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ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION &

CONTROL SYSTEMS
(WLE-306)
Presented by:
Mr. Shahnawaz Uddin
1
Unit-3

TRANSDUCERS & INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER
2
A transducer is defined as a device that receive energy from one
system and transmits it to other, often in a different form
The energy transmitted by these systems may be electrical,
mechanical, optical, or acoustical
Basically, there are two types of transducers:
(a) Electrical Transducer (b) Mechanical Transducer
(Manometer, Turbines, Spring, Diaphragm, etc.)

Electrical Transducer:
The transducer may be thought of consisting of two parts:
(i) Sensing Element, (ii) Transduction Element
Sensing Element responds to a physical phenomenon or a change
in physical phenomenon
Transduction Element transforms the output of a sensing element
to an electrical output
Transducer
3
In other words, an electrical transducer is a sensing device by which
the physical, mechanical, or optical quantity to be measured be
transformed directly by a suitable mechanism into an electrical
voltage/current proportional to the input measured
The output may be analog, digital, or frequency modulated

The important parameters relating to an electrical transducer are as
follow:
(a) Linearity: The relationship between a physical quantity and the
resulting electrical signal must be linear.
(b) Sensitivity: Sensitivity is defined as the electrical output per unit
change in the physical quantity (e.g. v/
o
c for a temperature sensor).
High sensitivity is generally desirable for a transducer.
(c) Dynamic range: The operating range of the transducer should be
wide enough to permit its use under a wide range of measurement
conditions.
Electrical Transducer (-contd.)
4
(d) Repeatability: The input/output relationship for a transducer
should be predictable over a long period of time. This ensures
reliability of operation.
(e) Physical size: The transducer must have minimal weight and
volume, so that its presence in the measurement system does not
disturb the existing conditions.

Advantages of Electrical Transducers:
The main advantages of electrical transducers (conversion of
physical quantity into electrical quantities) are as follow:
(i) Electrical amplification and attenuation can be easily done
(ii) Mass inertia effects are minimized
(iii) Effects of friction are minimized
(iv) The output can be indicated and recorded remotely at a distance
from the sensing medium
Advantages of Electrical Transducer
5
(v) The output can be modified (pulse conversion/frequency
conversion, modulated, or amplified) to meet the requirements of
the indicating or controlling units
(vi) The signal can be conditioned or mixed to obtain any combination
with outputs of similar transducers or control signals
(vii) The electrical or electronic signal can be controlled with a very
small power level
(viii) The electrical output can be easily used, transmitted, and
processed for purpose of measurement

Classification of Transducers:
The transducers may be classified:
(i) On the basis of transduction principle (ii) As primary and
secondary transducers (iii) As passive and active transducers (iv)
As analog and digital transducers (v) As transducer and inverse
transducers

Classification of Transducers
6
On the Basis of Transduction Principle:
Depending upon how they convert the input quantity into resistance,
inductance, or capacitance; the transducers are called resistive,
inductive, or capacitive respectively
They may also be classified as piezoelectric, thermoelectric,
magnetorestrictive, electrokinetic, & optical, etc.
Primary and Secondary Transducers:
In most of the measurement systems, there is a suitable working
combination wherein a mechanical device acts as a primary detector
(transducer) and the electrical device acts as the secondary
transducer with mechanical displacement serving as the intermediate
signal
Passive and Active Transducers:
Passive transducers derive the power required for transduction from
an auxiliary power source
They also derive part of the power required for conversion from the
physical quantity under measurement
Classification of Transducers (-contd.)
7
In the absence of external power, the transducers can not work and
hence are called passive (externally powered) transducers, e.g.
resistive, inductive, and capacitive transducers
On the other hand, active transducers are those which do not require
an auxiliary power source to produce their output
They are also known as self generating type since they develop their
own voltage or current output
The energy required for production of output signal is obtained from
the physical quantity being measured, e.g., thermocouples,
photovoltaic cells, and piezoelectric crystals etc.
Analog and Digital Transducers:
Analog transducers convert the input physical quantity into analog
output which is a continuous function of time, e.g., a strain gauge, an
LVDT, a thermocouple, or a thermistor etc.
On the other hand, the digital transducers convert the input quantity
into an electrical output which is in the form of pulses, e.g., photocell
Classification of Transducers (-contd.)
8
Classification of Transducers (-contd.)
9
Transducers and Inverse Transducers:
The transducers may be broadly defined as the devices which
convert a non-electrical quantity into an electrical quantity and the
inverse transducers are defined as the devices which convert an
electrical quantity into a non-electrical quantity

