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1) a) Explain the meaning of the term motivation (2)

b) Describe the motivating factors that could lead to improved health and safety in the workplace (6)
a) The driving force a person has to achieve a goal b) Training & information, improving employees knowledge of the consequences of not working safely. Commitment of the organisation to safety by providing resources & a safe working environment, Involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation & team meetings, recognising & rewarding achievement

2) a) State the criteria that should be used in assessing a persons competence to carry out a task (4) b) Outline The personal and organisational factors that may cause a person to work unsafely even though they are competent (4)

2) a) knowledge based on appropriate qualifications &


training, the skills, experience & personal qualities to apply the knowledge in a given situation, &, importantly, a clear recognition of his or her limitations.

b) management or peer group pressure, a poor safety culture in the organisation, a lack of resources or equipment, a lack of clarity in roles & responsibilities, inadequate supervision & poor working conditions Age, Medical condition, Attitude, Motivation

3) Outline the ways in which employers may motivate their employees to comply with health and safety procedures (8)

Improving, by training & the provision of information, employees knowledge of the consequences of not working safely. Showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by providing resources & a safe working environment, Involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation & team meetings, Recognising & rewarding achievement

4) Outline the reasons why employees may fail to comply with health and safety procedures

(8)

Lack of motivation Unrealistic working procedures Lack of management commitment Over familiarisation Repetitive work leading to boredom Peer group pressure Inadequate supervision Fatigue and stress Lack of information, training and consultation Job insecurity

5) a) Explain the meaning of the term perception

(2)

b) Explain how an understanding of perception can help to improve health and safety performance (6)
a) Perception:- The way that people interpret and make sense of presented information b) Make the nature of the hazards clear Warnings of hazards Training Suitable PPE Give confidence in others ability Select suitable personal

6) a) Identify the factors that place young persons at greater risk of accidents at work (4) b) Outline the measures that could be taken to minimise the risk to young persons (4)

(a), lack of perception of risk or avoidance of risk (because of limited knowledge, experience &/or lack of training),

the individuals stage of physical development,


The tendency of young persons to take risks & to respond to peer group pressure. (b), Risk assessments for young persons induction programmes, careful supervision Mentoring by an experienced older co-worker, clear lines of communication, limits on the number of hours worked.

8) a) Explain using examples, the meaning of EACH of the following terms: 1) Motivation 2) Perception (3) (3)

3) Attitude

(3)

b) Outline the ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace (11)
a) The driving force behind the that that someone strives to achieve a goal or objective (e.g. to work safely).
b) Perception:- The way that people interpret and make sense of presented information c) Attitude:- The tendency to respond in a particular way in a given situation

8) b) the use of skilled, competent & properly trained employees & ensuring that they are well motivated; avoiding monotonous work processes & arranging breaks to counter fatigue; designing clear roles & lines of communication with the workforce & ensuring adequate levels of supervision; establishing good lines of communication with the workforce & ensuring the clarity of instructions & information passed on to them; implementing policies on alcohol & drugs (prescribed & otherwise); addressing the workplace environmental issues such as noise, light & heat; & designing the workplace & work equipment to reduce the opportunity for error (e.g automation,unambiguous controls/information, monitoring & confirmation of actions, & feedback loops. The possibility of human error, & its effects on health & safety, should also form part of any risk assessment, which should take into account previous incidents & the results of accident investigation.

9) Describe the types of human error that can lead to accidents in the workplace (8) Slips Lapses of attention Mistakes Violations

10) a) Explain the meaning of the term perception (2)

b) Outline the factors that may influence a persons perception of risk in the workplace (6)
a) The way that people interpret & make sense of presented information for instance, in relation to their surroundings. b) the nature of the hazard (e.g. obvious or hidden, immediate or delayed effects, etc); a persons previous experience & familiarity with the situation; the level & nature of training; peer group influences; confidence in others abilities & judgements; & a number of other personal characteristics such as age, attitude & sensory impairment.

11) Outline FOUR advantages & FOUR disadvantages of using propaganda posters to communicate health & safety information to the workforce (8)
Advantages of posters include:

their relatively low cost, (allowing them to be displayed in


the lost apposite positions)

their brevity (allowing messages to be easily understood), their use in reinforcing verbal instructions or information, Providing a constant reminder of important health & safety
issues,

Potential to allow employees to become involved in their


selection & hence in the message being conveyed.

