Sie sind auf Seite 1von 43

http://www.lab-initio.com (nz183.

jpg)
Todays lecture is unofficially brought to you by
The Museum of Electricity
Announcements
- Exam 1 is Tuesday, February 18, 5:00-6:15 pm.
Exam rooms (on next slide) will be posted on the Physics 24
web site under Course Information.
- One of the homework problems for tomorrow is Special
Homework #4. You can find it on the web here.
- Wednesday of this week is deadline to submit the
appropriate memo or e-mail regarding an exam conflict. Follow
this web link for instructions on what to do.
Know the exam time!
Find your room ahead of time!
If at 5:00 on test day you are lost, go to 104 Physics and check the exam
room schedule, then go to the appropriate room and take the exam there.
Exam is from
5:00-6:15 pm!
- Physics 24 Test Room Assignments, Spring 2014:

Instructor Sections Room
Dr. Hale F, H G-31 EECH
Dr. Parris G, L 125 BCH
Mr. Upshaw E, K 199 Toomey
Mr. Viets A, C 104 Physics
Dr. Vojta B, D G-3 Schrenk

4:30 & 5:30 Exams 202 Physics
Special Needs Testing Center
More Announcements
- Exam 1 special arrangements:
Seven Test Center students. You need to also make an
appointment with Test Center. By before now.
Six 5:30 exam students (so far).
I sent these seven students an e-mail Friday. If you did not
receive the e-mail, you are NOT on the Test Center list!
Eight 4:30 exam students (so far).
More Announcements
- LEAD Schedule (lead.mst.edu)
Physics Learning Center, 2-4:30 pm and 6-8:30 pm Monday,
Wednesday, rooms 129/130 Physics.
Tutor available, 7-9 pm Monday through Thursday, room
G4A IDE.
Tutors available, 4:30-6:00 pm Monday and Wednesday, G-3
basement, TJ.
Tutors available, 4:30-6:00 pm Monday and Wednesday,
Res. Col. 1 Seminar Room.
Tutor available, 12:00-2:00 pm Monday and Wednesday,
Student Success Center, 198 Toomey.
More Announcements
- If any of tomorrows homework problems involve a ring of
charge: there is no starting equation for V on the axis or at the
center of ring of charge. You must derive any equation you use.
- If any of tomorrows homework problems involve a
spherically-symmetric charge distribution: do not use the
starting equation for V due to a point charge. You must derive
any equation you use.

Todays agenda:

Electric potential of a charge distribution.
You must be able to calculate the electric potential for a charge distribution.

Equipotentials.
You must be able to sketch and interpret equipotential plots.

Potential gradient.
You must be able to calculate the electric field if you are given the electric potential.

Potentials and fields near conductors.
You must be able to use what you have learned about electric fields, Gauss law, and
electric potential to understand and apply several useful facts about conductors in
electrostatic equilibrium.

Electric Potential of a Charge Distribution
Example 1: potential and electric field between two parallel
conducting plates.
Assume V
0
<V
1
(so I have a direction to draw the electric field).
Also assume the plates are large compared to their separation,
so the electric field is constant and perpendicular to the plates.
V
0
V
1
E
Also, let the plates be separated
by a distance d.
d
V
0
V
1
plate 1
1 0
plate 0
V V V E d A = =
}
E
dl
( )
d d
0 0
V E dx E dx Ed A = = =
} }
d
x
y
z
V
E , or V Ed
d
A
= A =
The famous Mr.
Ed equation!*
Ill discuss in lecture why the
absolute value signs are needed.
*2004, Prof. R. E. Olson.
|AV|=Ed
V Ed A =
Important note: the derivation of
did not require rectangular plates, or any plates at all. It works
as long as E is uniform and parallel or antiparallel to d.

