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ACID AND BASE

EQUILIBRIUM
PREPARED BY:
NURUL HIDAYU BT MOHD YUSOF
D20051021999
THEORY DEFINITION
Ka = [A – ] [H3O K b = [BH+ ] ACID BASE
+
] [OH-] ARRE HENIUS
ARREHENIUS A substance thatA substance that
-Analogy contains hydrogencontain hydroxide
[HA] [B] - Analogy
- Equation reaction (H) and produces(OH) and produces
- Equation H+ in aqueoushyroxide ion OH-
reaction solution. in aqueous
solution.
Ka AND Kb VALUES
- Equation DEFINITION
LEWIS
LEWIS Electron pair Electron pair
- Calculation THEORY - Equation
- Equation reactionacceptor donor
SELF reaction
IONIZATION OF BRONSTED-
WATER LOWRY
-Animation
BR ONSTED-
- Equation
Proton donor Proton acceptor
LOWRY
- Equation - Equation reaction
ACID AND pH AND pH =
w = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 BASE pOH SCALE -log[H+]
-Equation
EQUILIBRIUM
- pOH =
ACID BASE Calculation -log[OH-]
INDICATOR BUFFER
SOLUTION pOH = pKb + log [salt]
- Steps pH + pOH =
-Types 14
- Calculation [base]
pH = pKa ± 1

Is a solution which resist a


pH = pKa + log [salt]
change in pH when a small [acid]
amount of acid or base is added
ARREHENIUS THEORY

ACID BASE

DEFINITION: DEFINITION:
A substance that contains hydrogen A substance that contain hydroxide
(H) and produces H+ in aqueous (OH) and produces hyroxide ion OH-
in aqueous solution.
solution.

NaOH Na+ + OH-


HCl H+ + Cl-
EXAMPLE OF ARREHENIUS BASE
EXAMPLE OF ARREHENIUS ACIDS NaOH, Ca(OH)2
HCl, HNO3 , H2SO4
BRONSTED-LOWRY
THEORY

ACID
BASE
 Proton donor
 Proton acceptor

EQUATION REACTION:

proton acceptor

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-


BASE ACID CONJUGATE ACID CONJUGATE BASE

proton donor
LEWIS THEORY

ACID BASE
Electron pair Electron pair
acceptor donor

:O:
.. .. .. II ..
:O: + :O=C=O: O–C
-O .. :
H H H H
Ka AND Kb VALUES
EQUATION FOR WEAK ACID
(HA) EQUATION FOR WEAK
BASE(B)
HA + H2O H3O+ + A

B + H2O BH+ + OH-

Ka = [A – ] [H3O K b = [BH+ ]
+
] [OH-]

[HA] [B]

K b = base dissociation
constant @
K a = acid dissociation Base ionization constant
constant @
acid ionization constant K b bigger, base becomes
stronger
K a smaller, acid become
Example 1
Calculate the concentration of OH- form and percent of
ionization for 0.10M NH3 .(K b = 1.8 x 10 -5 )
Solution
NH3 + H2O NH4+ +
OH-
Initial [ ] , M 0.10 0 0

Equilibrium [ ], M 0.10 – x x x
K b = [x] [x] = 1.8 x
10 -5
[0.10 – x]
% ionization = 1.3 x 10 -3 M X
Using approximation
100%
method:
0.10M
0.10 – x ≈ 0.10
= 1.30 %
So,
x 2 /0.10 = 1.8 x 10 -5

x = [OH- ]= 1.3 x 10 -3 M
Dissociation, self-ionization of
water, Kw

The animation shows one of the


effective collisions between two
water molecules to form hydroxide
and hydronium ions. The process is
reversible. Water normally exists as a
mixture of molecules, hydroxide ions
and hydronium ions.
 The equation is
H2O + H2O <---> H3O+ + OH-

 The equilibrium expression is the normal products over reactants.