11) cont

Disadvantages include: the need to change posters on a regular basis if they are to be noticed, the fact that they may become soiled, defaced & out-of-date, & the possibility that they might be seen to trivialise serious matters. additionally they might actually alienate people if inappropriate stereotypes (e.g. of the stupid worker) are used, they provide no direct way of assessing whether the message has been understood, & they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy, if not particularly effective, way of discharging their responsibility to provide health & safety information, & even of shifting the responsibility onto the workforce for any accidents that may occur.

12) An investigation has identified two key underlying causes of a workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between employees and shortcomings in the quality of health and safety training. a) Identify the barriers to effective verbal communication that may have existed b) Outline the measures by which verbal communication could be improved (8) (6)

c) Describe the variety of training methods a trainer could use to improve the effectiveness of employee training in health and safety (6)

Question 12) a) Answer Hearing/speech defects Noise Distance from receiver Poor environment (light/temperature); Language/jargon Distractions lack of knowledge/experience Attitude of person to communication Duration/speed.

Question 12) b and c answer b) Make provision for speech/hearing defects; Control environment; avoid distractions; Limit distances; Avoid jargon; Use appropriate language; Check understanding; Compatible people; Limit duration/speed. C) Interaction with group; Question and answer; Practical exercises; Encourage participation; Visual aids; One to one; Competency testing; Using examples; Quality handouts:

14) Explain why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health & safety information in the workplace. (8) people respond differently to different stimuli, & that variety prevents over-familiarisation with one method & helps to reinforce a message. the need to overcome language barriers & the inability of some employees to read;

the need to motivate, stimulate interest & gain


involvement & feedback;

& the acceptance that different types of information


require different methods of communication.

15) With respect to Workers safety representatives:

1) Explain the occasions when a safety representative could be entitled to inspect the workplace (6) 2) Describe the facilities that an employer may need to provide to safety representatives (2)

16) Outline the various methods for communicating health and safety information to the workforce (8)

Health and safety committee meetings/minutes Team briefings

Toolbox talks
Formal training Safety signs/posters

Newsletters
Safety reports/memo/e-mail Verbal instruction

Written procedures/permit to work


Visual-video/computer programmes

18) Outline the topics that may need to be included on the agenda of a safety committee meeting. (8)
a review of recent accidents/incidents,

a review of proactive monitoring strategies such as


safety inspections & audits,

reports following visits by enforcement authorities, The effects of the company of new or impending H&S
legislation. possible amendments to the companys H&S policy & risk assessments,

the extent & effectiveness of any H&S training given to


employees,

& the introduction of new equipment & processes.

19) Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal instruction being clearly understood by an employee (8)
Hearing/speech defects Noise Distance from receiver Poor environment (light/temperature); Language/jargon Distractions lack of knowledge/experience

Attitude of person to communication


Duration/speed.

20) a) Explain the circumstances under which an employer should form a health and safety committee (2) b) Give reasons why a safety committee may be ineffective (6)

a) If there is a legal requirement or when requested by the safety representative

20) b)
a lack of management commitment;

no agenda or remit &/or no minutes or notes of the


meetings being produced;

an uneven balance between management &


employee representatives;

poor chairmanship; no access to the decision-making processes; infrequent meetings;

inappropriate topics;
& no access to H&S expertise.

22) a) Outline the typical role of a safety representative (8)

23) Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an employee at work (8)
the way that verbal information is given (e.g complex, jargonistic, ambiguous, not in the usual language of the receiver, in a heavy dialect;

distorted by the means of communication such as


telephone or tannoy;

inconsistent with body language; due to the environment (e.g noisy) or due to some
limitation on the part of the receiver (e.g. mental or physical difficulty),

Inattention; lack of knowledge or experience; restricted by PPE.

25) Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and presenting a health and safety training session (8)
Identify training needs Selection of training provider Duration of training; Research topic Learning outcome; Verification of learning outcome/test Experience of persons; Type of person Method of presentation Appropriate venue Resource materials/equipment

26) Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review of health & safety training within an organisation. (8)
the introduction of new technology or a new item of work equipment or process;

a job change for one or a group of individuals; accident


incidence data or the findings of an accident investigation;

the results of risk assessments or review; new legislation or guidance; as a result of enforcement action; new employees with special needs (e.g. young or disabled workers);

& requirements imposed by the employers insurance


company.

27) Explain how induction training programmes for new employees can help to reduce the numbers of accidents in the workplace (8) Establishes safety culture Shows management commitment Identified responsibilities Identifies hazard and precautions Employee is aware of hazards Imparts knowledge Employee recognises/reports hazards Sets scene for future performance:

28) An investigation has identified the two key underlying causes of a workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between employees and shortcomings in the quality of health and safety training. a) Identify the barriers to effective communication that may have existed (8) b) Outline the measures by which verbal communication could be improved (6)

c) Describe the variety of training methods a trainer could use to improve the effectiveness of employee training in health and safety (6)

28 a)
Hearing/speech defects
Noise Distance from receiver

Poor environment (light/temperature); Language/jargon


Distractions

lack of knowledge/experience
Attitude of person to communication Duration/speed.