In general, E should be replaced by the component of along
the displacement vector .
E
d
V E d A =
Example 2: A total charge Q is uniformly distributed on the
surface of a conducting sphere of radius R. (a) Show that the
electric potential for r>R outside the sphere is the same as the
electric potential of a point charge Q located at r=0. (b) What is
the electric potential inside and on the surface of the sphere?
You may be asked to show this in a homework problem for
tomorrow. If so, start with the equation for the electric field of a
spherically-symmetric charge distribution and use


to calculate the potential.
Example 3.8 in your textbook claims that because the electric
field outside a charged spherical shell is the same as the field of
a point charge (of same total Q) at the center of the shell, the
electric potential outside must be the same for the two cases.
f
f i
i
V V V E d A = =
}
Example 3: A rod of length L located along the x-axis has a total
charge Q uniformly distributed along the rod. Find the electric
potential at a point P along the y-axis a distance d from the
origin.
Thanks to Dr. Waddill for this fine example.
y
x
P
d
L
dq
x
dx
r
=Q/L
dq=dx
2 2
dq dx
dV k k
r
x d

= =
+
L
0
V dV =
}
*What are we assuming when we use this equation?
*
y
x
P
d
L
dq
x
dx
r
L L
2 2 2 2 0 0
dx Q dx
V k k
L
x d x d

= =
+ +
} }
A good set of math tables will
have the integral:
( )
2 2
2 2
dx
ln x x d
x d
= + +
+
}
2 2
kQ L L d
V ln
L d
| |
+ +
= |
|
\ .
Include the sign of Q to get the correct sign for V.
What is the direction of V?
Example 4: Find the electric potential due to a uniformly
charged ring of radius R and total charge Q at a point P on the
axis of the ring.
P
R
dQ
r
x

x
Every dQ of charge on the
ring is the same distance
from the point P.
2 2
dq dq
dV k k
r
x R
= =
+
2 2 ring ring
dq
V dV k
x R
= =
+
} }
P
R
dQ
r
x

x
2 2 ring
k
V dq
x R
=
+
}
2 2
kQ
V
x R
=
+
Could you use this expression for V to calculate E? Would you
get the same result as I got in Lecture 3?
You must derive an equation for the
potential at the center of a ring if you
need it for homework! In lecture I will
show you how easy the derivation is.
Include the sign of Q to get the correct sign for V.
Homework hint: derive
this equation in
tomorrows homework!

Quiz time (maybe for points, maybe just for practice!)

Example 5: A disc of radius R has a uniform charge per unit
area o and total charge Q. Calculate V at a point P along the
central axis of the disc at a distance x from its center.
P
r
dQ
x
x

R
The disc is made of
concentric rings. The
area of a ring at a
radius r is 2trdr, and
the charge on each ring
is o(2trdr).
We *can use the equation for the potential due to a ring,
replace R by r, and integrate from r=0 to r=R.
ring
2 2
k 2 rdr
dV
x r
o t
=
+
*I just derived it, so I get to use it.
P
r
dQ
x
x

R
R
2 2 2 2 ring ring 0
0 0
1 2 rdr rdr
V dV
4 2
x r x r
o t o
= = =
tc c
+ +
} } }
( ) ( )
R
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
0
Q
V x r x R x x R x
2 2 2 R
o o
= + = + = +
c c tc
2
Q
R
o =
t
( )
2 2
2
0
Q
V x R x
2 R
= +
tc
P
r
dQ
x
x

R
Could you use this expression for V to calculate E? Would you
get the same result as I got in Lecture 3?
Example 6: calculate the potential at a point outside a very long
insulating cylinder of radius R and positive uniform linear charge
density .
To be worked at the blackboard.
I would prefer to not start with and integrate. Why?
dq
dV k
r
=
Result: . Why the sign?
0
r
V ln
2 R

| |
A =
|
tc
\ .
I see from this calculation that I CAN NOT start with
and integrate. Why?
dq
dV k
r
=
What would be different for an infinite line of charge?
Conducting cylinder? What is V everywhere inside a conducting
cylinder of linear charge density ? Insulating cylinder?
0
R
V ln
2 r

| |
A =
|
tc
\ .
See your text for other examples of potentials calculated from
charge distributions, as well as an alternate discussion of the
electric field between charged parallel plates.
Remember: worked examples in the text are testable.
Make sure you know what V
ab
means, and how it relates to
AV.
AV
if
= V
f
V
i
so AV
if
= -V
if
Special Dispensation
For tomorrows homework only: you may use the equation for the
electric field of a long straight *wire without first proving it:
line
0
E .
2 r