Selecting a Transducer:
The transducer has to be physically compatible with its intended
application. The following features should be considered while
selecting a transducer:

(i) Operating Range chosen to maintain range requirement and
good resolution
(ii) Sensitivity chosen to allow sufficient output
(iii) Frequency Response and Resonant Frequency flat over the
entire desired frequency range
Selection of Transducer
10
(iv) Accuracy repeatability and calibration error as well as errors due
to sensitivity to other stimuli should be minimum
(v) Electrical Parameters length and type of cable required, SNR
when combined with amplifiers etc.
(vi) Usage and Ruggedness Ruggedness both of mechanical and
electrical intensities versus size and weight
(vii) Environmental Compatibility temperature range, pressure,
corrosive fluids, shocks, size, interaction and mounting restrictions
(viii) Loading Effects transducer should have a high input
impedance and a low output impedance to avoid loading effects
Selection of Transducer (-contd.)
11
A piezoelectric material is one in which an electric potential
appears across certain surfaces of a crystal if the dimensions of
the crystal are changed by the application of a mechanical force
This potential is generated by the displacement of charges. The
effect in reversible, i.e. conversely, if a varying potential is applied
to the proper axis of the crystal, it will change the dimensions of
the crystal thereby deforming it
This effect is known as piezoelectric effect
Common piezoelectric materials include Rochelle salts, quartz,
barium titanate (Ceramics A & B), ammonium dihydrogen
phosphate, lithium sulphate, etc.
The ceramics A & B do not have piezoelectric properties in their
original state but these properties are produced by special
polarizing treatment
Force Measurement: Piezoelectric Transducers
12
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
13
The piezoelectric effect can be made to respond to (or cause)
mechanical deformations of the material in different modes:
thickness expansion, transverse expansion, thickness shear, & face
shear
The mode of operation depends on the shape of the body relative to
the crystal axis and location of the electrodes
A piezoelectric element used for converting mechanical motion to
electrical signals may be thought as charge generator & a capacitor
Mechanical deformation generates a charge and which appears as
a voltage across the electrodes, i.e.
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
14
The piezoelectric effect can be made to respond to (or cause)
mechanical deformations of the material in different modes:
thickness expansion, transverse expansion, thickness shear, & face
shear
The mode of operation depends on the shape of the body relative to
the crystal axis and location of the electrodes
A piezoelectric element used for converting mechanical motion to
electrical signals may be thought as charge generator & a capacitor
Mechanical deformation generates a charge and which appears as
a voltage across the electrodes, i.e.


Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
t
A
t
A
electrodes between e Capacitanc : C
) 1 ( ...
A/t
Q
C
Q
E Voltage,
0 r
p
0 r p
0
15
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
16
The piezoelectric effect is direction sensitive, a tensile force
produces a voltage of one polarity while a compressive force
produces a voltage of opposite polarity
The magnitude and polarity of the induced surface charges are
proportional to the magnitude and direction of the applied force (F)
The induced charge is given by
Q = d x F (2)
where, d is charge sensitivity of the crystal (constant for a given
crystal)
If the force (F) causes a change (t) in thickness (t) of the crystal,
then

where, A: area of the crystal,

From eqns. (2) & (3), we have
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
) 3 ( ... . t
t
AE
F A =
t/t
F/A
Strain
Stress
modulus s Young : E = =
) 4 ( ... |
.
|

\
|
A
=
t
t
dAE Q
17
From eqns. (1) & (2), we get







We can write eqn. (5) as:
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
Stress P N Vm crystal of y sensitivit voltage
d
g where
P t g E
A
F
t
d
t A
dF
E
r
r r
: ), / ( : ,
) 5 ...(
. .
/
0
0
0 0
0
c c
c c c c
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
Stress
Field Electric
P
t E
g = =
/
0
18
The piezoelectric transducer is cut from a large crystal in the
direction of any of the electrical or mechanical axis perpendicular
to the optical or crystal axis
The values of d and g are not necessarily the same but are
dependent upon the axis of cut

Properties of Piezoelectric Crystals:
The desirable properties of piezoelectric materials are stability,
high output, insensitivity to temperature and humidity and the
ability to be formed into most desirable shape
Quartz is the most stable piezoelectric material, however, its
output is quite small
On the other hand, Rochelle salt provides the highest output but it
can be worked over a limited humidity range and has to be
protected against moisture. Its highest temperature is limited to
45
0
C
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
19
Barium titrate has the advantage that it can be formed into a
variety of shapes and sizes since it is polycrystalline. It also has a
higher dielectric constant
Natural crystals possess the advantages that they have higher
mechanical and thermal stability, can withstand higher stresses,
have low leakage (resistivity is of the order of 10
16
/m) and have
a good frequency response
The synthetic materials, in general, have a higher voltage
sensitivity

Uses of Piezoelectric Material and Transducers:
(1) Because of its stability, quartz is commonly used for stabilizing
electronic oscillators. The crystal is ground to proper shape and
is connected in an appropriate electronic cut whose frequency is
controlled by it.

Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
20
(2) The use of piezoelectric transducer elements is confined
primarily to dynamic measurements. The voltage developed
by application of strain is not held under static condition.
Hence the elements are primarily used in the measurement of
such quantities as surface roughness, in accelerometers
and vibration pickups
(3) Ultrasonic generator elements also use barium titrate, a
piezoelectric material and theses ultrasonic generator
elements are used in industrial cleansing apparatus and also
in underwater detection system (known as sonar)
Piezoelectric Transducers (-contd.)
21
Ex. 1: A quartz piezoelectric crystal having thickness of 2mm and voltage
sensitivity of 0.055 V-m/N is subjected to a pressure of 1.5MN/m
2
.
Calculate the voltage output, if the permittivity of quartz is 40.6 x 10
-12
F/m,
calculate its charge sensitivity. (Ans: 165V, 2.23pC/N)
Ex. 2: A piezoelectric crystal having dimensions of 5mm x 5mm x 1.5mm and
voltage sensitivity of 0.055 V-m/N is used for force measurement. Calculate
the force if the voltage developed is 100V. (Ans: 30 N)
Ex. 3: A barium titanate pickup has the dimensions of 5mm x 5mm x 1.25mm.
The force acting on it is 5N. The charge sensitivity of barium titrate is
150pC/N and its permittivity is 12.5 x 10
-9
F/m. If the modulus of elasticity
of barium titanate is 12 x 10
6
N/m
2
, calculatge the strain. Also calculate the
charge and the capacitance. (Ans: 0.0167, 750pC, 250pF)
Ex. 4: A capacitive transducer uses two quartz diaphragms of area 750mm
2

separated by a distance of 3.5mm. A pressure of 900 kN/m
2
when applied
to the top diaphragms produces a deflection of 0.6mm. The capacitance is
370 pF when no pressure is applied to the diaphragms. Find the value of
capacitor after application of a pressure of 900 kN/m
2
.
(Ans: 446.5pF)
Exercises
22
The differential transformer is a passive inductive transformer
(known as LVDT) is used to measure displacement directly
The transformer consists of a single primary winding P1 and two
secondary windings S1 and S2 wound on a hollow cylindrical former
(as shown in fig. 13.19)
The secondary windings have an equal number of turns and are
identical placed on either side of the primary windings
The primary winding is connected to an ac source (50 Hz to 20 kHz)
A movable soft iron core slides within the hollow former and
therefore affects the magnetic coupling between the primary and the
two secondaries
The displacement to be measured is applied to an arm attached to
the soft iron core (the core is made up of a nickel iron alloy which is
slotted longitudinally to reduce eddy current losses)
Assume the output voltages of secondary windings S1 and S2 are
E
s1
and E
s2
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
23
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
24
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
25
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
26
In order to convert the output from S1 to S2 into a single voltage
signal, the two secondaries S1 and S2 are connected in series
opposition (as shown in fig. 13.20)
And hence, the differential output voltage E
0
= E
s1
E
s2
When the core is at its normal position, the flux linking with both
secondaries is equal and equal emfs are induced in them
Hence, at null position E
s1
= E
s2
and this results E
0
= 0 (fig. 13.21b)
Now, if the core is moved to left of null position, more flux links with
winding S1 and less with winding S2
Hence, output voltage E
s1
of the secondary winding S1 is greater
than E
s2
, which results E
0
in phase with E
s1
(also with E
in
)
Similarly, if the core is moved to the right of null position, the flux
linking with S2 becomes greater than that linked with S1 and this
results in E
s2
becoming larger than E
s1
The output voltage E
0
, in this case, is out of phase with E
s1
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
27
The amount of voltage change in either secondary winding is
proportional to the amount of movement of the core
Hence we have an indication of the amount of linear motion
By noting which output is increasing or decreasing, the direction of
motion can be determined
The output ac voltage inverts as the core passes the centre (null)
position
The farther the core moves from the centre, the greater the difference
between E
s1
and E
s2
and consequently the greater the value of E
0
Hence, the amplitude of E
0
is the function of displacement of the core
and the polarity or phase of E
0
indicates the direction of motion
Output signal may also be applied to a recorder or to a controller that
can restore the moving system to its normal position
The output voltage of an LVDT is a linear function of core displacement
within a limited range of motion (approximately 5mm from the null
position) and beyond this range, the curve starts to deviate
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
28
Ideally, the output voltage at the null position should be zero but in
actual practice there exists a small voltage (residual voltage) at the null
position
This may be on account of presence of harmonics in the input supply
voltage and also due to the harmonics produced in the output voltage
due to the use of iron core
There may be either an incomplete magnetic or electrical imbalance or
both which result in a finite output voltage (generally less than 1% of
maximum output voltage in linear region) at the null position
Other causes of residual voltage are stray magnetic fields and
temperature effects
However, with improved technological methods and with the use of
better ac sources the residual voltage can be reduced to negligible
value
Mostly, the LVDTs produce higher output voltage for small changes in
core position
Several commercial models that produce 50 mV/mm to 300 mV/mm are
available
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
29
LVDTs are available with ranges as low as 0.05 to as high as 25
and are sensitive enough to be used to measure displacements of
well below 0.001
They can operate at temperatures as low as -265
0
C and as high as
600
0
C and are also available in radiation resistance designs for
nuclear operations

