Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

# ACID AND BASE

EQUILIBRIUM
PREPARED BY:
NURUL HIDAYU BT MOHD YUSOF
D20051021999
THEORY DEFINITION
Ka = [A – ] [H3O K b = [BH+ ] ACID BASE
+
] [OH-] ARRE HENIUS
ARREHENIUS A substance thatA substance that
-Analogy contains hydrogencontain hydroxide
[HA] [B] - Analogy
- Equation reaction (H) and produces(OH) and produces
- Equation H+ in aqueoushyroxide ion OH-
reaction solution. in aqueous
solution.
Ka AND Kb VALUES
- Equation DEFINITION
LEWIS
LEWIS Electron pair Electron pair
- Calculation THEORY - Equation
- Equation reactionacceptor donor
SELF reaction
IONIZATION OF BRONSTED-
WATER LOWRY
-Animation
BR ONSTED-
- Equation
Proton donor Proton acceptor
LOWRY
- Equation - Equation reaction
ACID AND pH AND pH =
w = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 BASE pOH SCALE -log[H+]
-Equation
EQUILIBRIUM
- pOH =
ACID BASE Calculation -log[OH-]
INDICATOR BUFFER
SOLUTION pOH = pKb + log [salt]
- Steps pH + pOH =
-Types 14
- Calculation [base]
pH = pKa ± 1

## Is a solution which resist a

pH = pKa + log [salt]
change in pH when a small [acid]
amount of acid or base is added
ARREHENIUS THEORY

ACID BASE

DEFINITION: DEFINITION:
A substance that contains hydrogen A substance that contain hydroxide
(H) and produces H+ in aqueous (OH) and produces hyroxide ion OH-
in aqueous solution.
solution.

## NaOH Na+ + OH-

HCl H+ + Cl-
EXAMPLE OF ARREHENIUS BASE
EXAMPLE OF ARREHENIUS ACIDS NaOH, Ca(OH)2
HCl, HNO3 , H2SO4
BRONSTED-LOWRY
THEORY

ACID
BASE
 Proton donor
 Proton acceptor

EQUATION REACTION:

proton acceptor

## NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

BASE ACID CONJUGATE ACID CONJUGATE BASE

proton donor
LEWIS THEORY

ACID BASE
Electron pair Electron pair
acceptor donor

:O:
.. .. .. II ..
:O: + :O=C=O: O–C
-O .. :
H H H H
Ka AND Kb VALUES
EQUATION FOR WEAK ACID
(HA) EQUATION FOR WEAK
BASE(B)
HA + H2O H3O+ + A

B + H2O BH+ + OH-

Ka = [A – ] [H3O K b = [BH+ ]
+
] [OH-]

[HA] [B]

K b = base dissociation
constant @
K a = acid dissociation Base ionization constant
constant @
acid ionization constant K b bigger, base becomes
stronger
K a smaller, acid become
Example 1
Calculate the concentration of OH- form and percent of
ionization for 0.10M NH3 .(K b = 1.8 x 10 -5 )
Solution
NH3 + H2O NH4+ +
OH-
Initial [ ] , M 0.10 0 0

Equilibrium [ ], M 0.10 – x x x
K b = [x] [x] = 1.8 x
10 -5
[0.10 – x]
% ionization = 1.3 x 10 -3 M X
Using approximation
100%
method:
0.10M
0.10 – x ≈ 0.10
= 1.30 %
So,
x 2 /0.10 = 1.8 x 10 -5

x = [OH- ]= 1.3 x 10 -3 M
Dissociation, self-ionization of
water, Kw

## The animation shows one of the

effective collisions between two
water molecules to form hydroxide
and hydronium ions. The process is
reversible. Water normally exists as a
mixture of molecules, hydroxide ions
and hydronium ions.
 The equation is
H2O + H2O <---> H3O+ + OH-

##  The equilibrium expression is the normal products over reactants.

K= [H3O+] [OH-] / [H2O] [H2O]

##  The molarity for the water is a constant at any specific

temperature. This means the equation can be rewritten as
K[H2O] [H2O] = [H3O+] [OH-]
 The numerical value for Kw is different at different temperatures.
At 25oC Kw = 1.0 x 10-14
Kw = K[H2O] [H2O]
Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14
pH AND pOH SCALE
pH = pOH =
-log[H+] -log[OH-]
pH + pOH =
14
The relationship
In a water solution the ion product for water is:
[H+] [OH-] = Kw = 1 X 10-14
Take the -log of both sides of the equation