=
tc
Of course, this is relevant only if a homework problem requires you
to know the electric field of a long straight *wire.
You can also use this equation for the electric field outside a long
cylinder that carries charge.
*or very long charged cylinder
Special Dispensation
For tomorrows homework only: you may use this equation for the
electric field of a spherically-symmetric charge distribution without
first proving it:
sphere
2
k Q
E .
r
=
Of course, this is relevant only if a homework problem requires you
to know the electric field of a spherically-symmetric charge
distribution.
In the case of other future homework or exam problems involving a
spherically-symmetric charge distribution, the problem statement
should make it clear whether or not you need to prove this. If it is
not clear, ask your recitation instructor.
Homework Hint!
Problems like 3.32 and 3.33: you must derive an expression
for the potential outside a long conducting cylinder. See
example 3.10. V is not zero at infinity in this case. Use
f
i
V E d . A =
}
If 3.32 and 3.33 are not assigned, dont be disappointed. We
can still get you on this in problems in chapter 4!
Homework Hints!
In energy problems involving potentials, you may know the
potential but not details of the charge distribution that
produced it (or the charge distribution may be complex). In
that case, you dont want to attempt to calculate potential
energy using . Instead, use U q V . A = A
If the electric field is zero everywhere in some region, what
can you say about the potential in that region? Why?
1 2
12
q q
U k
r
=
PRACTICAL APPLICATION
For some reason you think practical applications are important.
Well, I found one!
More Cooking with High Voltage
Application: Deep Space Propulsion Systems
Dr. Joshua Rovey, MAE Dept.

Todays agenda:

Electric potential of a charge distribution.
You must be able to calculate the electric potential for a charge distribution.

Equipotentials.
You must be able to sketch and interpret equipotential plots.

Potential gradient.
You must be able to calculate the electric field if you are given the electric potential.

Potentials and fields near conductors.
You must be able to use what you have learned about electric fields, Gauss law, and
electric potential to understand and apply several useful facts about conductors in
electrostatic equilibrium.

Equipotentials
Equipotentials are contour maps of the electric potential.
http://www.omnimap.com/catalog/digital/topo.htm
The electric field must be perpendicular to equipotential lines.
Why?
Otherwise work would be required to move a charge along an
equipotential surface, and it would not be equipotential.
In the static case (charges not moving) the surface of a
conductor is an equipotential surface. Why?
Otherwise charge would flow and it wouldnt be a static case.
Equipotential lines are another visualization tool. They
illustrate where the potential is constant. Equipotential lines
are actually projections on a 2-dimensional page of a 3-
dimensional equipotential surface. (Just like the contour
map.)
Here are some electric field and equipotential lines I generated
using an electromagnetic field program.
Equipotential lines are shown in red.
Ill discuss in lecture some
implications this figure has
for charged particle motion.
Toy
http://www.falstad.com/vector2de/

Todays agenda:

Electric potential of a charge distribution.
You must be able to calculate the electric potential for a charge distribution.

Equipotentials.
You must be able to sketch and interpret equipotential plots.

Potential gradient.
You must be able to calculate the electric field if you are given the electric potential.

Potentials and fields near conductors.
You must be able to use what you have learned about electric fields, Gauss law, and
electric potential to understand and apply several useful facts about conductors in
electrostatic equilibrium.

