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Yield Criteria

-Failure Analysis -
SOLID MECHANICS II
BMCS 3333
Nadlene Razali

Failures overview
There are various type mode of failures :

Fracture mechanic
Fatigue
Structure instability (buckling)

Introduction
Introduction
Few example of failures:
Structural failure
Introduction
Structural failure
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed
Introduction
Structural support for spherical storage tank collapse
Introduction
Coal stacking belt failure, in Pennsylvania.
Introduction
Hydrogen embrittlement fracture surface of a bolt showing multiple
initiation sites. The fastener was one of eight body bolts in a high
pressure pump that failed after years in atmospheric service.
Introduction
A natural gas pipeline in Venezuela ruptured next to a major highway in
September, 1993. The subsequent gas jet ignition resulted in an inferno
that killed at least 50 people.
Introduction
The Heverill Fire Department aerial ladder failure. Structural failure of
a ladder is not at all an uncommon event. Failure can result from poor
design, use of inferior material, fabrication methods, or from a
phenomenon called fatigue.
Introduction
During a violent storm on the evening
of 28 December 1879, the centre
section of the bridge, known as the
"High Girders", collapsed, taking with
it a train that was running on its single
track. More than 75 lives were lost.
Tay Bridge disaster (1879), in
Scotland.
Introduction
SS AMERICA - Queen of the American Merchant Marine. Designed
and constructed at the zenith of transatlantic passenger ship service
in the late 1930s.
Introduction
Due to hurricane-strength winds and mountainous waves continued
to pound the hapless. Over 55 years since first being riveted together
- suffered a total fracture (1994); the result of metal fatigue.
Introduction
Loading Types:

Static load
Dynamic load
Thermal
Cyclic Load
Introduction
Static or static load : sometimes a load is assumed to be
static when it is known that some variation is to be
expected.
Introduction
Mode of Failure
Introduction
Ductile Material Brittle Material

Failure Analysis

Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Ductile Material Brittle Material
Fail after yield point which
are cause by slipping
Suddenly fracture with no
apparent yielding
Maximum Shear Stress
Theory Tresca yield criterion
Maximum Distortion Energy
Theory von-Mises
Maximum Normal Stress
Theory - Rankine
Mohrs Failure Criterion
Ductile material gives large tensile strain before
fracture. Failure is specified by the initiation of
yielding.
Ductile failure can be defined when slipping occurs
between the crystals that compose material. This
slipping is due to the shear stress.
The edges of the planes of slipping appear at the
surface of the strip referred to as Luders lines.
Example of ductile material: steels and aluminum

Theories of Failure for Ductile Material
Luders lines - 45
0

to the strip axis

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
Failure of a machine component subjected to
uniaxial stress is directly predicted from an
equivalent tensile test.
Failure of a machine component subjected to
plane stress cannot be directly predicted
from the uniaxial state of stress in a tensile
test specimen.
It is convenient to determine the principal
stresses and to base the failure criteria on
the corresponding biaxial stress state.
Failure criteria are based on the mechanism
of failure. Allows comparison of the failure
conditions for a uniaxial stress test and
biaxial component loading.
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
Maximum shearing stress criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum shearing stress is less than the
maximum shearing stress in a tensile test
specimen at yield, i.e.,
2
max
Y
Y
o
t t = <
For o
a
and o
b
with the same sign,
2 2
or
2
max
Y b a
o o o
t < =
For o
a
and o
b
with opposite signs,
2 2
max
Y b a
o o o
t <

=
Tresca Yield Criterion
Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory

Energy per unit volume of material is called the strain-energy density.
Material subjected to a uniaxial stress , the strain-energy density is
written as,
oc
2
1
= u
3 3 2 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
c o c o c o + + = u
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

For linear-elastic behavior, applying Hookes law into above equation:





Maximum-distortion-energy theory is defined as the yielding of a
ductile material occurs when the distortion energy per unit volume of
the material equals or exceeds the distortion energy per unit volume of
the same material when subjected to yielding in a simple tension test.
( )
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
2 3 3 1 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
o o o o o o u
o o o
E
u
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Distortion energy per unit volume in anisotropic material under plane
stress,




For uniaxial tension test, o
1
= o
Y
, o
2
= o
3
= 0. Therefore,
( )
2
2 2 1
2
1
6
1
o o o o + =
G
u
d
( )
2
6
1
Y
Y
d
G
u o =
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress

Since maximum-distortion energy theory requires ud = (ud)
Y
,
then for the case of plane or biaxial stress, we have:
2 2
2 2 1
2
1 Y
o o o o o = +
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
Y Mises von
Y d
u u
o o s
s

Maximum distortion energy criteria (von Mises):


Structural component is safe as long as the
distortion energy per unit volume is less than
that occurring in a tensile test specimen at
yield.
2 2
b b a a Mises von
o o o o o + =

Where
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
( )
( )
15 1
2
3
.
Y
Y
Tresca
Y
Mises _ von
Y
= =
o
o
t
t
Comparison between maximum-shear stress and maximum-distortion
energy criteria.
Actual torsion test result show
t
Y
/o
Y
range from 0.55 to 0.60.

