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Meaning : Communication is conveying ones ideas

and thoughts to another person so that both share the ideas Communication is sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas," which is often expressed nonverbally and verbally. - Websters Dictionary Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another -

Keith Davis


It is a Dynamic Process

2. It is Systemic 3. It is both Interaction and Transaction 4. It is Intentional as well as Unintentional

To be able to able to express your ideas effectively in writing and in speech. To be able to work together, identify problems, analyze alternatives and find solutions. To co-ordinate with various other branches and departments. To provide information to potential buyers and general public about the product.


By March 2000, Domino's opened 37 outlets all over India. Between April 2000 and February 2001, Domino's set up 64 more outlets in India. Delhi had the maximum number of outlets 17, followed by Mumbai with 13. Domino's had the largest retail network in the fast food segment in India- with 101 outlets across 40 cities.
Domino's had a tie-up with a real estate consultant Richard Ellis to help with locations, conduct feasibility studies, and manage the construction. It was also looking at non-traditional outlets like large corporate offices, railway stations, cinema halls and university campuses. In early 2000, Domino's had opened an outlet at Infosys, Bangalore, which was very successful. It also had outlets at cinema halls PVR in Delhi, Rex in Bangalore, and New Empire in Kolkata.

By January 2001, Pizza Hut had 19 outlets across India. In a move to expand further, Pizza Hut planned to open an additional five restaurants in Mumbai and 30 restaurants across major cities in India, by 2001 end. Tricon announced that the company would invest Rs.30 million on each of the restaurants. In March 2001, Pizza Hut opened its first three-storeyed 125-seater dine-in restaurant at Juhu in Mumbai. Said a company official, We are expanding the number of restaurants across the major cities to cater to today's youth which has taken to pizzas as a cuisine.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Domino's entered India at a time when Pizza Hut and McDonald's were already in the market. What was the strategy adopted by Domino's to make a dent in the Indian market? 2. Though Pizza Hut entered India before Domino's, it eventually lost its share to Domino's. How can Pizza Hut counter the competition from Domino's?

The process of communication involves the interaction of seven elements or factors :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Source/Sender : The one who initiates the process of communication. Audience/Receiver : The person(s) foe whom the communication is intended. Goal/Purpose : The senders reason for communicating. Context/Background : The background in which the communication takes place. Message/Content : The information Conveyed.

6. 7.

Medium/Channel : The means or method used for conveying the message. Feedback : The receiver's response to the communication.

The sender is the one who decides what information is to be conveyed making up for half the process of communication.
Thus the functions of the sender are : 1. Being clear about the goal/purpose of communication. 2. Understanding the needs of the target audience. 3. Encoding the information and ideas symbols to create the message so as to suit the receiver. 4. Selecting the medium to send the message. 5. Making efforts to get feedback.

Thus the functions of the receiver are : 1. Attending to the message (i.e. by listening, reading, observing). 2. Decoding the received message. 3. Interpreting and understanding the message. 4. Responding to the message. 5. Providing the sender with feedback.

The receiver becomes aware of the message/content, provided by the sender, by perceiving it with his senses (he may see, hear, feel) and interprets it.

This is the most complex part of the process. The receiver feels a reaction to the message (which may be conscious or unconscious) and leads him to think. He may offer his thoughts or ideas in response or even take action if necessary. He may also reply to the message.

The reaction, reply and response together form the feedback.

Context is the set of circumstances that surround a n event and influence its significance.
A message may acquire a different meaning in a changed context. The context influences the senders encoding and the receivers decoding and also each ones interpretation. Time is also an element of the environment.

Time : It has three aspects : 1. Time of the communication. 2. The length of time taken by a communication event. 3. An appropriate time for giving some information.

A medium is the means of transmitting or conveying a message. Some media carry written words or pictures or graphics. Other media carry the voice. Electronic media can carry both voice and written material.

