor control, servo control ckts etc.

Low
Easy Silent Volume and tone controls in radio, focus & constract control in TV

Need for tapering


In pots, the manner in which the resistance varies with the rotation of shaft, called tapering Used to maintain various values of resistance Types: Linear tapering and Non-linear tapering Linear---resistance changes in direct proportion to shaft rotation, found in general purpose control and TV picture adjustment

R changes more gradually at one end with bigger changes at the opposite end Non-linear tapering----resistance change is not direct proportion to shaft rotation Logarithmic taper used for audio volume control and tone control Pots are either left hand or right hand tapered

Types of Resistors
The resistance between the outside terminals a and c is always fixed at the full rated value of the potentiometer, regardless of the position of the wiper arm (b). The resistance between the wiper arm and either outside terminal can be varied from a minimum of 0 to a maximum value equal to the full rated value of the potentiometer. The sum of the resistances between the wiper arm and each outside terminal will equal the full rated resistance of the potentiometer.

Temperature Effects
Temperature has a significant effect on the resistance of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
For good conductors, an increase in temperature will result in an increase in the resistance level. Consequently, conductors have positive temperature coefficients. For semiconductor materials, an increase in temperature will result in a decrease in the resistance level. Consequently, semiconductors have negative temperature coefficients. The resistance of alloys increases with the rise in temperature but this increase isvery small and irregular.

Temperature Effects
Inferred absolute temperature
Resistance increases almost linearly with an increase in temperature to the inferred absolute temperature of 234.5 C

Temperature coefficient of resistance


The change in resistance of a material with rise in temperature can be expressed by means of the temperature coefficient of resistance Consider a conductor having resistance Ro at 0o C and Rt at to C. Then in the normal range of temperatures, the increase in resistance i.e. (Rt - Ro) is Directly proportional to the initial resistance Directly proportional to the rise in temperature Depended on the nature of the material

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Temperature Effects

The higher the temperature coefficient of resistance for a material, the more sensitive the resistance level to changes in temperature. When we use the temperature coefficient equation we see that copper is more sensitive to temperature variations than is silver, gold, or aluminum.

Thermistors
A thermistor is a two-terminal semiconductor device whose resistance is
temperature sensitive. Increase in current through the device will raise its temperature, causing a drop in its terminal resistance, negative temp. coefficient Materials employed in the manufacture of thermistors include oxides of cobalt, nickel, strontium and manganese. Resistance values: from 0.5 to 10M

Temp. range: -100o C to +350o C


Shapes: beads, discs, rods

Thermistor characteristics

Applications: Used for measurement and control of temp. as in ovens Used for power measurement Used for detection of thermal conductivity Used as a thermal relay Used for fluid flow sensing and flow rate measuring device

Sensistors
Resistance value increases with increasing temperature Positive temperature coefficient of resistance made by using very heavily doped semiconductors so that their operation is similar to PTC type thermistors. Temp. range: 100o C to 400o C

Sensistor characteristics

Applications: Used for temp. sensor Used for thermal relay Used for temp. sensitive controlled devices