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# 120

o
Conduction
For this type of conduction, each switch
conducts for 120
o
.
At any instant only two switches
conduct and the resulting output
voltage waveforms are quasi-square
wave.
The gating signals for the switches and
the circuit voltage waveforms are
shown on the next slide (Figure 5.7).

120
o
conduction contd
Here also, there is a shift of 60
o
between a
gating signal and the next gating signal, and
the switches are turned on and then after
120
o
turned off in the sequence Q
1
to Q
6
.
In this method of control, a 60
o
exists between two series switches in a leg.
This provides a safety margin against
simultaneous conduction of the two
switches connected across the dc voltage
source.

The circuit operates in six modes per
cycle and each mode lasts for 60
o
.
From Figure 5.7, the sequence of
conducting switches for the six modes
is 61, 12, 23, 34, 45 and 56.
The line-to-neutral output voltage
waveforms can be derived by
analyzing the circuit with a resistive
star load and considering each mode of
operation.

We may also use the star-connected
resistors to obtain only the phase v
an

waveform and obtain v
bn
and v
cn

waveforms by shifting it to the right by
120 and 240
o
respectively.
If the circuit is analyzed, it is observed
that v
an
= V
s
/2 when Q
1
is conducting,
v
an
= -V
s
/2 when Q
4
is conducting and
v
an
= 0 when none of the two is
conducting.

120
o
conduction contd
The line voltages are obtained using these
equations: v
ab
= v
an
- v
bn
, v
bc
= v
bn
- v
cn
,
and v
ca
= v
cn
- v
an
.
The line-to-neutral voltages have the same
shape as the line-to-line voltages for the
180
o
conduction.
The Fourier series of these line-to-neutral
voltages can be derived from equation
(5.14) to equation (5.16) by replacing V
s
by
V
s
/2 (See next slide):

( )

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
6
sin
6
cos
2
n
S
an
t n
n
n
V
t v
t
e
t
t
e

( )

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
2
sin
6
cos
2
n
S
bn
t n
n
n
V
t v
t
e
t
t
e

( )

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
6
7
sin
6
cos
2
n
S
cn
t n
n
n
V
t v
t
e
t
t
e

Inverter Output Voltage and
Frequency Control
It is often required that
- the output voltage of an inverter is
varied in order to regulate the voltage
of the inverter in power supplies or
- the output voltage and/or frequency
be varied as in adjustable or variable
speed drives.

Inverter output voltage and
frequency control contd
The voltage source inverters can be
classified into three general groups:
- Pulse-width-modulated inverters
- Square-wave inverters
- Single-phase inverters with
voltage cancellation

Pulse-width-modulated inverters
The input dc voltage is constant and the
inverter switches are pulse-width
modulated to control the magnitude and the
frequency of the ac output voltage.
There are a number of pulse-width-
modulation techniques.
Among them is the sinusoidal pulse-width
modulation, known by its abbreviation
SPWM, which is commonly used in
industrial applications.

Square-wave inverters
For the square-wave inverters, the rms
output voltage is controlled by varying
the dc source voltage and the
frequency controlled with the inverter.
A variable dc voltage can be achieved
with a dc chopper or controlled
rectifier.
A suitable link LC filter is usually
necessary.

Single-phase inverters with voltage
cancellation
The input dc voltage is constant and
the inverter controls both the
magnitude and frequency with a
technique that cannot be considered
as PWM.
It works only on single-phase full-
bridge inverters.

In this section, we discuss
- the voltage cancellation
technique and
- the SPWM as applied to
both single-phase and three-
phase inverters

In the pulse-width-modulated
switching scheme, the gating signals
are generated
- by comparing a control signal at the
desired frequency
- with a triangular waveform.
The frequency of the triangular
waveform establishes the inverter
switching frequency.

Let
=
c
f frequency of the control signal also known as modulating
signal
c
v
=
c
v

## amplitude of control signal

=
A
f frequency of the triangular signal
A
v also known as carrier
signal
=
A
v amplitude of the triangular signal
Then amplitude modulation ratio (
a
m ) and frequency modulation
ratio (
f
m ) are defined as follows:
A
=
v
v
m
c
a

c
f
f
f
m
A
=
The peak of the triangular signal is generally kept constant.

Output control by voltage cancellation
This is the same as the single-pulse-
width modulation.
There is only one pulse per half-cycle
and the width of the pulse is varied to
control the inverter output voltage.
Referring to figure on the next slide
(Figure 5.8), the switches in the two
inverter legs are controlled separately.

We note that for each leg
- when a positive switch is on then the
negative switch is off,
- and when the positive switch is off
the negative switch is on.
- Again at any given instant one switch
must be on.
- All switches have a duty cycle of 0.5,
similar to a square wave control.

This method is known as output control by
voltage cancellation because its
implementation is easily achieved by using
two phase-shifted square-wave switching
signals as shown on the next slide
The width of the pulse is controlled by
controlling the overlap angle .
During the overlap interval the output
voltage is zero because
- either both top switches are on
- or both bottom switches are on.

Output control by voltage cancellation
contd
The Fourier series of the output voltage
shown on the previous slide (Figure 5.9c)
has only odd sine terms.
The coefficients are given by
1 1
1
cos 2
) ( sin
2
o
o t
o t
o
e
t
e e
t

= =
}
n
t n v
t d t n
v
b
i i
n

( ) | |
1 1 1
cos
4
cos cos
2
o
t
o t o
t
n
n
v
n n
n
v
i i
= =

Output control by voltage cancellation
contd
The output voltage v
o
(t) is then given
by

The rms output voltage

( )

=
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
1
sin cos
4
n
i
O
t n n
n
v
t v e o
t

|
.
|

\
|
=
t
o
1
2
1
i L
v V

Output control by voltage cancellation
contd
And the rms of the fundamental component
is

As alpha one increases (beyond 30
o
), the
magnitude of the harmonics, particularly
the third becomes significant as compared
with the fundamental magnitude.
1 1
cos
2 2
o
t
i
v
V =

Sinusoidal pulse width modulation
Single-phase half-bridge VSI
The figure on the next slide (Figure
5.10) shows the single-phase half-
bridge used for the discussion in
this section.
At any instant one of the switches
should be on but not both.

Single-phase half-bridge VSI contd
Referring to the figure, the PWM technique
is used to define the on and off states of the
switches by comparing a control signal v
c

and a triangular waveform v

.
In practice, when v
c
> v

the positive
switch S
+
is on and the negative switch S
-

is off.
Similarly, when v
c
< v

the positive
switch S
+
is off and the negative switch S
-

is on.

Single-phase half-bridge VSI contd
We have

Since the two switches are never off
simultaneously, the output voltage
toggles between these two values.
2
i ao
v v = when the positive switch
+
S is on and
2
i ao
v v = when the negative switch

S is on

Single-phase half-bridge VSI contd
For sinusoidal pulse-width modulation the
gating signals are generated by comparing a
sinusoidal reference signal with a triangular
carrier wave as shown on the next slide
(Figures 5.9a, b and c).
The resulting output voltage is shown in
Figure 5.9d.
SPWM is used with the aim of producing
sinusoidal output waveform with magnitude
and frequency controllable.