The main aspects of choosing a medium are:

The type of audience you want to reach. The speed with which the message should be conveyed. Need for confidentiality of the message. Need for accuracy in transmission of message. Need for reliablity of the medium.

Cost of the medium and its relative importance and urgency. Availability of a particular medium to the sender and to the receiver. Feedback capacity of the medium. Availability of a hard copy for record. Formality of the medium must be suitable to the content of the message. Intensity and complexity of the message.

There are three types of modes. They are:

1. 2. 3.


Media which have been in use for a long time are called conventional for convenience and to distinguish them from the modern media based on advances in electronics.

The types of conventional modes are:

1. 2.

4. 5.


They are usually a government-owned network with links with all the other countries. The postal service uses rail, road and air transport. Ordinary mail, registered mail which may include A.D., Quick Mail Service, Express delivery are the various types of mails available. Speed post is a special service offered by the post office.

They are private services. They deliver and collect packets door-todoor at any time during the day. They provide a very quick service. Their services are limited to the cities where they maintain their network.

Written messages, documents and parcels can be delivered within the city by an organizations delivery boys. The effectiveness and speed of this method depends on the organizations own system of messengers. It ensures prompt delivery and acknowledgement from the receiver. We can get proof of delivery as the messenger can bring back a signed copy or an official receipt.

These re media which transmit signals instantly from any source to any destination in the world by modern electronic technology. The types of electronic communication are:
1. 2.

4. 5. 6. 7.


It is the most useful and universal medium of communication among persons who are not at the same place. The INTERCOM is an internal telephone system which allows communication between persons in different parts of a building. STD( Subscribers Trunk Dialing) allows a user to call a number in another city directly. ISD( International Subscribers Dialing) allows the user to call another number of any major cities of the world. ANSWERING MACHINE can take a message if you cannot answer it. CONFERNCE allows 3 or more persons to

The cellular phone is based on a combination of the old radio technology and emerging telecommunication technology. Weather conditions, underground parking, fortified buildings may effect reception. Air time is charged by the minute on calls made from and received by the cell phone. They have facilities for storage of numbers, record of missed calls, receiving text messages(SMS), receiving information given my the network. It has the facility of VOICE MAIL which is a personal answering machine service.

It has CALL CONFERENCING which allows a user to join up to five participants in a discussion. It makes it possible to contact a person who are out in the open.

The facsimile machine is a device for transmitting copies of printed images over telephone lines. The machine is connected to the telephone through s modem. The machine scans the page and converts it into an electronic representation of the text and graphics, then this data is sent to the receivers fax machine. The receiving machine decodes the signals and uses it in-built printer to produce an exact photocopy of the original page. It permits quick exchange of information and documents.

Sends inexpensive messages. Provides a written record of the messages transmitted. Sender gets a confirmation print out showing the receiver's fax number, date and time of transmission. Used only for non-confidential document. Sometimes the received copy is not clear.

1. 2.


It is the communication between a large number of people. The messages are prepared by teams and reach a large number of people all over the world. The distance between the sender and the audience is very

The various types of mass media communications are:1. Notice Board 2. Hoardings and Bill Board 3. Newspapers and Magazines 4. Radio 5. Film 6. Television 7. Internet

Notice Board and bulletin board are media for public communication within the organization. It is placed at a location where it can be easily seen by the persons it is meant for and notice boards should be attractively laid. Notice boards should be up-to-date and should not contain any stale notices.

The radio is a medium of mass oral communication. News, notices, advertisements are transmitted to the public by radio. It follows only one-way communication i.e. the feedback from the audiences is not known. The transistor set has made it possible for the radio to reach all parts of the country.

The film is the most powerful medium of communication. It is the audio-visual medium which combines all possible forms: written, oral, visual, auditory. The film is a highly versatile medium and can be used for many purposes, and adapted to different conditions.

Television is a powerful medium, which, like film is audiovisual. Its ability to transmit live events as they are going on makes it the most powerful medium for mass communication. With teleconferencing, the television can transmit things happening at more than one place at once.

