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Nuclear Power Plant

Mohammad Sohaib Amjad Mohammad Ali Ghaffar Mohammad Ali Tariq Sajid Ali Sadiq Rao Rashid M.Saleem

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.

uclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactor. The most common nuclear fuels are !"#$ and !"%&u. ot all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactions.

'hen a neutron stri(es an atom of uranium) the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously. *ission of heavy elements is an e+othermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as (inetic energy of the fragments.

A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons) and the process repeats. ,f the process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons.

U235 + n fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 MeV ,f each neutron releases two more neutrons) then the number of fissions doubles each generation. ,n that case) in -. generations there are -).!/ fissions and in 0. generations about 1 + -. !" 2a mole3 fissions.

uclear Reactors. 4ontrol Rods. Steam Generators. Steam Turbine. 4oolant &ump. *eed &ump. 4ondenser. 4ooling Tower.

A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated) controlled) and sustained at a steady rate) as opposed to a nuclear bomb) in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an e+plotion.

4ontrol rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can rise or lower the control rods. The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers li(e) boron) cadmium or indium.

Steam generators are heat e+changers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core. 5ither ordinary water or heavy water is used as the coolant.

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that e+tracts thermal energy from pressuri6ed steam) and converts it into useful mechanical. 7arious high8performance alloys and super alloys have been used for steam generator tubing.

The coolant pump pressuri6es the coolant to pressures of the order of -##bar. The pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almost constant with the help of the pump and a pressuri6er unit.

Steam coming out of the turbine) flows through the condenser for condensation and recirculated for the ne+t cycle of operation. The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the wor(ing fluid loop.

4ondenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid. The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine e+haust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate 9 feed bac( it to the steam generator without any further treatment.

4ooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. 'ater circulating through the condenser is ta(en to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse.

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&a(istan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operates civil nuclear energy power plants.

As of !.-!) the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants contribute roughly 3.6% of total energy consume in &a(istan and 62% from fossil fuels and 33% from hydro electric power.

&rofessor Abdul ala!) as a scientific advisor of president A"ub #$an % persuated him to establish &a(istan:s first commercial nuclear reactor) near (arachi (nown as (arachi nuclear power plant &#A'U((). ,t has capacity of *25 M+ established in corporate with canada.

,n the era of (M ,ousaf -a.a /illani% Govt. order (A01 to built nuclear power plants in pa(istan to produce 2200M+ of electricity by 2030. ;n !1 ovemeber) !.-") (M 'awa. $areef performed a ground brea(ing ceremony for two nuclear power plants with combined capacity of 2200M+ near (arachi.

Station Chashma Nuclear Power Complex 1 (CHASNUPP 1) Chashma Nuclear Power Complex $ (CHASNUPP $)

Community Chashma! Mianwali "istrict

Location #$%$#&#'()*+N*1% $*&,$(#)+-

Capacity (MW) #$)

Status .perational since /une $'''

Chashma! Mianwa #$%$#&$)+N*1%$*& li "istrict ,)+-

#$)

.perational since March $'1101$2

3arachi Nuclear Power Plant

3arachi

$,%)'&,1+N11%,*& $'+-

1$)

Partially .perational at 1''MWh since $''$ upon excee4in5 its 4esi5n li6e7 8o 9e 4ecommissione4 in $'1:

uclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dio+ide 24;!3. The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little. This technology is readily available) it does not have to be developed first.

uclear power plants don<t require a lot of space 8 they have to be built on the coast) but do not need a large plot li(e a wind farm. ,t doesn<t contribute to carbon e!issions 8 no 4;! is given out 8 it therefore does not cause global warming.

,t is reliable. ,t does not depend on the weather. 'e can control the output ,t is relatively easy to control the output 8 although the time factor for altering power output is not as small as for fossil fuel stations. The other main advantage of using nuclear energy is that it is very powerful and efficient than other alternative energy sources.

,t does not produce s!o3e particles to pollute the atmosphere. uclear energy is by far the most concentrated for! of ener4" 8 a lot of energy is produced from a small mass of fuel. This reduces transport costs.

,t ,t

produces a s!all 5olu!e of waste.

is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant.

The problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one.

=igh ris(s> ,t is technically impossible to build a plant with -..? security.

The energy source for nuclear energy is $ranium. $ranium is a scarce resource) its supply is estimated to last only for the ne+t ". to 1. years depending on the actual demand.

uclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attac(s..

@uring the operation of nuclear power plants) radioactive waste is produced) which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons. @isposal of nuclear waste is very e+pensive. As it is radioactive it has to be disposed of in such a way as it will not pollute the environment.

'uclear accidents can spread radiation producing particles over a wide area) This radiation harms the cells of the body which can ma(e humans sic( or even cause death. 6eco!!issionin4 of nuclear power stations is e+pensive and ta(es a long time.

uclear power plants continue to generate tons of e+tremely radioactive material as they burn through the fuel in their reactor cores. uclear reactors only last for about forty to fifty years) so where they are e+tremely productive) they brea( down and are costly to replace.

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