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All-IP RAN interworking

IP RAN supports

Rel 99 Iu (for WCDMA and GERAN ), Rel 97/99 A and Gb/IP, Rel 99 Iur for WCDMA Rel 99 Iur-g for GERAN Rel'5 Rel 97/99 terminals

--> Full interoperation with installed networks

Nokia All-IP RAN


UTRAN Rel'99, Rel4 RNC
SMLC RNGW CSGW CRMS RNAS CRMS

CN interface BSS any release BSC

Iub

Rel 99 UTRAN Iur

IP BTS OMS

LMU

SMLC

Iur-g for GERAN Rel'5 only

Abis

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Optimized architecture/ products for these worlds ? 5.00


4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00

Traffic growth scenario


2000 1800 1600
Non-Realtime Realtime Voice

Background Interactive Streaming Video calls CS Data Rich Call IP Voice CS Voice

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

MBytes / user / day

Bits/s BH / user ~60/20/20 % traffic reference: best effort packet/ CS-voice/ RT packet data)
'application' bits over Air interface

NOKIA

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Nokia distributed All-IP RAN architecture


Multiradio architecture, with multimode All-IP BTS User plane and Control plane separated to allow optimised handling Dynamic association between BTS and Radio Access Servers Radio interface performance critical functions located in the BTS, close to radio Transport optimised by relocating functionalities
Upgrades to Nokia UltraSite and MetroSite EDGE / WCDMA Base Stations

Radio NW Common Radio Access O&M Resource Server Server Server A and Iu-cs
Nokia FlexiServer

Nokia CS Gateway

IP / ATM / MPLS transport

Gb

Iu-ps
Multimode All-IP Base Station GSM/EDGE/WCDMA
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Nokia RN Gateway WLAN

Core Network Gateways


Platform: IP740
RNGW: RAN Gateway
IuPS Uplane

Platform: FlexiServer
RNGW Ctrl BSSAP'/ RANAP'

IuPS Cplane

Platform: IPA2800
Iu-CS A

RNAS

BSSAP/RANAP relay CSGW Ctrl

RNAS: RAN Access Server


Ctrl UCF BSGW A/IP, Iu-CS/IP

CSGW: Circuit Switched Gateway

Iu-PS Iu-PS

BSGW

RAN Gateway is the user plane gateway for IP traffic.

RNGW

Micromobility anchor for Iu-PS Uplane Firewall t.b.d.

Radio Network Access Server is the control plane gateway for RAN-external signaling.

RNAS

Micromobility anchor for Cplane (terminates the signaling bearer connections, and relays L3 messages) Paging Server O&M of CN interface (reset, overload) RNGW and CSGW control

Circuit Switched Gateway is the user plane gateway for non IP traffic

CSGW

ATM to IP interworking (Iu-CS and Iur, both Cplane and Uplane PCM to IP Interworking (A, Uplane and Cplane) Transcoding Micromobility anchor for A and Iu-CS Uplane

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Common Resource Management Server

RAN Common Servers


O&M Server Serving Mobile Location Centre

Platform: FlexiServer

Common Radio Resource Management Server performs RAN Wide Radio Resource Management (inter cell/layers/system)
Load sharing Policy Management Autotuning for load sharing between layer

CRMS

O&M Servers performs RAN O&M functions


Connection to OSS Logical O&M System Info Broadcast Configuration Manag. Performance Manag. Fault Manag. Autotuning features

OMS

Serving Mobile Location Center performs UE Positioning Calculations


Support of multiple positioning methods Support of positioning request through 2G and 3G core LMU control and O&M

SMLC

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UE Control Function Termination of the CN signalling Radio signalling (RR, RRC) RAB Admission control Handover control Initialisation of dedicated resources in the network ULTRA upgrade OMS Cell Resource Server GRR protocol Radio Admission control Channel allocation and resource reservation Load Control

CN Cplane

All-IP BTS
CN Uplane Base Station Gateway Termination of CN interface user plane PDCP, RLC, MAC-d MDC (Soft Handoff) Ciphering External Iur: one UE may use UCF/BSGW in Serving BTS, and CRS/CGW(L1) in drift BTS Cell Gateway GERAN PCU WCDMA PS for shared and HS data channel Retransmission

