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Century Architecture

and Design into the 21st Century

Modern to Post-Modern

Modernism
After 1900 artistic innovation in Europe and the US increased in a rapid succession of movements, or isms. The modern movement lasted through the first half of the 20th Century. Modernism rejects old, traditional ideas and styles in art and design

Although Modernist styles are diverse, art moved toward abstraction based on line, color, shape, space, and texture
Modern architecture and design moved toward abstraction and rejected historical styles and ornamentation Modern architecture reveals rather than conceals the inner structure of the building

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau began in France (Late 19th Century Early 20th Century) Art Nouveau incorporates Organic and Natural Forms into the decoration Architecture +Interior Design, Fashion, Graphic Arts, Decorative Arts

Louis Sullivan American

Louis Sullivan, Carson, Pirie, Scott Building (Chicago), 1899-1904

Louis Sullivan American


Art Nouveau (organic / natural motifs and decoration Used Cast iron decoration on first and second floors Large display windows
Louis Sullivan, Carson, Pirie, Scott Building (Chicago), 1899-1904

Antonio Gaudi
Spanish

Antonio Gaudi, Casa Mila (Barcelona, Spain), 1907

Antonio Gaudi
Spanish Apartment building incorporating organic form (Art Nouveau) Design inspired by the discovery of the Altamira Caves (Prehistoric Caves in Spain) Gaudi was trained as an ironworker before he became an architect Gaudi created buildings as living things
Antonio Gaudi, Casa Mila (Barcelona, Spain), 1907

De Stijl (The Style)


Began in 1917 by a group of artists in Holland
balance between individual and universal values

Integration of Art and Life


Geometric Forms / Purity and Simplicity

Gerrit Rietveld

Garrit Rietveld, Schroder House (Utrecht, Holland) 1924

Gerrit Rietveld
Rietveld was a furniture maker and architect Schroder House combines geometric forms and primary colors with black, white, grey simple, open spaces furniture designed by Rietveld
Garrit Rietveld, Schroder House (Utrecht, Holland) 1924

Movement in 1920s and 1930s associated with the


Jazz Age Began in France, but spread to other parts of Europe, USA, and around the world People still wanted decoration despite the de Stijl and other modern movements eliminating all unnecessary decoration

Art Deco

Industrial Design Combined with Fine Art Elements (industrial materials (metal) and objects + patterns and repeated shapes)
Industrial Design cars, household appliances, fashion, decorative objects, architecture

Inspiration from Ancient Cultures, including Egypt

The Chrysler Building New York

William van Alen (American), The Chrysler Building (New York), 1928 - 1930

The Chrysler Building New York

Exterior made of stainless steel

Art Deco motifs repeated shapes (triangles, etc.) Built for Car Manufactuer, Chrysler Automotive Company
Monument to the Roaring 1920s

William van Alen (American), The Chrysler Building (New York), 1928 1930

Prairie Style
American Midwest Architect Frank Lloyd Wright invented the Prairie Style in early 20th Century Related to The Arts and Crafts Movement, using craft, including stained glass windows, ceramics, and wood carpentry Wright preferred the countryside to the city Natural Materials / Natural Environment Inspired by Japanese Architecture (long, low buildings with open interior spaces). Wright designed a hotel in Tokyo (now demolished)

Frank Lloyd Wright


American

Frank Lloyd Wright, Falling water (Pennsylvania, USA) 1935 - 1937

Frank Lloyd Wright


American

harmony with nature Built over a waterfall Natural materials Japanese influence

Frank Lloyd Wright, Falling water (Pennsylvania, USA) 1935 - 1937

Frank Lloyd Wright designed everything for the interiors of his buildings (furniture, lamps, stained glass windows, etc.)

Frank Lloyd Wright

The Bauhaus
The Bauhaus was an important art and design school in Germany opened in the 1920s The Bauhaus focused on understanding Pure Form (color, shape, line, composition, space, etc,) Many important artists and designers taught and studied there The Bauhaus trained artists, designers, and architects to accept and anticipate the needs of the 20th Century

The Bauhaus greatly influenced modern design streamlined the look of architecture and design, including typography
The Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis in 1933

The Bauhaus
Bauhaus designers invented new simplified forms of typography (sans serif)

The Bauhaus designers created streamlined design with simple, clean lines

Walter Gropius German


Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus (Dessau, Germany), 1925 - 1926

Walter Gropius German


Main Building of Bauhaus Art and Design School In 1919, Gropius, German architect, was appointed director of The Bauhaus Gropius focused on Formal Elements (shape, color, line, etc.) Gropius promoted the unity of art, architecture, and design

Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus (Dessau, Germany), 1925 - 1926

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

German

Mies van der Rohe, German Pavilion in International Exposition (Barcelona, Spain), 1929