Internet is the most powerful and the most recent medium of communication of all. It still has a limited audience. Unless someone takes the trouble to visit your website, it may not be noted by all. Website addresses have to be publicised through other media, and it is still in process of finding out ways and means of attracting people

People who need to communicate will have to keep up with the technology of communication which is developing rapidly to bring the communicating parties closer to each other. Your selection of the medium can make the difference between effective and ineffective communication.

The communication through electronic mail is almost instantaneous and besides sending a message you can also send whole document as attachment. It is different from fax. It has immediacy of fax but is more efficient and economical. Earlier, Hot mail was the only free e-mail service on the internet. These services are web-based and do not require any special software; they can be used with any web browser.

An important capability of e-mail is its ability to create ongoing electronic conferences. People all over the world, interested in a particular topic can meet to hear new ideas, new papers and discuss them in a group.

Teleconferencing can be defined as "bringing people together without having to spend time and money on travel".

There are three types of teleconferencing:1. Audio teleconferencing 2. Audio graphics teleconferencing 3. Video teleconferencing

Audio teleconferencing provides the element of telephone

Audio graphics teleconferencing provides the facility to move text, computer generated images, photographs and large files over ordinary telephone lines. Video conferencing allows people at different locations to see and hear each other at the same time.

Channel of communication refers to the way along which a message flows from the sender to the receiver. An organization has well-ordered network of channels along with communication flows.

Messages that flow outward or inward from an organization come under External Communication. Organizations have official procedures and systems for handling external communication. Inward and outward, both messages are securely recorded and filed for futue reference.

Outward Communication

Messages go out of organizations to customers, suppliers, banks, insurance companies ,the mass media, governmental departments and the general public. These messages may be in the form of letters, faxes, telephone calls, telegrams, reports, advertisements, speeches, visits etc.

The style, format and tone of the companys outgoing communication affect its public image and public relations. So, most organizations have a strict policy about the style and appearance of the companys messages that go out. Copies of outgoing written documents are filed for reference

External Communication

An organization receives letters, faxes, brochures, circulars, journals and magazines, telephone calls and personal visits These may be from customers, suppliers, government departments, other organizations etc. Inward communication messages are filed for record and reference.

The communication which happens within an organization The flow of communication within an organization forms a complicated pattern The volume and direction are usually determined by the pattern of hierarchy, and levels of authority and also by the requirement of tasks.

Internal communication usually happens through means of emails, memos, meetings, group discussions, circulars etc. Internal communication happens through two channels1.Formal Channels. 2.Informal Channels

Formal channels are those which carry the official messages in the organization. The flow of messages is strictly organized in a well ordered network as no information leakage is tolerated. For example, clerks from one department cannot exchange official papers directly but only through the supervisors or section heads of respective departments. Also, a clerk can approach the manager only through his own supervisor.

In organizations with strong formal channels of communication, the executives concerned are kept informed of what is going on. The formal channels can be divided into the following1. Vertical Communication 2. Horizontal or Lateral Communication

In an organizational hierarchical structure, the messages that move between subordinates and their supervisors, come under Vertical Communication. Messages going from superiors to subordinates are downward communication. Messages going from subordinates to superiors are upward communication.

Messages going from the higher authority to the lower levels may be written or oral. Written messages are notes, circulars, notices or emails; Oral messages may be face to face , or by telephone or announcements.

The common purpose are to givei. Instructions about a specific task. ii. Info about the procedures followed by the organization. iii. Info which creates understanding of the task in relation to other tasks of the organization. iv. Feedback about subordinates performance. v. Info about the ideology and goals of the organization which would help them to develop a sense of belonging

Downward communication must be simple and carefully explained. A lot of information is lost as the message moves downward. Information is also lost because sometimes, some members may misinterpret the message, may understand it incompletely, or may neglect it. It is more effective to communicate downward in a cluster as in a meeting as everyone receives the message at the same time in the same environment and there is scope for further discussion and seeking clarification.

