Sie sind auf Seite 1von 67

Solutions are:

Dosage forms prepared by dissolving


the active ingredient(s) in an
aqueous or non aqueous solvent.
Solutions can be formulated for different
routes of administration

Orally: Syrups, elixirs, drops

In mouth and throat: Mouth washes, gargles,
throat sprays.

In body cavities: Douches, enemas, ear drops,
nasal sprays.

On body Surfaces: Collodions, lotions.
Advantages of SoIutions

(1) Easier to swallow therefore easier for:
children - old age - unconscious people.

(2) More quickly effective than tablets and capsules.

(3) Homogenous therefore give uniform dose than
suspension or emulsion which need shaking.

(4) Dilute irritant action of some drugs (aspirin, Kl, KBr)
minimize adverse effects in the GIT like KCl.
Disadvantages of SoIutions

(1) Bulky therefore difficult to transport and store.

(2) Unpleasant taste or odours are difficult to mask.

(3) Needs an accurate spoon to measure the dose.

(4) Less stable than solid dosage forms.
major signs of instability:
colour change,
precipitation
microbial growth
chemical gas formation
Additives
Buffers
To resist any change in pH
Isotonicity modifiers
Solutions for injection
Application to mucous membrane
Large-volume solutions for ophthalmic application
Most widely used isotonicity modifiers are: dextrose
and NaCl
Viscosity enhancement
It is difficult for aqueous-based topical solutions to
remain on the skin or in the eye (why?) therefore low
concentrations of jelling agents are added to increase
the viscosity of the product.
Preservatives
Solution may become contaminated for a number of reasons:
1. Raw materials used in the manufacture of solutions are
excellent growth media for bacterial substances such as gums,
dispersing agents, sugars and flavors
2. Equipment, environment and personnel contribute to product
contamination.
3. Consumer use may result in the introduction of microorganism.
a preservative should be added to the product

Preservative used should be:
1. effective against a wide spectrum of microorganisms
2. stable for its shelf life
3. non toxic, non sensitizing
4. compatible with the ingredients in the dosage form
5. free of taste and odour

Preservatives may be used alone or in combination to
prevent the growth of microorganisms.

Alcohols
-Ethanol is useful as a preservative when it is used as a
solvent.
It needs a relatively high concentration (> 10%) to be effective.
-Propylene glycol also used as a solvent in oral solutions and
topical preparations. It can function as a preservative in the
range of 15 to 30%. It is not volatile like ethanol.

Acids
-Benzoic acid and sorbic acid have low solubility in water.
-They are used in a concentration range from 0.1 % to 0.5%.
-Only the non-ionized form is effective and therefore its use is
restricted to preparations with a pH below 4.5 (WHY?).

Esters
-Parabens are esters (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl) of p-
hydroxybenzoic acid.
-They are used widely in pharmaceutical products and are
effective and stable over a pH range of 4 to 8.
-They are employed at concentrations up to about 0.2%.
Frequently 2 esters are used in combination in the same
preparation WHY?
- To achieve a higher total concentration
- To be active against a wider range of microorganisms.

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
-Benzalkonium chloride is used at a relatively low
concentration 0.002 to 0.02%.
-This class of compounds has an optimal activity over the pH
range of 4 to 10 and is quite stable at most temperatures.
-Because of the cationic nature of this type of preservative it is
incompatible with many anionic compounds.
Antioxidants
Vitamins, essential oils & almost all fats and oils can be oxidized.
Oxidation reaction can be initiated by:
1. heat: maintain oxidizable drugs in a cool place
2. light: use of light- resistant container
3. heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Cu): effect of trace metals can be
minimized by using citric acid or ethylenediamine tetraacetic
acid (EDTA) i.e. sequestering agent .
Antioxidants as propyl & octyl esters of gallic acid, tocopherols or
vitamin E, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid (vit. C) can be used.
Sweetening agents
Sucrose is the most widely used sweetening agent.
Advantages: Colourless, highly water soluble, stable over a
wide pH range (4-8), increase the viscosity, masks both salty and
bitter taste, has soothing effect on throat.
Polyhydric alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol and glycerol) possess
sweetening power and can be used for diabetic preparations.
Flavours and perfumes
- Mask unpleasant taste or odour
- Enable the easy identification of the product.
- Natural products: fruit juices, aromatic oil (peppermint, lemon)
- Artificial perfumes are cheaper, more readily available and
more stable than natural products.