UCF
RR O&M

BSGW

CRS

CGW BTS L1 LMU

(Iub / Abis)

SMLC

BS O&M Termination of logical O&M interface Implementation specific O&M

Location Measurement Unit Could be external to the IP BTS BTS L1: Same functionality of Rel'99 BTS and Node B

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All-IP RAN products

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High level BTS integration

Example configuration
3 sectored 2+2+2 solution 384 code channels multi-mode upgradeable Expansion slots

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Comparision, RNC functionality in IP RAN


Assumptions based on Peritus y. 2008 PS traffic: 12174 Mbit/s CS tarffic: 4870 Mbit/s subscribers: 13,6 M -> 168 rack s RNCs ( or 676 racks BSS11 BSC )
RNAS RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC RNC CSGW CSGW CSGW

-> 5 racks RNAS -> 30 racks CSGW -> 15 racks RNGW = 50 racks with IP RAN

RNGW

RNGW

One rack = 10 racks


9 NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN

All-IP Indoor Supreme BTS


MEA + MCI MAF

High Capacity All-IP BTS


RF Units Mode specific

MTP

FAN

MSU MAM MUP MRS

Supports 1-9 sectored solutions up to 36 WCDMA carriers per cabinet up to 1152 code channels per cabinet multi-mode capable with All-IP RAN rel. 2 ideal for multi-operator RAN full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept ideal for indoor installations Co-siting with existing BTS sites

MIM

Common Multi-radio digital units

MFE

Dimensions H x W x D 1800 x 600 x 600 mm Operating temperature range -40 +50 C Mains Supply -48 VDC or 230 VAC

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All-IP Outdoor Compact BTS


MEA + MCI

High Capacity All-IP BTS

MAF

MFE

MTP

FAN

MSU MAM MRS

Supports 1-9 sectored solutions up to 36 WCDMA carriers per cabinet up to 1152 code channels per cabinet multi-mode capable with All-IP RAN rel. 2 ideal for multi-operator RAN full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept ideal for outdoor installations Co-siting with existing BTS sites minimized site requirements due to small size unobtrusive in roof top installations due to low cabinet height

MUP

MIM

Dimensions H x W x D 1500 x 770 x 770 mm Operating temperature range -40 +50 C Mains Supply -48 VDC or 230 VAC

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All-IP Upgrade to Ultrasite WCDMA BTS


WAF

Base station (BTS) software upgrade for new functionality:


WPA

Iub over IP in R4 network All-IP RAN BTS in R5

WIC

WTR

Transport upgrade:
WSC

new IP router unit (IRIS),


reuse of RAN1/RAN2 IFUs (IP over ATM), or introduction of new IP IFUs (no ATM)

WPS

IRIS
WAM x 2 WSP x 6 WSM IFU x 5

WFA

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All-IP RAN Server Configurations - Examples


OMS+RNAS+CRMS+SMLC OMS+RNAS+CRMS OMS+SMLC OMS+CRMS

( ca. 3 Msubs )

( ca. 1.5M subs )

(ca. 1.5M subs)

( ca. 1M subs )

HDD OMS RNAS SMLC CRMS

Flexible configuration of nodes to different server applications; max. 44 nodes per rack Connectivity to 1000 IP-BTS, max. 6000 IP-RAN cells; Capacities/node estimates with current call-mix assumptions for 2008: RNAS 150k subs, CRMS: 250k subs, SMLC: 375k subs
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All-IP RAN Servers - Server Blades HW


Cabinet Chassis
Up to 12 CPU slots Fan tray, display panel

2 x LAN switches & Fiber Channel hubs, System mgt functions

IP Director CPU Disk Drive

9/11/12 nodes per subrack, two CPUs per node => 88 CPUs per rack

duplicated IP director per rack (one IP address, or very few addresses, visible to external network)
Pair of disks per rack (exact location in the rack FFS)
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RNGW
IP740 platform 19" racking User plane throughput 44 Mbps per RNGW (200 byte packets), 150k RABs (max. 2.5k Handovers/s) max. 18 RNGWs per rack => 792 Mbps and 2.7M RABs per rack
Ethernet Switches - circa 3U each RNGW - circa 2U each - up to 18 RNGWs per rack (without switches)
Ethernet Switch Ethernet Switch