The common purposes of upward communication are To give information to the management. To enable the management to learn about the concerns of subordinates. To enable all employees to contribute ideas

Communication does not flow upward easily. The following occur in upward communication-

Subordinates may be too afraid to give ideas to higher authorities as their job is in their hands. Superiors may be too impatient to listen. Deliberate suppression of information because of self-interest and jealousy.

Channels for upward communication Regular reporting systems. Periodic review meetings Suggestion scheme Open door policy. Informal gatherings. Standing Committees.

Messages that flow between persons of equal status or same level of authority in the organization is horizontal o lateral communication. There is more horizontal communication at higher levels of authority. It includes both information and persuasion.

Diagonal communication involves communication between a person(s) of alower level in one department and person(s) of a higher level in another department Diagonal communication can often be harmful The diagonal channel is a product of development in modern communication technology,the reduction of hierarchical levels in organisation and the quick exchange of information

Consensus is a channel that is neither vertical nor horizontal Its is a method of decision-making that reflects the ideas and thought of all the team members Consensus is a decision that is acceptable to everyone It is not unanimity nor is it a majority vote

In addition to the imposed organizational arrangement, members of groups that work together construct their own communication networks Informal networks serve a valuable organizational function Informal networks are sure to arise in any organizational unit, informal communication net

Information : Information consists of facts

and figures and data which can be arranged in different patterns as required for different purposes. Many companies give information to the public about the progress, products and policies through the mass media.

Persuasion: Persuasion means making efforts

to change or influence the attitudes and behavior of others. It is the skill of using the best arguments to win over and convince others.
The factors of persuasion are: 1. Personal Character and Reputation 2. Skillfully Appealing to Emotions 3. Logic of the Presentation

Messages moving from seniors to subordinates in an organization or from persons with expert knowledge to laypersons, have several objectives like giving instructions and orders to carry out tasks, training people for the task, motivating people, to maintain discipline and conduct, giving advice and persuading people on various matters.

Instruction is information about how to carry

out a process or procedure. Showing how to carry out an instruction is called an demonstration An order is a formal assignment of a task An order must be clear and exact All communication must be in a style which the recipient understands

Education is the development if the abilities of the mind Training is practical education or practice in a skill under the guidance of an expert Special communication skills are required to accomplish these objectives Oral communication in the form of lectures and discussions. Demonstrations, films, actual work experience are used for training. Training is also used for changing attitudes and developing a commitment among employees

Motivation means providing a person with motive, an incentive, an inner urge to make effort to do their best Communication is the most important and critical element in motivation of employees Motivation requires regular and careful communication which managers and supervisors need to do skillfully


When Michael started his own consultancy he employed top people; people he'd worked with in the past who had shown commitment, flair and loyalty and who seemed to share his values. But a few months down the line one of his team members started to struggle. Jo was putting in the hours but without enthusiasm. Her confidence was dropping; she was unfocused and not bringing in enough new business. Michael explained to Jo the seriousness of the situation. Without new business he would lose the company and that would mean her job. He showed her the books to illustrate his point. He again ran through her job description and the procedures she was expected to follow. He told her that he was sure she was up to the job but he really needed her to bring in the new business or they would all be out on their ear.

Jo told Michael that she understood. She was doing her best but she'd try harder. But a month later nothing had changed. After an initial burst of energy, Jo was back to her old ways. QUESTIONS: Q:Why do you think her motivation faded so soon? Q:What should be done to keep a person motivated?

1. 2. 3.