Stability of solutions
Both physical and chemical stability of solutions
in their containers is very important
A solution must retain its clarity, colour, odour,
taste and viscosity over its shelf life.

Classification of Solutions According to Vehicle

(a) Aqueous solutions

(b) Non-aqueous solutions


Aqueous Solutions

Aqueous solutions are homogeneous mixtures that are
prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid or gas in an
aqueous medium (vehicle).

Vehicle: This may be water, aromatic water or extracts.
WATER
Water is used both as vehicle and as a solvent for the desired
flavoring or medicinal ingredients.
Advantages: Tasteless, odourless, lack of pharmacological
activity, neutral and very cheap

Tap Water
It is not permitted to use tap water for the dispensing of
pharmaceutical dosage forms due to its possible bacterial
contamination and the presence of dissolved salts that destroy the
active ingredients or enhance their decomposition.

Freshly Boiled and Cooled Water
Boiling is seldom used to destroy vegetative bacteria. But, on
storage for long time spores may yield vegetative microorganism.

Purified Water
-Must be used for most pharmaceutical operations and in all
the tests and assays.
-Such water is prepared by distillation, deionization or reverse
osmosis.
-"Hard" waters are those that contain the Ca and Mg cations.
-Alkaline" waters are those that contain bicarbonates as the
major impurity.
-Ultraviolet energy, heat or filtration (Millipore filtration) can be
used to remove or kill the microorganisms present in the water.

Water for injection
-Must be used for the formulation of parental solutions.
-It is obtained by sterilizing pyrogen-free distilled water.

Aromatic Waters
-Aromatic waters (medicated waters) are clear, saturated
aqueous solution of volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile
substances.
-They are used principally as flavored or perfumed vehicles.
-Volatile oils solutions represent an incompatibility problem of
salting out. This occurs after the incorporation of a very soluble
salt in their solution.
-Aromatic water will deteriorate with time therefore:
- should be made in small quantities
- protected from intense light and excessive heat by storing
in air tight, light resistant containers.
-If they become cloudy or otherwise deteriorate; they should be
discarded. Deterioration may be due to volatilization,
decomposition or mould growth.
-There are 2 official methods of preparation:
(a) Distillation process (Stronger Rose Water NF)
-Adv.: most satisfactory method Dis.: slow and expensive
-The drug should be coarsely ground and mixed with sufficient
quantity of purified water in the distillation unit.
-After distillation any excess oil in the distillate is removed by
filtration.
-Drug should not be exposed to the action of direct heat during
distillation; otherwise, the odour of the carbonized substance
will be noticeable in the distilled aromatic water.
-If the volatile principle in the water are present in small
quantities the distillate is returned several times to the still with
fresh portions of drug.

(b) Solution process (Peppermint water)
Aromatic water may be prepared by shaking volatile substance
with purified water. The mixture is set aside for 12 hours & filtered.
Talc (inert) may be used to increase the surface of the volatile
substance, insure more rapid saturation of the water and act as a
filter aid.
Methods of Preparation of Solutions

(a) Simple Solution
(b) Solution by Chemical Reaction
(c) Solution by Extraction

(a) Simple Solution
Solutions of this type are prepared by dissolving the solute in a
suitable solvent (by stirring or heating).
The solvent may contain other ingredients which stabilize or
solubilize the active ingredient e.g. solubility of Iodine is 1: 2950
in water however, it dissolves in presence of KI due the
formation of more soluble polyiodides (KI.I
2
KI.2I
2
KI3.I
3

KI.4I
4
)

.[ Strong Iodine Solution USP (Lugol's SoIution)].