29) (a) Outline the events that may create a need for additional health and safety training within an organisation (10) (b) Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and presenting a training session on health and safety (10)
a) Job change Promotion Restructuring/Reorganisation Change of process or equipment New legislation As a result of a risk assessment Inspection or audit Accidents/incidents, ill-health Enforcement action New buildings/acquisitions

Question 29) b) Answer


a) Identify the training needs Identify the training objectives The target audience, knowledge, skills etc. Training methods, lecture, video etc. How to evaluate effectiveness of training Number of trainees Time available Training aids required Suitability of training facilities, room size etc. Course rules and administration

30) a) Explain the meaning of the term Competent Person (4) b) Outline FOUR checks that could be made to help assess a persons competence (4) a) a person shall be regarded as competent where he has sufficient training and experience or knowledge and other qualities to enable him to carry out the measures required of him b) Evidence of qualifications Level of training Membership of professional organisation Undertaking written or practical assessments References or recommendations::

31) Outline how health and safety needs can be identified (8)

32) Outline the main health & safety issues to be included in an induction training programme for new employees. (8)
the organisations H&S policy,

emergency procedures, hazards specific to the workplace & the need to comply
with H&S requirements,

Health & safety responsibilities & lines of communication, accident & first-aid arrangements, & welfare provision.
More able candidates referred to health surveillance & consultation procedures.

33) LIst the factors that could be considered when assessing the health and safety competence of a contractor (8)
Experience of the type of work and industry Suitable references Enforcement record Safety management such as Policy, risk assessments etc. Accident and ill-health data Membership of trade/professional bodies Competence and training of employees Arrangements for selection of sub-contractors Arrangement for ongoing liaison with clients

34) Outline the methods by which the health and safety culture of an organisation may be improved (8)
The commitment & leadership of senior management

The competence & training of the workforce,


A clear policy with health & safety being given obvious equal priority to other business objectives (production, quality, etc);

the setting of realistic & achievable targets;


the provision of a good working environment; proactive monitoring of health & safety standards; effective communication channels; a no-blame culture; Consultation with, & the involvement of, the workforce.

35) Due to increasing sales a manufacturing company is about to recruit new staff in both production and administrative departments. a) List the main issues to be addressed in a general health and safety induction programme for the new employees (6) b) Outline the factors that will determine the level of supervision each new employee should receive during their initial period with the company (8) c) Identify the reasons why additional training of some or all of the employees may be required at a latter stage of their employment (6)

35) a)
the organisations H&S policy,

emergency procedures, hazards specific to the workplace & the need to


comply with H&S requirements,

Health & safety responsibilities & lines of


communication,

accident & first-aid arrangements, & welfare provision.


More able candidates referred to health surveillance & consultation procedures.

35) b)
the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of work in general & of the task to be performed in particular; the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks; the persons skills & qualifications for the work; his/her attitude & aptitude; the systems of work & any specific safety requirements applying to the task; & the employees communication skills & any special needs that he/she may have.

35) c)
the introduction of new processes, equipment & methods of work; as a result of a job change involving different health & safety requirements &/or the allocation of additional responsibilities; following the introduction of new legislation; where risk assessments or staff appraisals indicate that additional training is necessary; where refresher training is required such as that required for for-lift truck operators & first-aid personnel; following an accident, enforcement action or insurance impositions; & to counteract the possibility of employees becoming complacent & lax in following established procedures for health & safety.

36) Accidents are often attributed to human error which can be categorised into different types Outline FOUR types of human error, giving a workplace example in each case (8)

Slips Lapses of attention Mistakes Violations

37) Outline the personal factors that might place an individual at a greater risk of harm while at work (8)
a generally poor attitude to work, authority &/or risk often coupled with low motivation;

issues relating to physical capabilities or development


(such as lack of stature, strength &/or stamina) & to mental capabilities (such as poor reasoning skills);

poor perception of risk, perhaps influenced by alcohol or


drugs;

age-related behavioural factors associated with


immaturity;

medical conditions affecting physical or mental capacity.


The levels of training & experience of the individual.

38) Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an employee. (8)
the way that verbal information is given (e.g complex, jargonistic, ambiguous, not in the usual language of the receiver, in a heavy dialect;

distorted by the means of communication such as


telephone or tannoy;

inconsistent with body language; due to the environment (e.g noisy) or due to some
limitation on the part of the receiver (e.g. mental or physical difficulty),

Inattention; lack of knowledge or experience; restricted by PPE.

39) Outline the practical control measures by which a manager could involve employees in the improvement of health & safety in the workplace. (8)
involving employees in risk assessments; accident investigations; & the development of safe systems & procedures; encouraging hazard-spotting & the reporting of defects; setting up suggestion schemes; organising training courses & information programmes; supporting active involvement in safety committee meetings; being accompanied by employees or their representatives on safety tours & inspections; & giving employees responsibilities for mentoring young & inexperienced workers.

40) Outline the factors that may determine the level of supervision an employee should receive during their initial period of employment within a company. (8)
the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of work in general & of the task to be performed in particular; the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks; the persons skills & qualifications for the work; his/her attitude & aptitude; the systems of work & any specific safety requirements applying to the task; & the employees communication skills & any special needs that he/she may have.

41 (a) Explain the meaning of the term motivation.

(2)

(b) Other than the lack of motivation, outline SIX reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at work. (6)

41 Answer
a) The driving force behind the that that someone strives to achieve a goal or objective (e.g. to work safely). (b), lack of management commitment;

over familiarisation with the tasks to be performed; repetitive work, leading to boredom & lack of
concentration;

peer group pressure; wilful disregard of laid-down procedures coupled with


inadequate or ineffective supervision;

fatigue & stress; lack of communication, training & consultation.

42) Outline the factors which might contribute towards a positive safety culture within an organisation (8)

effective communication; No blame culture; Good leadership & commitment at senior level; monitoring workplace and implementing remedial action; consultation & employee involvement; a good working environment; Training Clear objectives Communication

43) Outline reasons why an employee might require additional health & safety training at a later stage of employment within an organisation. (8)

the introduction of new processes, equipment & methods of work; as a result of a job change involving different health & safety requirements or additional responsibilities; following the introduction of new legislation; where risk assessments or staff appraisals indicate that additional training is necessary; where refresher training is required such as that required for for-lift truck operators & first-aid personnel; following an accident, enforcement action or insurance impositions; & to counteract the possibility of employees becoming complacent & lax in following established procedures for health & safety.

44) a) Explain the meaning of the term competent person.

(2)

b) Outline the organisational factors that may cause a person to work unsafely even though they are competent. (6)

44) a) knowledge based on appropriate qualifications &


training, the skills, experience & personal qualities to apply the knowledge in a given situation, &, importantly, a clear recognition of his or her limitations.

b) management or peer group pressure, a poor safety culture in the organisation, a lack of resources or equipment, a lack of clarity in roles & responsibilities, inadequate supervision & poor working conditions Age, Medical condition, Attitude, Motivation

45) (a) Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace. (8) (b) Give FOUR reasons why the seriousness of a hazard may be underestimated by someone exposed to it. (4) (c) Outline ways in which managers can motivate employees to work safely. (8)

45) a) the use of skilled, trained & competent staff (including pre-employment screening issues); motivation of the workforce; task variety to prevent monotony & the provision of frequent breaks to avoid work overload; addressing workplace environmental issues such as noise, light & heat; mechanisation & automation; ensuring that controls on machinery are clearly marked; implementation of a drug & alcohol policy; Providing competent supervision of employees.

45) b) over familiarity & complacency; lack of instruction, information & training; lack of experience, particularly where young persons are involved; the fact that some hazards (e.g. airborne contaminants or radiation) may be invisible &/or intangible; sensory impairment; & involvement in routine, repetitive tasks that can lead to lack of attention.

. 45) c) The recognition of good health & safety performance


(e.g. by giving praise &/or offering financial incentives) is important in this respect. Disciplining employees who choose to ignore safe working procedures :

involving employees, for instance, in carrying out risk


assessments & drawing up safe systems of work;

improving the companys health & safety culture &


demonstrating a high level of management commitment;

ensuring a good working environment; & providing training & ensuring good communication.

46) (a) Identify FOUR factors relating to the individual


that might increase the risk of accidents at work. (4)
(b) Give reasons why maintenance operations may pose particular risks to those undertaking them. (4)

46) a) psychological factors such as attitude & motivation.


lack of skill or experience,

lack of familiarity (or possibly over familiarity) with the workplace, high
stress levels,

& health problems, medical conditions or physical disability/incapacity (including that


brought about by alcohol & drugs). b) The existence of new or different hazards, the lack of familiarity or experience with the tasks or equipment involved, the likelihood that the events leading to the need for maintenance & their hazards would be unpredictable, the possibility that the maintenance operations would have to be carried out in confined spaces or other poor work environments, pressure on maintenance staff to complete the work in as short a time as possible in order to return to normal production.