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe


Director of Bauhaus from 1930 - 1933 Mies van der Rohe said Less is More Simple, Open Space and Quality Materials

German

Domino system combine rectangles to form architecture

Mies van der Rohe, German Pavilion in International Exposition (Barcelona, Spain), 1929

Barcelona Chair Mies van der Rohe


Designed for King and
Queen of Spain to sit on in German Pavilion Later, the design was massproduced and became a status symbol in homes and offices
Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Chair, 1929

Mid-Century Modern
Late 1940s, 1950s, into the Early 1960s Organic Forms vs. Geometric Forms Fusion of Architecture and Sculpture Simplicity New Industrial Materials

Frank Lloyd Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright, Guggenheim Museum (New York), 1943 1959

Frank Lloyd Wright


Art Museum built for Guggenheim family (major American art patrons) Concrete Building Shape inspired by the spiral shaped shell of a snail Building slopes down from top to bottom (using gravity)

Central atrium with natural light


Frank Lloyd Wright, Guggenheim Museum (New York), 1943 - 1959

Le Corbusier French

Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut (Ronchamp, France), 1950 1955

Le Corbusier French

Small church chapel which replaced a building destroyed in WWII Shape represents praying hands or wings of a dove (symbol of peace)

Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut (Ronchamp, France), 1950 - 1955

Reference to Medieval Architecture


Concrete over metal structure

Eero Saarinen
born in Finland

Airport Terminal in New York


Futuristic Scandanavian Modernism Simple curved, organic shapes

Theme of Motion / Wings in Flight


Two concrete shells Eero Saarinen, Terminal at Kennedy Airport (New York), 1952 - 1956

Eero Saarinen
born in Finland

Eero Saarinen, Terminal at Kennedy Airport (New York), 1952 - 1956

Tulip Table and Chairs

Eero Saarinen, Tulip Pedestal Furniture, 1957

Tulip Table and Chairs


Eero Saarinen wanted to
eliminate the problem of too many legs on furniture Based on the shape of tulip flower (organic shape) Made of Molded Plastic (new material)

Clean and simple design

Eero Saarinen, Tulip Pedestal Furniture, 1957

Seagram Building
International Style Simple and Pure rectangular shape Mies van der Rohe helped change the look of cities tall glass boxes (design easily imitated) Amber colored windows and bronze colored structure

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, Seagram Building (New York), 1956 1958

Seagram Building

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, Seagram Building (New York), 1956 1958

Comparison

Post-Modern Architecture
The Past 20 30 Years

Belief that Early Modernist Architecture was impersonal and sterile


Complex and Eclectic structures Post-Modern architecture accepts and embraces the messy and chaotic nature of urban life References to architecture from the past

Pompidou Center
Paris

Richard Rogers (British) and Renzo Piano (Italian), Pompidou Center (Paris), 1977

Pompidou Center
Paris
Cultural Center and
Museum Building turned inside out with the water, electrical, etc. pipes, ducts, and tubes on the outside Square in front of the museum popular place to hang out Richard Rogers (British) and Renzo Piano (Italian), Pompidou Center (Paris), 1977 Reference to Eiffel Tower (structure visible)

HSBC Hong Kong

Norman Foster, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank (Hong Kong), (1979 - 1986)

HSBC Hong Kong


High Tech Architecture

Supporting skeleton on the outside

Computer programmed sun track which finds sun rays to bring into the space

Client wanted the most beautiful bank in the world

Norman Foster, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank (Hong Kong), (1979 - 1986)

Frank Gehry
Canadian (lives in USA)

Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao, Spain) 1997

Art Museum (built for Guggenheim family same as in New York)


Deconstructivist Architecture (concept of taking apart) Imbalanced and Asymmetrical Forms Sculptural Structure is covered in Titanium Steel

Frank Gehry
Canadian (lives in USA)

Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao, Spain) 1997

Comparison

Santiago Calatrava
Spanish

Santiago Calatrava, Milwaukee Art Museum (USA), 2001

Santiago Calatrava
Spanish Art Museum Organic / Sculptural Form (bird-like / boat-like)

Kenetic Architecture (the roof moves opening and closing according to the weather conditions)
Santiago Calatrava, Milwaukee Art Museum (USA), 2001 Connects the building on Lake Michigan to the city with a bridge

Zaha Hadid
Born in Iraq / Lives in London

Zaha Hadid, MAXXI Art Museum (Rome, Italy), 2009

Zaha Hadid
Born in Iraq/ Lives in London

Only Woman to receive the Pritzer Prize in Architecture (most important award for architects) MAXXI refers to 21st Century (Roman Numerals XXI) Contemporary Art Museum Overlapping of geometric shapes Deconstructivist / Postmodernist
Zaha Hadid, MAXXI Art Museum (Rome, Italy), 2009