Advantages of LVDT:
(1) Linearity: The output voltage of this transducer is practically linear
for displacements up to 5 mm.
(2) Infinite Resolution: The change in output voltage is stepless. The
effective resolution depends more on the test equipment than on the
transducer.
(3) High Output: It gives a high output. Therefore, there is frequently
no need for intermediate amplification devices.
(4) High Sensitivity: The transducer possess a sensitivity as high as
40 V/mm.
Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
30
(5) Ruggedness: These transducers can usually tolerate a high
degree of vibration and shock.
(6) Less Friction: There are no sliding contacts.
(7) Low Power Consumption: Most LVDTs consume less than 1 W of
power.

Disadvantages of LVDT:
(1) Large displacements are required for appreciable differential output
(2) They are sensitive to stray magnetic fields (but shielding is
possible)
(3) The receiving instrument must be selected to operate on ac signals,
or a demodulator network must be used if a dc output is required
(4) The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the
core and electrically by the applied voltage
(5) Temperature affects the transducer

Linear Variable Differential Transducer/Transformer (LVDT)
31
Thermoelectric Transducers
Generally used thermoelectric transducers are:
(a) Resistance Thermometer (Resistance Temperature Detector, RTD)
(b) Thermistor (Thermally Sensitive Resistor)

(a) Resistance Thermometer (RTD):
The resistance of a conductor changes when its temperature is changed;
this property is utilized for the measurement of temperature
The resistance thermometer is an instrument used to measure electrical
resistance in terms of temperature, i.e., it uses the change in the
electrical resistance of the conductor (sensing element) to determine the
temperature
The characteristics of the sensing element determines the sensitivity and
operating temperature range of the instrument
The sensing element may be any material that exhibits a relatively large
resistance change with change in temperature
Also the material used should be stable in its characteristics, i.e., neither
its resistance nor temperature coefficient of resistance should undergo
permanent change with use or age
32
Resistance Thermometer (-contd.)
Another desirable characteristic for a sensing element is a linear
change in resistance with change in temperature
The speed with which a resistive element responds to changes in
temperature is important when the measured temperature is
subjected to rapid variations
Smaller the given sensing element, the less heat required to raise its
temperature and the faster its response
Platinum, Nickel, & Copper are the metals most commonly used to
measure temperature
The resistance of platinum tends to increase less rapidly at higher
temperatures than for other metals, hence it is commonly used
material for resistance thermometers
The temperature range over which platinum has stability is -260
0
C to
1100
0
C
The changes in resistance caused by changes in temperature are
detected by a Wheatstone bridge as shown in fig. (13.11b)
33
Resistance Thermometer (-contd.)
The temperature sensing element (platinum, nickel or copper)
contained in a bulb along with the balancing bridge, forms the
essential components of a temperature measuring system
The sensing element R
s
is made of a material having a high
temperature coefficient and R
1
, R
2
and R
5
are made of resistances
that are practically constant under normal temperature changes. As
the sensing element is away from the indicator and its leads have a
resistance R
3
and R
4
Therefore, under balanced condition