Thus, the maximum-distortion-
energy theory appears more
accurate.
Y
Y
. o
o
577 0
3
=
Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials Under Plane Stress
Maximum normal stress criteria:
Structural component is safe as long as the
maximum normal stress is less than the
ultimate strength of a tensile test specimen.
U b
U a
o o
o o
<
<
Brittle materials fail suddenly through
rupture or fracture in a tensile test.
The failure condition is characterized by the
ultimate strength o
U
.
Yield Criteria for Brittle Materials Under Plane Stress
stress allowable
stress yield
S F = .
Be aware some F.S. based on ultimate tensile stress
The factor reduces the failure stress level to a value called working
stress which, under foreseen operating condition, the material in
component part of a design will have to withstand.

Factor of safety

It is needed due to:
Mathematical models only approximation.
Material property vary from batch to batch.
Type of loading produce unknown stresses.
Residual stresses from manufacturing processes.
Effect of environment, heat, ageing, corrosion etc.
General guidelines of F.S.
1.2 1.5 :Reliable materials under controllable condition.
1.5 2.0 :Well known materials under reasonably
constant environmental conditions and loads
and stresses easily determined.
2.0 2.5 :Average material. Also known Service Factors.
2.0 4.0 :For less tried material.
5.0 7.0 :Impact loading, to prevent failure.

Factor of safety

Example:
For the state of stress shown, determine the maximum
shearing stress when:
a) oy = 20 MPa
b) oy = 140 MPa
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Solution:
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
If the material yields in uniaxial simple tension at a stress o
y
= 210 MPa,
investigate whether it will yield according to the maximum shear stress
criteria (tresca criteria) for both cases (a) and (b)?
Tresca criteria,
Yielding when
2
max
Y
Y
or
o
t t <
Thus,
For case (a), t
max
= 100 MPa < 210 /2 . Not yielding.
For case (b), t
max
= 110 MPa > 210 /2 . Yielding occurs.
Example
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Example:
A steel pipe has inner diameter of 60 mm and outer diameter of 80 mm. It is
subjected to a torsional moment of 8 kNm and a bending moment of 3.5
kNm.
By using maximum-distortion-energy theory, determine whether the steel
pipe will fail or not? (Given that o
Y
= 250 MPa).
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Solution:
Torsional and bending moments are uniform throughout the pipes
length.
At arbitrary section a-a, loadings produce the stress distributions
shown.
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
By inspection, points A and B subjected to same state of critical stress.
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
MPa 9 . 101
m 03 . 0 m 04 . 0 4
m 04 . 0 m N 3500
MPa 4 . 116
m 03 . 0 m 04 . 0 2
m 04 . 0 m N 8000
4 4
A
4 4
=

= =
=

= =
t
o
t
t
I
Mc
J
Tc
A
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
MPa 9 . 50
2
9 . 101 0
=

=
avg
o
= 127.1

MPa 0 . 178 1 . 127 9 . 50
MPa 2 . 76 1 . 127 9 . 50
2
1
= =
= + =
o
o
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Using maximum distortion energy criterion (von mises),
( )
2
2 2 1
2
1
o o o o + ( ) ( )( ) ( )
2 2
0 . 178 0 . 178 2 . 76 2 . 76 + =
= 226 MPa < o
y
Since criterion is met, material
within the pipe will not yield (fail)
according to the maximum-
distortion-energy theory.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
___________
Kamarul Ariffin, FKM, UTeM BMCS 2333-
2008
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Example:
The state of plane stress shown occurs in a machine component made of
a steel with o
y
= 210. Using the maximum distortion energy criterion
(Von mises criterion) determine whether yield occurs when:
(a) t
xy
= 42 MPa
(b) t
xy
= 84 MPa
(c) t
xy
= 98 MPa
If yields does not occur, determine the corresponding factor of safety.
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Solution:
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis
Yield Criteria Failure Analysis