K= [H3O+] [OH-] / [H2O] [H2O]

 The molarity for the water is a constant at any specific


temperature. This means the equation can be rewritten as
K[H2O] [H2O] = [H3O+] [OH-]
 The numerical value for Kw is different at different temperatures.
At 25oC Kw = 1.0 x 10-14
Kw = K[H2O] [H2O]
Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14
pH AND pOH SCALE
pH = pOH =
-log[H+] -log[OH-]
pH + pOH =
14
The relationship
In a water solution the ion product for water is:
[H+] [OH-] = Kw = 1 X 10-14
Take the -log of both sides of the equation

- log [H+] +(- log [OH- ]) = - log [1 X 10-14 ]


pH + pOH = 14
Example 2
Determine the pH and the percent of ionization 0.010M NH 3 solution.
K b = 1.8 X 10 -5
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
Initial [ ], M 0.010 0 0
Equilibrium [ ], M (0.010 – x) x x

K b = [x] [x] = 1.8 X 10 -5


[0.010 – x]
Since K is small, use approximation method:
x = [OH-] = 4.2 X 10 -4 M

% ionization = (4.2 X 10 -4 M / 0.010 M ) X 100% = 4.20%


From the equation,
pOH = - log [OH-] = -log (4.2 X 10 - 4 ) = 3.38
pH = 14.00 – 3.38 = 10.62
BUFFER
SOLUTION
Is a solution which resist a change in
pH when a small amount of acid or
base is added to the solution.
2 types
Acidic type – to maintain pH < 7
Basic type – to maintain pH > 7
ACIDIC TYPE OF BUFFER SOLUTION
• Buffer solution contains a solution of weak acid and
the salt of the weak acid.
CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3O+
CH3COONa CH3COO- + Na+

• When a small amount of OH- is added to the buffer


solution, it will be neutralized by CH3COOH.
CH3COOH + OH- CH3COO- + H2O

• If a small amount of H3O+ is added, it will be


neutralized by CH3COO- .
CH3COO- + H3O+ CH3COOH + H2O
• Consequently, there is no change in pH.
BASIC TYPE OF BUFFER SOLUTION
• Buffer solution contains a solution of weak
base and the salt of the weak base.
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
NH4Cl NH4+ + Cl-
• When a small amount of OH- is added to
the buffer solution, it will be neutralized by
NH4+ .
NH4+ + OH- NH3 + H2O
• If a small amount of H3O+ is added, it will
be neutralized by NH3 .
NH3 + H3O+ NH4+ + H2O
EQUATION FOR BUFFER
SOLUTION
Henderson- Haselbalch Equation

pH = pKa + log [salt]


[acid] pOH = pKb + log [salt]
[base]
Example 3
1.00 L buffer was prepared by mixing 0.100
mole HC2H3O2 and 0.100 mole NaC2H3O2
(K a = 1.8 x 10 -5 )

1)Determine the pH of the buffer solution.


pH = pKa + log [salt]
[acid]
= - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.100/0.100)
= 4.74
2) Determine the pH of the buffer solution when
0.020 mole NaOH is added to it.(assume there is
no change in volume when acid is added)
BASE ADDED WILL REACT HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2 + OH- C2H3O2- + H2O


Initial [ ] ,M 0.10 0.020 0.100
Equilibrium[ ], M (0.10 - 0.020) 0 (0.100 + 0.02)

pH = - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.120/0.080)


= 4.92
3) Determine the pH of the buffer solution when 0.020
mole HCl is added to it.(assume there is no change in
volume when acid is added)

ACID ADDED WILL REACT WITH C2H3O2-

C2H3O2- + H3O+ HC2H3O3 + H2O


Initial [ ] ,M 0.10 0.020 0.100
Equilibrium [ ], M (0.10 - 0.020) 0 (0.100 + 0.02)

pH = - log 1.8 x 10 -5 + log (0.080/0.120)


= 4.57
ACID-BASE
INDICATOR
• Used to determine the equivalence
point of titration.
• Because the indicator has a different
colour in acid to that of base
solution.
• Indicator changes colour is called the
end point of titration.
• Normally, the equivalence is very
closed to the end point.
1) Consider the phenophthalein indicator (Hln) which
has a pink colour in base solution and colourless
in acidic.
Hln + H2O In- + H3O+
colourless pink

Ka = [In-] [H3O+] / [Hln]


pH = pKa + log [In-] / [Hln]
2) The point where the colour changes:
[In-] = [Hln], so [In-] / [Hln] = 1
pH = pKa + log 1
pH = pKa
the colour of the end point occurs at the pKa value of
indicator.
3) For phenolphthalein Ka = 3 X 10 -10
It change colour at pH = pKa = 9.5

However our eyes can only detect the


colour change when, [In-] / [Hln] = 10

The range of colour change observe by


our eyes will be pH = pKa ± log10

pH = pKa ± 1
4) In the case of phenolphthalein the
colour can only detect by the eyes in
the pH of 9.5 ± 1
That is from pH 8.50 to pH 10.50

5) Therefore the equivalence point of


titration should be in the range if
phenolphthalein is choosen to be the
indicator.
The exact colour change at pH = 9.5
cannot be detected by the eyes.
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