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Program Studi Ilmu Keperawatan FIKes URINDO

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Sistem Skeletal mencakup semua tulang dalam tubuh beserta jaringan tendo, ligamen dan kartilago yang menghubungkannya.

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Sistem Skeletal mencakup semua tulang dalam tubuh beserta jaringan tendo, ligamen dan kartilago yang menghubungkannya. Terdiri dari 206 tulang
Minnesota State University (MNSU) Biology Department

Dibagi atas 2 bagian: (1) axial skeleton (termasuk semua tulang di tubuh) (2) appendicular skeleton (tulang ekstremitas: lengan, tangan, tungkai, dan kaki.

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Bone is a type of hard connective tissue and has different

shapes and sizes depending on its own special function within the body. It is made up of different parts. Almost every bone in your body is made of the same materials. flexible than bone.

Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue that is more Tendon is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that
connects muscle to bone. another.

Ligament is similar to tendon except that it joins one bone to


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Gambar lutut kanan yang memperlihatkan jaringan tendo, ligamen dan kartilago yang menghubungkan tulang.

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http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_saladin/folder_structure/su/m2/s1/sum2s1_1.htm

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Tulang terdiri dari


The outer surface of bone is called the periosteum (pare-ee-ostee-m). It's a thin, dense membrane that contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone. The next layer is made up of compact bone. This part is smooth and very hard. It's the part you see when you look at a skeleton. Within the compact bone are many layers of spongy bone (kan-sell-us). It is not quite as hard as compact bone, but it is still very strong. In many bones, the spongy bone protects the innermost part of the bone, the bone marrow (mair-oh). Bone marrow is sort of like a thick jelly, and its job is to make blood cells.
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Jenis sel dalam tulang


Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Osteocytes Bone Lining Cells

Matrix formation Secretes Type I collagen Regulates mineralization Positioned above osteoid matrix Matrix usually polarized but can surround cells Differentiates to become osteocyte

Digests bone Large multinucleated Exhibits ruffled border and clear zone Exhibits polarity with nuclei away from bone surface High density of Golgi stacks, mitochondria and lysozomal vesicles

Born from
osteoblasts Maintains bone matrix Occupies lucunae Extends filopodia through canaliculi Forms gap junctions with neighboring cells

Flat, elongated
cells Generally inactive Cover surfaces of inactive bone Thought to be precursor cells to osteoblasts

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Calcium metabolism
What is the recommended daily intake? 1000mg What is the plasma concentration? 2.2-2.6mmol/L How is calcium excreted? Kidneys - 2.5-10mmol/24 hrs How are calcium levels regulated? PTH and vitamin D (+others)
Bone Metabolism CM Robinson Senior Lecturer 10 Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh

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Phosphate metabolism
Normal plasma concentration? 0.9-1.3 mmol/L Absorption and excretion? Gut and kidneys Regulation Not as closely regulated as calcium but PTH most important

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