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IPA2800 platform

1800 * 600 * 600 mm (H*W*D) rack

10 000 Iu-CS channels per rack

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1 cabinet 10000 channels


1 CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP MX622-B PD20 MX622-B CDSP AL2SU AL2SU AL2SU CCP10 IPS1/IPGE x TBUF TCU TCU TCU TCU TCU TCU TCU TCU MXU x MXU TCU A2SU A2SU A2SU ISU IPNIU x TBUF CDSP IW16P1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 CDSP IW16P1 CDSP IW16P1 CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP CDSP MX622-B PD20 MX622-B CDSP CDSP AL2S CDSP CDSP AL2S CDSP AL2S CCP10 IPS1/IPGE CDSP CDSP x TBUF TCU IWU IWU TCU TCU IWU TCU TCU TCU TCU TCU MXU x MXU TCU TCU A2SU A2SU TCU TCU A2SU ISU TCU IPNIU x TCU TBUF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 SF10 x x CCP10 NIS0/ 0 / CCP10 CCP10 CCP10 MX622-B PD20 MDS ( OMU ) SFU /1 x x ISU NIS1/ 0 CM / 1 CACU / 1 SPMU / 1 MXU 0/ 1 x FDU SF10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 x x x NIS0/ 0 / CCP10 CCP10 CCP10 MX622-B PD20 EHAT ESA12 MCPC2 HDS (NEMU) CCP10 HDS (OMU) TSS3 TBUF OMU / 1 WDU / 1 WDU / 1 HDS (NEMU) CCP10 HDS (OMU) TBUF TSS3 OMU / 0 WDU / 0 SFU /0 x x x NIS1/ 0 CM / 0 CACU / 0 SPMU / 0 MXU 0/ 0 x EHU (NEMU) NEMU WDU / 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

CSGW

Core Site Solution ( incl. All-IP RAN Servers )


Core Site (IP/MPLS)
HSS CPS MSC Server SGSN RNC

GGSN RNGW Interconnects CSGW

MGW

All-IP RAN Servers

IP

SDH/ DWDM

ATM

LAN/WAN connectivity (IP/MPLS)


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OSR GSR

Simulation on All-IP RAN gains

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Radio Performance gains in All-IP RAN


Introduction / Background User Plane packet channel Gains Control Plane packet channel Gains for Packet Services Combined results Other Potential Gains Summary

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Radio performance in All-IP RAN


-Setting up a session for a transport protocol (e.g. TCP) is quicker in IP RAN due to faster transport and smaller RLC RTT - User experiences smaller delay in setup phase.

Router

All-IP BTS
RLC

Mobile
Transport Protocol

RLC

- Transport is based on fast IP routing in IP RAN. - 'Information highway' ends in RNC in UTRAN, but lasts till IP BTS in IP RAN. - Routing of a packet from CN to IP BTS takes only few ms.

No Iub in IP RAN --> - Smaller RLC RTT - quicker RLC retransmissions - User experiences better bit rate for bursty traffic

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Rlc and transport protocol


UTRAN/BSS
IP RAN

T ransport protocol

T ransport protocol

T ransport protocol

T ransport protocol

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

Mobile

BT S

RNC/BSC

Server

Mobile

IP BT S

Server

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All-IP RAN Gains for Packet Services


Details on the transmission of a data burst
Scheduling, RF meas. and pwr calc.

Minimum allocation time of channels


Transmission on DSCH Release Timer Iub Release

UTRAN

Iub Setup

Channel Allocation User Plane TimeGain Gain

Release Timer Gain

IP RAN

Scheduling, RF meas. and pwr calc.

Transmission on DSCH

Rel. Timer

Start: Packet scheduler decides to use DSCH transmission

Control Plane Gain

time

User Release Channel Control Plane Timer Plane Allocation Gain: Gain:Time Gain:

Shorter Faster No Iuballocation RLC allocation interface RTT time setup time gives gives time, of faster DCH/DSCH that gives transmission the faster gives of release higher setup user of availability timer data. the DSCH can be ofand reduced. codes associated and increased DCH capacity.
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User Plane Gains for Packet Services (I)


Assumptions:

- TCP/IP traffic, e.g. web browsing, single object per page: TCP algorithms (slow start with 1 Maximum Segment Size initial window, MSS = 1460 B, delayed TCP acknowledgement) - TCP session setup: 3-way handshake (3 messages, last setup message contains HTTP request) - RLC RTT 140 ms for UTRAN and 70 ms for IP RAN - Block Error Rate over radio 10% - Constant user bitrate over the radio interface - CN RTT 65 ms (web server very close to RAN). No server processing time.