(b) Solution by Chemical Reaction
These solutions are prepared by reacting two or more solutes
with each other in a suitable solvent e.g. Calcium carbonate and
lactic acid used to prepare Calcium lactate mixture. WHY?

(c) Solution by Extraction
Plant or animal products are prepared by suitable extraction
process. Preparations of this type may be classified as solutions
but more often, are classified as extractives. Extractives will be
discussed separately.

Pharmaceutical Solutions

Aqueous

1. Douches
2. Enemas
3. Gargles
4. Mouthwashes
5. Nasal washes
6. Juices
7. Sprays
8. Otic solutions
9. Inhalations
Sweet &/or Viscid

1. Syrups
2. Honeys
3. Mucilages
4. Jellies

Nonaqueous

1. Elixirs
2. Spirits
3. Collodions
4. Glycerins
5. Liniments
6. Oleo Vitamin
Douches
*Douche is an aqueous solution, which is directed against a part
or into a cavity of the body.
*It functions as a cleansing or antiseptic agent.
*Eye douches are used to remove foreign particles and
discharges from the eyes. It is directed gently at an oblique
angle and is allowed to run from the inner to the outer corner of
the eye.
*Pharyngeal douches are used to prepare the interior of the
throat for an operation and to cleanse it in supportive conditions.
*Similarly, there are nasal and vaginal douches.
*Douches most frequently dispensed in the form of a powder
with directions for dissolving in a specified quantity of water.
Enemas
*These preparations are rectal injections employed to:
evacuate the bowel (evacuation enemas),
influence the general system by absorption (retention
enemas) e.g. nutritive, sedative or stimulating properties
affect locally the site of disease (e.g. anthelmintic property)
they may contain radiopaque substances for
roentgenographic examination of the lower bowel.
*Retention enemas are used in small quantities (about 30ml)
and are thus called retention microenema.
*Starch enema may be used either by itself or as a vehicle for
other forms of medication

Gargles
*Gargles are aqueous solutions frequently containing
antiseptics, antibiotics and/or anesthetics used for treating the
pharynx (throat) and nasopharynx by forcing air from the lungs
through the gargle, which is held in the throat; subsequently,
the gargle is expectorated.
*Many gargles must be diluted with water prior to use. Although
mouthwashes are considered as a separate class of
pharmaceuticals many are used as gargles, either as is, or
diluted with water.
*The product should be labeled so that it cannot be mistaken for
preparations intended for internal administration.

Mouthwashes
Mouthwashes can be used for therapeutic & cosmetic purposes
*Therapeutic mouthwashes can be formulated to reduce
plaque, gingivitis, dental caries and stomatitis.
*Cosmetic mouthwashes may be formulated to reduce bad
breath through the use of antimicrobial and/or flavoring agents.
Mouthwashes are used as a dosage form for a number of
specific problems in the oraI cavity; e.g.
mouthwashes containing:
*combination of antihistamines, hydrocortisone, nystatin and
tetracycline have been prepared for the treatment of stomatitis,
a painful side effect of cancer therapy.
*Allopurinol used for the treatment of stomatitis,
*pilocarpine for xerostoma (dry mouth)
*tranexamic acid for the prevention of bleeding after oral
surgery.
*carbenoxolone for the treatment of orofacial herpes simplex
infections
Mouthwashes generally contain four groups of excipients
AIcohols: (10-20% in MW) may function as a preservative.
aids in masking the unpleasant taste of active ingredients,
functions as a solubilizing agent for some flavoring agents
Humectants: such as glycerin and sorbitol (5-20% in MW)
increase the viscosity of the preparation
enhance the sweetness of the product
improve the preservative qualities of the product.
Surfactants: Non ionic and anionic surfactants aid in the
solubilization of flavors and in the removal of debris by providing
foaming action. Cationic surfactants such as cetylpyridinium
chloride are used for their antimicrobial properties, but these tend
to impart a bitter taste.
Flavours: are used in conjunction with alcohol and humectants to
overcome disagreeable tastes. The principle flavoring agents are
peppermint, cinnamon, menthol or methyl salicylate.
CoIouring agents: also are used in these products.
Nasal Solutions
Nasal solutions are usually aqueous solutions designed to be
administered to the nasal passages in drops or sprays.
Ephedrine Sulfate or Naphaxoline Hydrochloride Nasal
Solution USP are administered for their local effect to reduce
nasal congestion
Lypressin Nasal Solution USP for its systemic effect for the
treatment of diabetes insipidus