## - log [H+] +(- log [OH- ]) = - log [1 X 10-14 ]

pH + pOH = 14
Example 2
Determine the pH and the percent of ionization 0.010M NH 3 solution.
K b = 1.8 X 10 -5
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
Initial [ ], M 0.010 0 0
Equilibrium [ ], M (0.010 – x) x x

## K b = [x] [x] = 1.8 X 10 -5

[0.010 – x]
Since K is small, use approximation method:
x = [OH-] = 4.2 X 10 -4 M

## % ionization = (4.2 X 10 -4 M / 0.010 M ) X 100% = 4.20%

From the equation,
pOH = - log [OH-] = -log (4.2 X 10 - 4 ) = 3.38
pH = 14.00 – 3.38 = 10.62
BUFFER
SOLUTION
Is a solution which resist a change in
pH when a small amount of acid or
base is added to the solution.
2 types
Acidic type – to maintain pH < 7
Basic type – to maintain pH > 7
ACIDIC TYPE OF BUFFER SOLUTION
• Buffer solution contains a solution of weak acid and
the salt of the weak acid.
CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+
CH3COONa CH3COO- + Na+

## • When a small amount of OH- is added to the buffer

solution, it will be neutralized by CH3COOH.
CH3COOH + OH- CH3COO- + H2O

## • If a small amount of H3O+ is added, it will be

neutralized by CH3COO- .
CH3COO- + H3O+ CH3COOH + H2O
• Consequently, there is no change in pH.
BASIC TYPE OF BUFFER SOLUTION
• Buffer solution contains a solution of weak
base and the salt of the weak base.
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
NH4Cl NH4+ + Cl-
• When a small amount of OH- is added to
the buffer solution, it will be neutralized by
NH4+ .
NH4+ + OH- NH3 + H2O
• If a small amount of H3O+ is added, it will
be neutralized by NH3 .
NH3 + H3O+ NH4+ + H2O
EQUATION FOR BUFFER
SOLUTION
Henderson- Haselbalch Equation

## pH = pKa + log [salt]

[acid] pOH = pKb + log [salt]
[base]
Example 3
1.00 L buffer was prepared by mixing 0.100
mole HC2H3O2 and 0.100 mole NaC2H3O2
(K a = 1.8 x 10 -5 )

## 1)Determine the pH of the buffer solution.

pH = pKa + log [salt]
[acid]
= - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.100/0.100)
= 4.74
2) Determine the pH of the buffer solution when
0.020 mole NaOH is added to it.(assume there is
no change in volume when acid is added)

## HC2H3O2 + OH- C2H3O2- + H2O

Initial [ ] ,M 0.10 0.020 0.100
Equilibrium[ ], M (0.10 - 0.020) 0 (0.100 + 0.02)

## pH = - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.120/0.080)

= 4.92
3) Determine the pH of the buffer solution when 0.020
mole HCl is added to it.(assume there is no change in

## C2H3O2- + H3O+ HC2H3O3 + H2O

Initial [ ] ,M 0.10 0.020 0.100
Equilibrium [ ], M (0.10 - 0.020) 0 (0.100 + 0.02)

## pH = - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.080/0.120)

= 4.57
ACID-BASE
INDICATOR
• Used to determine the equivalence
point of titration.
• Because the indicator has a different
colour in acid to that of base
solution.
• Indicator changes colour is called the
end point of titration.
• Normally, the equivalence is very
closed to the end point.
1) Consider the phenophthalein indicator (Hln) which
has a pink colour in base solution and colourless
in acidic.
Hln + H2O In- + H3O+
colourless pink

## Ka = [In-] [H3O+] / [Hln]

pH = pKa + log [In-] / [Hln]
2) The point where the colour changes:
[In-] = [Hln], so [In-] / [Hln] = 1
pH = pKa + log 1
pH = pKa
the colour of the end point occurs at the pKa value of
indicator.
3) For phenolphthalein Ka = 3 X 10 -10
It change colour at pH = pKa = 9.5

## However our eyes can only detect the

colour change when, [In-] / [Hln] = 10

## The range of colour change observe by

our eyes will be pH = pKa ± log10

pH = pKa ± 1
4) In the case of phenolphthalein the
colour can only detect by the eyes in
the pH of 9.5 ± 1
That is from pH 8.50 to pH 10.50

## 5) Therefore the equivalence point of

titration should be in the range if
phenolphthalein is choosen to be the
indicator.
The exact colour change at pH = 9.5
cannot be detected by the eyes.
ARE YOU SURE
TO EXIT?
YES NO
THANK
YOU