Experienced Bit Rate: user bits / total TX time, without DSCH/DCH allocation delay Gain (%): how much better experienced bit rate IP RAN gives compared to UTRAN with Iub interface Result evaluated for WCDMA case, similar results for GERAN

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NOKIA

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User Plane Gains for Packet Services (II)


Gain depends, for example, on the allocated user bit rate, RLC BLER and the page size.
IP RAN Gain (%) for different page sizes, 10% BLER
40 30

Page sizes
23 kbits 46 kbits 105 kbits 296 kbits

20 10 0 32 64 128 256 384 Radio Channel Capacity (kbps)

The smaller the page the more gain -> the gain in the beginning of downloading The bigger the user bit rate the more gain -> the big bitpipe used more efficiently in All-IP RAN

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Control Plane Gains for Packet Services (I)


The Control Plane (ex: allocation and release of radio channel, channel switch, etc) is more efficient in All-IP RAN than in UTRAN, mainly thanks to that there is no Iub interface.

The gain from the more efficient Control Plane is especially large for packet services, due to the frequent change of state.
Evaluation: Find the improvement in download time for files of different sizes for different user bit rates on the air interface Assumption: Iub setup time=350msec, other parameters like in previous example.

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Control Plane Gains for Packet Services (II)


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Delay Gain [%]

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 32 64 128 256 384 Radio Channel Capacity [kbps]

Page Size [kbits]

23 46 105 296

Note that the above gains are found within Control Plane alone In general, the gain is between 10 and 30%. Gain is highest for small files and high bit rates

For most common file sizes and user bit rates, the gain is about 20 - 25%

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Combined User Plane and Control Plane Gains


The combined User and Control plane results for Gain expressed in in terms of delay gains: -> DELAY REDUCTION UP TO 40 %
50

Delay Gain [%]

40 30 20 10 0 32 64 128 256 384 Radio Channel Capacity [kbps]

Page size [kbits]

23 46 105 296

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Other gains expected from optimization of RRM algorithm


Reasons:

Measurements from UE and from IP BTS are available in the same node Note that HSDPA (High Speed Packet Access) is RRM algorithms aresame preferably located as close as possible to the radio going in the direction as All-IP RAN: Proprietary BTS measurement are available for new optimized RRM algorithms and capacity enhancing features (no need of 3GPP Iub standardization) HSDPA scheduling moved to Node B Example: However, solution more complex as scheduling Imagine that an algorithm needin a the newRNC. measurement in the BTS. for enhanced other channels are kept In IP RAN, we implement it without waiting for 3GPP. In UTRAN, this measurement needs to be standardised on the Iub interface, meaning All-IP RAN problem! that we need to merge ourovercomes proposal withthis the opinions from other companies.

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Conclusions
Users experience better service in All-IP RAN for packet data, with delay for the transmission of a packet reduced up to 40% Reduced code allocation time. Potential optimization of RRM algorithm without the burden of using the predefined Iub measurement

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Case; transport comparision

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Input parameters
Name Voice Streaming WWW FTP E-Mail Type RT 12.2kbps RT 64kbps NRT NRT NRT UMTS Traffic Number of Connections Class New Basic NRT Extreme RT Extreme Conversational 18 12 24 Streaming 6 0 18 Interactive 6 12 6 Background 6 12 0 Background 6 12 6

IP Router Buffer Sizes: Leaf BTS, 30 kbytes (leaf means last BTS in the tree topology) Other BTSs, 100 kbytes

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IP RAN

40% SHO OH for RT traffic only IPv6 transport UDP/IP compressed MDC in first starpoint
27.66 Mbps DS Rt_A1 2.05 Mbps DS 2.21 Mbps Rt_A DS