The current route of administration of peptides and proteins is
limited to parental injection because of inactivation within the
GIT. As a result there is considerable research on intranasal
delivery of these drugs such as insulin.

Intranasal drug administration offers rapid absorption to the
systemic circulation. This route is safe and acceptable
alternative to the parental administration

There is a direct route of transport from the olfactory region to
the central nervous system (CNS) without prior absorption to the
circulating blood. The olfactory receptor cells are in contact
with the nasal cavity and the CNS and they provide a rout of
entry to the brain that circumvents the blood brain barrier
Commercial nasal preparations include antibiotics,
antihistamines and drugs for asthma prophylaxis.

Current studies indicate that nasal sprays are deposited in the
pharynx with the patient in an upright position.


Drops spread more extensively than the spray and three drops
cover most of the walls of the nasal cavity, with the patient in a
supine position and head tilted back and turned left and right.

Pharynx
Nasal decongestant solutions are employed in the treatment
of rhinitis of the common cold and for allergic rhinitis (hay
fever) and for sinusitis.


Sinuses are air-
containing cavities
in certain bones of
the skull
Their frequent use or their use for prolonged periods may lead
to chronic edema of the nasal mucosa, i.e. rhinitis
medicainentosa, aggravating the symptom that they are
intended to relieve. Thus, they are best used for short periods
of time used for short periods of time (no longer than 3 to 5
days).

Nasal solutions are prepared so that they are similar in many
respects to nasal secretions, so that normal ciliary action is
maintained thus aqueous nasal solutions usually are isotonic
and slightly buffered to maintain a pH of 5.5 to 6.5.

Sprays
*Sprays are solutions of drugs in aqueous vehicles and are
applied to the mucous membrane of the nose and throat by
means of an atomizer nebulizer.
*The spray device should produce relatively coarse droplets if
the action of the drug is to be restricted to the upper
respiratory tract. Fine droplets tend to penetrate further into
the respiratory tract than is desirable.

*Many of the older sprays were prepared by dissolving drug in
light liquid petrolatum. This vehicle may retard the normal ciliary
action of the nasal mucosa and if drops of oil enter the trachea,
can cause lipoid pneumonia. Therefore aqueous sprays, which
are isotonic with nasal secretions and of approximately the same
pH are to be preferred (WHY?). Such sprays may contain
antibiotics, antihistamines, vasoconstrictors, alcohol, and suitable
solubilizing and wetting agents.

*They are used for the treatment of allergy and/or vasodilatation
(congestion) that occur with common cold.
Otic Solutions
*The main classes of drugs used for topical administration to the
ear include local anesthetics, e.g.: benzocaine; antibiotics e.g.;
neomycin; and anti-inflammatory agents, e.g.; cortisone.
*These preparations include the main types of solvents used,
namely glycerin or water.
*The viscous glycerin vehicle permits the drug to remain in the
ear for a long time.
*Anhydrous glycerin, being hygroscopic, tends to remove
moisture from surrounding tissues, thus reducing swelling.
*Viscous liquids like glycerin or propylene glycol either are used
alone or in combination with a surfactant to aid in the removal
of cerumen (ear wax).
*In order to provide sufficient time for aqueous preparations to
act, it is necessary for the patient to remain on his side for a few
minutes so the drops do not run out of the ear.
For a Middle Ear Infection:
While the person receiving Otic solution
lies on his/her side, the person giving the
drops should gently press the (TRAGUS( 4
times in a pumping motion. This will allow
the drops to pass through the hole or tube
in the eardrum and into the middle ear.
For an Ear Canal Infection
While the person receiving the medication lies on
his/her side, the person giving the drops should
gently pull the outer ear upward and backward.
This will allow the ear drops to flow down into the
ear canal.
These include Syrups, Honeys, Mucilages, and Jellies.
All of these preparations are viscous liquids or
semisolids. The sweetness and viscid appearance are
given by sugars, polyols, or polysaccharides (gums).