Listening to them and showing respect for their views Ensuring credit is given when its due Avoiding personal criticism even when opposing their ideas Maintaining an open communication climate Using a friendly and cooperative style of giving instructions Making clear statement of expectations Giving incentives

Counseling is specialized form of advice, persons who are experts in psychiatry, medicine, law give advice on matters related to the subject Companies that take care of their employees welfare have counseling services for them Communication for counseling is oral, face to face and confidential Counseling can be successful only if there is free two way communication

A manager or supervisor may advise junior employees on matters related to work or on personal matters if the relationship is close A senior may give advice to a confused employee on how to be more efficient Communication for advice is oral, face to face, informal and confidential The person giving advice must be tactful and have a sympathetic nature

Warning means advising or urging someone to be careful. It is meant to caution someone of possible danger A warning is also an authoritative and formal notice of something unfavorable It is only given when milder methods have failed to achieve results Good communication skills are required to give a warning without being insulting

Appreciation means showing and expressing praise for the work of others Simple appreciation can be expressed orally, in writing and by non-verbal methods

A manager may orally compliment the person or group A letter of appreciation can be issued An award of a certificate at a function A Promotion Invitation to a special meeting Assignment of more important and responsible tasks

Morale is a state of mind and of discipline and the spirit of a person or a group. It reflects their level of discipline and confidence Confidence is an important factor of morale. People need confidence themselves the management 3. in their companies ability An open communication climate helps to keep the morale high. It insures a good flow of information in the organization.

A good deal of communication moves from subordinates to superiors. Information moves upward by a system of periodical reporting and a collection of feedback and users evaluation sheets. People make requests, application, appeals to those who have power to grant them; aggravated persons may make demands or complaints; creative people make suggestions.

Requests are made by staff for various kinds of permission and favours. There may be requests for leave, for permission to report late or leave early on a particular day, or for an increase in salary. It is best done in two stages : 1. orally with the immediate supervisor and then, 2. a written request to a higher authority through the immediate supervisor.

Application is a written request, giving full details of the matter and supported with reasons, whenever necessary.

Appeal is an earnest request for help or support or for something that does not fall within your privileges. It is obtained by appealing to a higher authority with proper reasons. It may be written or oral by an individual or group.

A demand is formal and is put through an employee union. It has to be supported by god reasons. They are usually collective and in writing. Requests and appeals for better service conditions may turn into demands if the management is unsympathetic or the union is aggressive.

An employee who feels that he has not been given what he deserves (e.g. a promotion), makes a representation. A representation must contain full explanation of the case; evidence in the form of documents like an appointment letter, rules in the service-conditions book or government circulars, may be quoted or cited.

Complaint is made when there are faults or defects in the system or in the goods supplied or the service rendered, so that it may be corrected. Within an organization, minor complaints may be adjusted by oral communication. In commercial transactions it is necessary to make the complaint in writing. Customers can also make complaints by telephone.

A suggestion is a new idea proposed for consideration. In an organization, employees at all levels may suggest to their supervisors and seniors, ideas on better procedures and methods. A suggestion is usually oral and may come in a formal or informal discussion.

Communication among persons of the same status is very important for co-ordination and planning. Managers need to meet up at regular intervals to ensure that the organizations activities are in harmony. Official issues may be taken up in the form of meetings, requests, suggestions and advice may be exchanged informally.

Heads of department and other peer groups need to share information about work, activities, progress and processes. Some information is passed through copies of documents like letters and reports. A good deal is exchanged orally by formal and informal meetings or over the intercom.

Informal and formal requests are made among peer groups for suggestion, advice, favours and so on.

Plans and projects require discussion and review; formal and informal meetings are held for this purpose. Daily routine matters may be settled by informal discussion. Discussions among people have an educative value and are used in training programs.

Projects and tasks involve several departments. Every department must know how the other aspects of the task are progressing so that all can make a proper contribution. Members of a team need to meet regularly to review and understand the progress of their project.

Conflicts are unavoidable when different personalities work together. Regular lateral communication is necessary for preventing and resolving conflicts that arise between departments or individual members of a team.

Problems may arise in the course of carrying out any task or project. Most of there can be solved by horizontal communication among all those who are concerned with the problem and affected by it.

One of the most important and informal objective of lateral communication is to provide social and emotional support among peers.

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