DS Rt_Core

DS 30.04 Mbps Rt_D2

1.92 Mbps

Rt_A2 DS
2.05 Mbps Rt_D1

DS
Rt_D

DS Rt_B1 2.05 Mbps DS Rt_B 2.05 Mbps DS Rt_B2 2.05 Mbps 8.61 Mbps 2.05 Mbps 2.07 Mbps DS Rt_B3 DS DS Rt_B4 DS Rt_B5 DS DS Rt_C2 Rt_C1 2.05 Mbps Rt_C 2.05 Mbps DS Rt_C3 2.22 Mbps 2.19 Mbps DS Rt_F2 DS 2.04 Mbps DS Rt_G DS 2.05 Mbps Rt_E 21.67 Mbps 23.93 Mbps 2.05 Mbps DS Rt_E3 DS Rt_E4

2.05 Mbps DS
Rt_E1 4.70 Mbps

2.23 Mbps 9.00 Mbps DS Rt_E2 DS 2.05 Mbps Rt_F DS Rt_F3

2.05 Mbps

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Rt_G1

DS Rt_F1

RAN 1

40% SHO OH for RT and NRT traffic No Stat Mux gain 42,6Mbps No centralised AAL2
4,26Mbps

46,86Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps
4,26Mbps 38,34Mbps 4,26Mbps

34,08Mbps 4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps

4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 4,26Mbps 12,78Mbps 8,52Mbps 4,26Mbps 12,78Mbps 4,26Mbps

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RAN 2

40% SHO OH for RT traffic only Centralised AAL2


31.4Mbps 34.54Mbps

3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps
3,14Mbps 28.26Mbps 3, 14Mbps

25,12Mbps 3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps

3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 3,14Mbps 9,42Mbps 6,28Mbps 3,14Mbps 9,42Mbps 3,14Mbps

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RAN2 with centralised AAL2 compared with RAN 1 saves 15% - 30% in capacity 15% is here refered to modest and 40% aggressive case of saving with Centralised AAL2 of RAN2 Additional saving of RAN2 compared with RAN1 is the NRT traffic not having SHO OH

Comparison

Comparison against RAN1

RAN1 IPv6 RAN

Leaf BTS Savings Savings capacity [Mbps] [% ] 4.26 2.08 2.18 51%

Comparison against RAN2 ( 15 % )

RAN2 modest IPv6 RAN

Leaf BTS Savings Savings capacity [Mbps] [% ] 3.14 2.08 1.06 34%

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Common Radio Resource Management

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Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM)


Seamless integration of radio technologies to ensure optimum end user performance and resource usage
GSM/EDGE WCDMA GSM WCDMA GSM WCDMA

Macro Micro Pico

multi-mode terminal

GSM/EDGE WLAN WCDMA TDD

Better capacity & quality level Offer higher user bit rates and lower blocking Enable load sharing and congestion control Distribute interference Enable multivendor RRM interoperability Easier operability Simple interworking in multi-vendor / multi-system environment
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CRRM Interfaces & Function


Nokia CRRM can connect to many different radio interface technologies New standardisation is needed for an open multivendor CRRM interface
CRRM server
RNC

IP-RAN Other.. TDD, WLAN,..


BSC

WCDMA GSM/EDGE

xRAN

Cell Loads & QoS


Set HO Parameters Handover Candidates Prioritized List

CRRM

CRRM

xRAN

CRRM acts as an advisor to each system when making decisions CRRM server is also the platform for other functions eg.

Setting idle mode parameters Fast auto tuning

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CRRM Simulation Results - Summary


QoS class Conversation Streaming Interactive Capacity gain with 2 layers No gain 40%-100% depending on the required delay Capacity gain with 4 layers 32 kbps 3% 144 kbps 10% 384 kbps 30% 70%-140% depending on the required delay Reason for the CRRM gain Timers are needed to prevent ping-pong (and also useful handovers) without CRRM No load reason inter-system cell reselections assumed without CRRM

Background

Less gain than with interactive if no delay is guaranteed

CRRM is most important for interactive connections for high bit rate (>32 kbps) conversational and streaming connections when large number of layers and systems are integrated Note: these gains are fairly ideal gains assuming no delays in signaling etc. With proper CRRM algorithms most of these gains can be obtained in practice
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