SYRUPS
Syrups are concentrated solutions of sugar such as
sucrose in water or other aqueous liquid.

simple syrup: when water is used alone for making syrup.
medicated syrup: when the aqueous preparation contains
some added medicinal substance
flavored syrup: which contains aromatic or pleasantly
flavored substances and is intended to be
used as a vehicle or flavor for prescriptions
Polyols (e.g. glycerin or sorbitol) may be added to
- retard crystallization of sucrose or
- increase the solubility of added ingredients.
Alcohol often is included as
- preservative
- solvent for volatile oils.
Syrups possess remarkable masking properties for bitter and
saline drugs.

It is important that the concentration of sucrose approaches
but not quite reach the saturation point, WHY?

In dilute solutions sucrose provides an excellent nutrient for
molds, yeasts, and other microorganisms.
In concentration of 65 % by weight or more the solution will
retard the growth of such microorganisms (WHY?).
A saturated solution may lead to crystallization of a part of the
sucrose under conditions of changing temperature.
When heat is used in the preparation of syrups, there is almost
certain to be an inversion of a slight portion of the sucrose.

C
12
H
22
O
11
2 C
6
H
12
O
6

Sucrose heat & acid Invert sugar
(dextrose and levulose)

The speed of inversion is greatly increased by acids (why ?);
the hydrogen ion acts as a catalyst in this hydrolytic reaction.

Invert sugar
is more readily fermentable than sucrose
tend to darken in color
` retard the oxidation of other substances.
The levulose formed during inversion is sweeter than sucrose;
therefore the resulting syrup is sweeter than the original syrup.

When syrup is overheated it caramelizes.
Invert Syrup:
It is prepared by hydrolyzing sucrose with hydrochloric acid
and neutralizing the solution with Ca or Na carbonate.
The sucrose in the 66.7% w/w solution must be at least 95%
inverted.
The invert syrup, when mixed in suitable proportions with
syrup, prevents the deposition of crystals of sucrose under
most conditions of storage.

Preparation of Simple Syrup

(a) Solution with heat
*This is the usual method of making syrups:
in the absence of volatile agents or those injured by heat
when it is desirable to make the syrup rapidly.
*The sucrose is added to the purified water or aqueous solution
and heated until dissolved, then strained and sufficient purified
water added to make the desired weight or volume.
*Excessive heating in the preparation of syrups must be
avoided to prevent inversion of sucrose, with increased
tendency to fermentation. Syrups cannot be sterilized by
autoclaving without caramelization (yellow color).
*The specific gravity of syrup is an important property to
identify its concentration. Syrup has a specific gravity of about
1.313, which means that each 100 ml of syrup weighs 1313 g.
(b) Agitation without Heat
*This process is used in those cases where heat would cause
loss of valuable volatile constituents.
*The syrup is prepared by adding sucrose to the aqueous
solution in a bottle of about twice the size required for the
syrup. This permits active agitation and rapid solution.
*The stoppering of the bottle is important, as it prevents
contamination and loss during the process.


(c) Addition of a Medicating Liquid to syrup
*This method is resorted to in those cases in which fluid extracts,
tinctures, or other liquids are added to syrup to medicate it.
*Syrups made in this way usually develop precipitates since
alcohol is often an ingredient of the liquids thus used and the
resinous and oily substances dissolved by the alcohol
precipitate when mixed with syrup.
*A modification of this process consists of mixing the fluid extract
or tincture with the water, allowing the mixture to stand to permit
the separation of insoluble constituents, filtering & and then
dissolving the sucrose in the filtrate.
This procedure is not permissible when the precipitated
ingredients are the valuable medicinal agents.

