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P&IDs

PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAMS

Format & Layout


Title Block Sheet Number Revision Number Date

Format & Layout


Layout Rules of Thumb No Scale Flow From Left to Right across page Important Process Streams Heavy Dark Less Important (utilities, instrumentation lines lightweight) Horizontal Lines break vertical Lines Process Lines Break Instrumentation Lines Pumps along bottom Tanks above pumps

P&IDs - Symbology
Equipment Symbology Instrumentation Symbology See the document P&ID Symbols and Photos.DOC

P&IDs - Equipment
Keep in mind the development of the P&IDs is really developing the process The way it will start-up / shut-down and normally operate Procedure Start with the Simulation and Equipment List Draw Equipment (including spares) Draw the major process Lines, then Utilities

P&IDs - Safety - ALWAYS!!!!!


ALWAYS Consider Safety!!
Think, what happens if the control valve doesnt operate as intended? What happens if the pump stops working? How will the operators troubleshoot the problem? What if the operators ignore an alarm ...

Consider the need for redundant controls and equipment, but only if deemed necessary. Redundant things are twice as likely to fail!

P&IDs - Simplicity Rules


The easiest process to operate and understand is the simplest one K.I.S.S. Add indicators (flow, pressure, temperature) for trouble shooting Dont add controls unless they are absolutely necessary Only resort to complicated controls when you have to... Consider the consequences of operators not understanding them.

P&IDs - Rookie Mistakes


Dont put level control on Storage Tanks Theyre there to take up variations in flow, therefore the level is supposed to float Let Pressures in the process float as much as possible, try not to over control operating pressures. Dont try to control liquid flow at two points in a pipe - remember conservation of mass Dont look at one P&ID only - Look at the big picture then consider the details

P&IDs - Rookie Mistakes


Draw the equipment the way its going to be built - dont oversimplify its representation more equipment/inst detail is better
Show Liquid levels / internals etc. It helps you design the controls It helps operators understand how it works FIC Set@ 1200 kg/hr FT

FE

FV

Watch Out For Controls on Different Sheets

Simplicity

A A

P&IDs - Costs Are Important


Goal: Lowest Capital costs and Lowest Operating Costs. Only build whats required The Cheapest Process that meets the need of all involved is the most profitable. Its got to work! After that, make it cheap as possible.

P&IDs - Control
The Flow that occurs in a pipe is a function of the Pressure Drop. Valves add or subtract from the natural pressure drop of the pipe. Valves change the pressure drop to give us the flow rate we want

P&IDs
Control (Globe) Valves can have just about any pressure drop and flow combination
50 gizillion psi 20 m3/hr 5 psi

On the other hand, pipes have very definite flow/pressure relationship


2 pipe, 20 m long, 20 m3/hr P = 5 kPa

P&IDs
Piping Pressure Drop
System Curve for 4 pipe, length 100 ft

Resulting Flow Through Pipe

Pressure Differential

P&IDs
Piping Pressure Drop
System Curve for 4 pipe, length 100 ft

Pressure Differential

Resulting Flow Through Pipe

P&IDs
Piping Pressure Drop
System Curve for 4 pipe, length 100 ft With a valve thats 50% closed

Pressure Differential

Resulting Flow Through Pipe

P&IDs
In a Liquid System (non compressible flow) two valves in series have the same flow rate through them

DP = 3 bar

DP = 20 bar

Press 7 bar(g)

Assume each segment of pipe has a DP of 1 bar

P&IDs
Backing Up

Press 7 bar(g)

P&IDs
Pumps (Centrifugal)
System Curve Pressure Increase That Pump Is Able To Produce

Pump Curve

Flow Through Pump

P&IDs - Control Systems


First ask what controls the production rate of the process? How will we control this production rate

Flow control

P&IDs - Control Systems


Mentally take note of other critical things that need to be controlled (flow, temperature, pressure, level) Feed - do we need flow control ? Multiple feeds - do we need to ratio one flow rate to another?
A Flow of B depends on A B

Ratio Control
FIC

FT
Primary Rate

FE FT
Ratio To Primary

FV
FRIC

FE

FV

Pressure
To Decrease the Pressure of a Tank allow material to be removed (at a faster rate) condense vapour faster
PIC PT PV Control Downstream Pressure PIC

PT
PV Control Upstream Pressure

Temperature
Usually you increase the flow or pressure of one stream. The effect of that change is to cause another streams temperature to change.

Level
To Decrease the Level of a Tank allow material to be removed (at a faster rate) Tanks and Pumps Always Provide a way of preventing your pumps from running dry Always Provide a way of preventing your pumps from being dead headed
Recirc the pump discharge to the tank with a minimum flow bypass

Controls
Failure Position of Valves Most of the time its safer to bottle up the process and prevent failure from propagating downstream by making control valves fail closed

Occasionally its better to fail open


ie. Cooling water