47) Outline the factors that may determine the level of supervision an employee should receive during their initial period within a company. (8)
the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of work in general & of the task to be performed in particular;

the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks;
the persons skills & qualifications for the work; his/her attitude & aptitude;

the systems of work & any specific safety requirements applying to the task; needs that he/she may have.

& the employees communication skills & any special

48) Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an organisation to decline (8)

lack of effective communication; the perception of a growing blame culture; lack of leadership & commitment at senior level; lack of monitoring or a failure to implement remedial action; lack of consultation & employee involvement; a generally a poor working environment; a high staff turnover leading to lack of continuity External influences such as downturn in the economy, leading to job insecurity with the possibility of H&S being seen as a less of a priority

49) Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review of health & safety training within an organisation. (8)
the introduction of new technology or a new item of work equipment or process;

a job change for one or a group of individuals; accident


incidence data or the findings of an accident investigation;

the results of risk assessments or review; new legislation or guidance; as a result of enforcement action; new employees with special needs (e.g. young or disabled workers); company.

& requirements imposed by the employers insurance

50) Outline ways in which employers may motivate their employees to comply with health & safety procedures. (8)
improving, by training & the provision of information, employees knowledge of the consequences of not working safely. showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by providing resources & a safe working environment, involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation & team meetings, recognising & rewarding achievement

51 (a) Explain the meaning of the term perception. (2) (b) Outline ways in which employees perceptions of hazards in the workplace might be improved. (6)

51) (a), the way that people interpret & make sense of presented information for instance, in relation to their surroundings.
.

(b). Motivation or to the need to increase awareness in the individual by safety campaigns or posters & to increase knowledge by means of training. identify the reasons for employees misperceptions in order to show how improvements might be achieved & how currently held views may be challenged. Other suggestions included making hazards more obvious (for example, by the use of signs) addressing environmental factors, such as lighting & noise, that might cause distraction or otherwise hinder the perceptual process.

52) Outline the main health & safety issues to be included in an induction training programme for new employees. (8)
the organisations H&S policy,

emergency procedures, hazards specific to the workplace & the need to comply
with H&S requirements,

Health & safety responsibilities & lines of communication, accident & first-aid arrangements, & welfare provision.
More able candidates referred to health surveillance & consultation procedures.

53) (a) Explain the meaning of the term perception. (2) (b) Outline the factors that may influence a persons perception of risk in the workplace. (6)

53) a) the way that people interpret & make sense of presented information for instance, in relation to their surroundings.

the nature of the hazard (e.g obvious or hidden, immediate

or delayed effects, etc); a persons previous experience & familiarity with the situation; the level & nature of training; peer group influences; confidence in others abilities & judgements; & a number of other personal characteristics such as age, attitude & sensory impairment.

54) Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an organisation to decline (8)

lack of effective communication; the perception of a growing blame culture; lack of leadership & commitment at senior level; lack of monitoring or a failure to implement remedial action; lack of consultation & employee involvement; a generally a poor working environment; a high staff turnover leading to lack of continuity & loss of momentum in making safety improvements; & external influences such as downturn in the economy, leading to job insecurity with the possibility of H&S being seen as a less of a priority

55) Most occupational accidents can be attributed in part to human error. Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace. (8)
the use of skilled, competent & properly trained employees & ensuring that they are well motivated;

avoiding monotonous work processes & arranging breaks to counter fatigue; designing clear roles & lines of communication with the workforce &
ensuring adequate levels of supervision;

establishing good lines of communication with the workforce & ensuring the
clarity of instructions & information passed on to them;

implementing policies on alcohol & drugs (prescribed & otherwise); addressing the workplace environmental issues such as noise, light & heat; & designing the workplace & work equipment to reduce the opportunity for
error (e.g automation,unambiguous controls/information, monitoring & confirmation of actions, & feedback loops. The possibility of human error, & its effects on health & safety, should also form part of any risk assessment, which should take into account previous incidents & the results of accident investigation.

2) Homework Outline the factors that might contribute to a positive health and safety culture within an organisation. (8)
Senior management commitment Ownership of H & S at every level Effective communication and consultation Training for all level employees A shared perception of risks Acceptable standards of behaviour Learning from experience by monitoring and review A balance between H & S and production External factors e.g. financial, Regulatory The provision of a good working environment Setting realistic and achievable targets No blame culture