(d) Percolation
*In this procedure, purified water or an aqueous solution is
permitted to pass slowly through a bed of crystalline
sucrose, thus dissolving it and forming a syrup a pledget of
cotton is placed in the neck of the percolator
*If necessary, a portion of the liquid is repassed through the
percolator to dissolve all of the sucrose.
This method is used for the preparation of Syrup USP.
Preservation of Syrups
OThe USP suggests that syrups be kept at a temperature not
above 25C.
OPreservatives such as glycerin, methyl paraben, benzoic acid
and sodium benzoate may be added to prevent bacterial and
mold growth, particularly when the concentration of sucrose in
the syrup is low.
OThe concentration of preservative is proportional to the free
water.
OThe official syrups should be preserved in well dried bottles
and stored in a cool dark place.
Dextrose-Based Syrups
*Dextrose may be used as a substitute for sucrose (WHEN?) in
syrups containing strong acids in order to eliminate the
discoloration associated with inversion.
*Dextrose forms a saturated solution in water at 70% w/v,
which is less viscous than simple syrup.
*It dissolves more slowly than sucrose and is less sweet
Preservatives are required to improve the keeping qualities of
such syrups. Glycerin is added in 30% to 45% v/v as
preservative.
Artificial Syrups (Non-Nutritive Syrups)
intended as substitutes for syrups and are to be administered to
persons who must regulate their sugar and/or calorie intake
accurately. e.g. persons suffering from diabetes mellitus.
Some early formulae included glycerin, however, glycerin and
propylene glycol are glycogenetic substances, i.e. they are
materials which are converted into glucose in the body.
An example of nonnutritive syrup is Diabetic Simple Syrup. It
contains compound sodium cyclamate (6% cyclamate sodium
and 0.6% saccharin sodium)

However, the cyclamate studies showed that the sweetener could
produce cancer in animals and, as a result, this substance was
removed from a wide variety of products. Similar studies have been
carried out on saccharin. Much research has been done to find a safe
synthetic substitute for sucrose. As a result, aspartame which is about
200 times sweeter than sucrose, is being used now in many
commercial preparations as the sweetening agent.
Sorbitol-Based Syrups
*Sorbitol which is hexahydric alcohol made by hydrogenation of
glucose has been used in the preparation of syrup.
*It is used mostly in the form of a 70% w/w aqueous solution.
*Sorbitol solution is not irritating to the membrane of the mouth
and throat and does not contribute to the formation of dental
carries.
*Sorbitol is metabolized and converted to glucose; however, it is
not rapidly absorbed from the GlT as sugars. No significant
hyperglycemia has been found (WHY?); it may be used as
component of non-nutritive vehicles.
*Sorbitol solution does not support mold growth. Preservative
should be used in solution containing less than 60% w/w
sorbitol.
*It is chemically stable and inert with respect to drugs and other
ingredients used in pharmaceutical perpetration.
Sorbitol
Glucose
HONEYS
Are thick liquid preparations. At one time, before sugar was
available, honey was used as a base, instead of syrup.
There are few official preparations containing honey. e.g. Oxymel,
or" acid honey "'is a mixture of acetic acid, water and honey

MUCILAGES
The official mucilages are thick viscid, adhesive liquids,
produced by dispersing gum (acacia or tragacanth) in water.
Mucilages are used as suspending agents for insoluble
substances in liquids; their colloidal character and viscosity
prevent immediate sedimentation.
Synthetic agents e.g. carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or polyvinyl
alcohol are nonglycogenetic and may be used for diabetic
patients.
Jellys
Preparations having a jelly-like consistency. They are prepared
also from gums.
Are used as lubricants for surgical gloves and catheters
Lidocaine HCl Jelly USP is used as a topical anaethetic.
Advantages
If the drug is not completely soluble or unstable in aqueous
medium it may be necessary to use an alternative non-aqueous
solvent.
Oily solutions of drugs are often used for depot therapy e.g. in
muscles
It is essential to test:
toxicity irritancy flammability cost stability and compatibility
of solvents to avoid problems
Solvents such as acetone, benzene and petroleum ether are not
used for internal products.
Internal products may contain ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol
certain oils.
For parental products the choice is very limited
This section is devoted to four groups of non-aqueous
solutions:
1. alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions, e.g. elixirs and spirits,
2. ethereal solutions, e.g. the collodions
3. glycerin solutions, e.g. the glycerites,
4. oleaginous soIutions e.g. the liniments, medicated oils, oleo-
vitamins, sprays, and toothache drops.