Potential Gradient
(Determining Electric Field from Potential)
The electric field vector points from higher to lower potentials.
More specifically, E points along shortest distance from a higher
equipotential surface to a lower equipotential surface.
You can use E to calculate V:
b
b a
a
V V E d . =
}
You can use the differential version of this equation to calculate
E from a known V:
dV
dV E d E d E
d
= = =
E
For spherically symmetric charge distribution:
r
dV
E
dr
=
In one dimension:
x
dV
E
dx
=
In three dimensions:
x y z
V V V
E , E , E .
x y z
c c c
= = =
c c c
V V V

or E i j k V
x y z
c c c
= = V
c c c
More *^#$*& signs!
r
dV
E
dr
=
x y z
V V V
E , E , E .
x y z
c c c
= = =
c c c
dV
E
d
=
Calculate -dV/d(whatever) including all signs. If the result is
+, points along the +(whatever) direction. If the result is -,
E points along the (whatever) direction.
E
E
Example (from a Fall 2006 exam problem): In a region of
space, the electric potential is V(x,y,z) = Axy
2
+ Bx
2
+ Cx,
where A = 50 V/m
3
, B = 100 V/m
2
, and C = -400 V/m are
constants. Find the electric field at the origin
( )
2
x
(0,0,0)
(0,0,0)
V
E (0, 0, 0) Ay 2Bx C C
x
c
= = + + =
c
y
(0,0,0)
(0,0,0)
V
E (0, 0, 0) (2Axy) 0
y
c
= = =
c
z
(0,0,0)
V
E (0, 0, 0) 0
z
c
= =
c
V

E(0,0,0) 400 i
m
| |
=
|
\ .

Todays agenda:

Electric potential of a charge distribution.
You must be able to calculate the electric potential for a charge distribution.

Equipotentials.
You must be able to sketch and interpret equipotential plots.

Potential gradient.
You must be able to calculate the electric field if you are given the electric potential.

Potentials and fields near conductors.
You must be able to use what you have learned about electric fields, Gauss law, and
electric potential to understand and apply several useful facts about conductors in
electrostatic equilibrium.

When there is a net flow of charge inside a conductor, the
physics is generally complex.
Potentials and Fields Near Conductors
When there is no net flow of charge, or no flow at all (the
electrostatic case), then a number of conclusions can be
reached using Gauss Law and the concepts of electric fields
and potentials
The electric field inside a conductor is zero.
Summary of key points (electrostatic case):
Any net charge on the conductor lies on the outer surface.
The potential on the surface of a conductor, and everywhere
inside, is the same.
The electric field just outside a conductor must be
perpendicular to the surface.
Equipotential surfaces just outside the conductor must be
parallel to the conductors surface.
Another key point: the charge density on a conductor surface
will vary if the surface is irregular, and surface charge collects at
sharp points.
Therefore the electric field is large (and can be huge) near
sharp points.
Another Practical Application
To best shock somebody, dont touch them with your hand;
touch them with your fingertip.
Better yet, hold a small piece of bare wire
in your hand and gently touch them with
that.
Clarification
What does our text mean by V
ab
? The Physics 23 notation, which we also
use in Physics 24, is [W
net
]
if
= AK = K
f
K
i
.

Our texts convention is V
ab
= V
a
V
b
. This is explained on page 84 of
our text. If we re-write this in Physics 23 notation, it means V
ab
= V
ab
=
V
a
V
b
. The second subscript, b, represents where we start, and the first
subscript, a, represents where we end up.

In problem 4.60, V
ab
= +210 V means V
a
V
b
= 210 V, so a is at a higher
potential than b. Then

V
ad
= V
a
V
d
= 140 V. Point a is 140 V higher than point d.

V
ac
= V
a
V
c
= 70 V. Point a is 70 V higher than point c.

From the above, point c must be at a higher potential than point d.
V
cd
= V
c
V
d
= 70 V. Positive because point c is 70 V higher than d.