ELIXIRS
Are clear, pleasantly flavored, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquids
intended for oral use.
They are used as flavors and vehicles e.g. Dexamethasone
Elixir USP and Phenobarbital Elixir USP.
The main ingredients in elixirs are ethanol and water but
glycerin, sorbitol, propylene glycol, flavoring agents,
preservatives, and syrups are often used in the preparation of
the final product.
EIixirs contain ethyl alcohol, however, the alcoholic content will
vary greatly, from elixir containing only a small quantity to those
that contain a considerable portion as a necessary aid to
solubility
An elixir may contain water and alcohol soluble ingredients.
Incompatibility of elixir:
Alcohol precipitates water soluble substances e.g. tragacanth,
acacia agar and many inorganic salts from aqueous solutions.
If an aqueous solution is added to an elixir, a partial precipitation
of ingredients may occur. This is due to the reduced alcoholic
content of the final preparation.

SPIRITS
Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances.
The active ingredient may be gas, liquid or solid.
Spirits may be used internally for their medicinal value, by
inhalation but is mostly used as flavouring agents.
Spirits should be stored in tight, light-resistant containers and
in a cool place, WHY?
Spirits are preparation of high alcoholic strength and when
diluted with aqueous solutions or liquids of low alcoholic
content turbidity may occur, WHY?
COLLODIONS
Are liquid preparations containing pyroxylin (a nitrocellulose) in a
mixture of ethyl ether and ethanol.
They are applied to the skin by means of a soft brush or other
suitable applicator and, when the ether and ethanol have
evaporated, leave a film of pyroxylin on the surface.
The official medicated collodion, Salicylic Acid Collodion USP,
contains 10 % w/v of Salicylic Acid in Flexible Collodion USP and
is used as a keratolytic agent in the treatment of corns and
warts.
Collodion is made flexible by the addition of castor oil and
camphor.
GLYCERINS
Glycerins or glycerites are solutions or mixtures of medicinal
substances in not less than 50% by weight of glycerin.
Most of the glycerins are extremely viscous.
Glycerin is a valuable pharmaceutical solvent forming permanent
and concentrated solutions not otherwise obtainable.
Glycerin is used as the sole solvent for the preparation of
Antipyrine and Benzocaine Otic Solution USP. As noted under
Otic Solutions, glycerin alone is used to aid in the removal of
cerumen.
Glycerins are hygroscopic and should be: stored in tightly closed
containers.
LINIMENTS
Are solutions or mixtures of various substances in oil, alcoholic
solutions of soaps, or emulsions.
They are intended for external application and should be so
labeled.
They are applied with rubbing to the affected area, the oil or
soap base providing for ease of application and massage.
Alcoholic liniments are used generally for their rubefaciant and
counterirritant effects. Such liniments penetrate the skin more
readily than do those with an oil base.
The oily liniments are milder in their action and may function
solely as protective coatings.
Liniments should not be applied to skin that are bruised or
broken.
Rubefacient
a substance for external application that produces
redness of the skin e.g. by causing dilation of the
capillaries and an increase in blood circulation.
Counterirritant
a medicine applied locally to produce superficial
inflammation in order to reduce deeper inflammation
OLEO VITAMINS
Oleo vitamins are fish liver oils diluted with edible vegetable
oil or solutions of the indicated vitamins (usually vitamins A
and D).
The indicated vitamins are unstable in the presence of rancid
oils and, therefore, those preparations, should be stored in
small, tight containers, preferably under vacuum or under an
atmosphere of an inert gas, protected from light.