Now, if resistance R
s
changes, balance can not be maintained and
the galvanometer shows a deflection which can be calibrated to give
a suitable temperature scale
5
4 s 3
2
1
R
R R R
R
R + +
=
34
Resistance Thermometer (-contd.)
35
Resistance Thermometer (-contd.)
Advantages of Resistance Thermometer:
The measurement is very accurate
It has a lot of flexibility with regard to choice of measuring equipment
The temperature sensitive resistance element can be easily installed and
replaced
Resistive elements can be used to measure differential temperature
Resistance thermometers have a wide working range without loss of
accuracy
They are best suited for remote indication
The resistive element response time is of the order of 2 to 10 seconds
The limits of error of a resistive element are 0.25% of the scale reading
Stability of performance over long periods of time

Limitations of Resistance Thermometer:
High cost
Need for bridge circuit and power device
Possibility of self heating
Large bulb size compared to a thermocouple
36
Thermistor
The electrical resistance of most materials changes with temperature
By selecting materials that are very temperature sensitive, devices can
be made that are useful in temperature control circuits and for
temperature measurement
Thermistors (Thermally Sensitive Resistors) are non-metallic
(semiconductor material) resistors made by sintering mixtures of
metallic oxides such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, & U
Thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient (NTC), i.e.,
resistance decreases as temperature rises as shown in fig. (13.12)
The resistance at room temperature (25
0
C) for a typical commercial
thermistor ranges from 100 to 10 M
They are suitable for use only up to about 800
0
C
In some cases the resistance of a thermistor at room temperature may
decrease by 5% for each 1
0
C rise in temperature
This high sensitivity to temperature changes makes the thermistor
extremely useful for precision temperature measurements, control and
compensation
37
Thermistors can be made in the form of disc, rod, washer and bead
etc.
The smallest thermistors are made in the form beads (~ 0.15 mm in
diameter)
These may come in a glass coating or sealed in the tip of solid glass
probes having a diameter of 2.5mm and length of 6-50mm
The probes (100 to 10 M) are used for measuring the
temperature of liquids
When greater power dissipation is required the disc rod or washer
thermistors are used
Disc thermistors (diameter of about 1.25 mm - 25 mm, thickness of
0.25 0.75 mm) are mainly used for temperature control and have a
resistance values from 1 to 1 M
These are sintered and coated with silver on two flat surfaces
Washer thermistors are made like disc thermistors, except that a hole
is formed in the centre in order to make them suitable for mounting
on a bolt

Thermistor (-contd.)
38
Rod thermistors are extruded through dies to make long cylindrical
units of having a diameter of 1.25, 2.75 or 4.25mm and a length of
12.5- 50mm connecting leads are attached to the end of the rods
Their resistance varies from 1 - 50 k
The advantage of rod thermistors over other configurations is the
ability to produce high resistance units with moderately high power
handling capability
Thermistors can be connected in series/parallel combinations for
applications requiring increased power handling capability
Thermistors are chemically stable and can be used in nuclear
environments
Their wide range of characteristics also permits them to be used in
limiting and regulation circuits as time delays, for integration of
pulses, as memory units
A thermistor in one arm of a Wheatstone bridge provides precise
temperature information
Accuracy is limited only by the readout devices
Thermistor (-contd.)
39
Thermistor (-contd.)
Fig. (13.13) Various Configurations
of Thermistor
Fig. (13.12) Resistance vs Temperature
Graph of Thermistor
40
Advantages:
Small size and low cost
Fast response over narrow temperature
Good sensitivity
Contact and lead resistance problems not encountered due to large
value of R

Limitations:
Non-linearity in resistance versus temperature characteristics
Unsuitable for wide temperature range
Very low excitation current to avoid self-heating
Need for shielded power lines, filters, etc. due to high resistance
Thermistor (-contd.)
41
Flow Measurement
The measurement of flow rate and quantity is the oldest of all
measurements of process variables in the field of instrumentation
It is used to determine the amount of materials flowing in or out of a
process
Many accurate and reliable methods are available for measuring flow,
some of which are applicable only to liquids, some only to gases and
some others to both
The flow may be turbulent or laminar, viscosity and pressure may
vary from vacuum to many atmospheres and temperature may also
range from very low to hundreds of degree Celsius
The flow rate may vary from a few drops per hour to thousands of
gallons (US 3.785 L or UK 4.546 L) per minutes
Most popular transducers used for flow measurement are:
(a) Magnetic Flowmeter
(b) Ultrasonic Flowmeter
42
Magnetic Flowmeter
The magnetic flow meter consists of an electrically insulated or non-
conducting pipe (such as glass fiber) with a pair of electrodes mounted
opposite each other and flush (flat or even) with inside walls of the pipe
and with magnetic coil mounted around the pipe so that a magnetic field
is generated in a plane mutually perpendicular to the axis of the flow
meter body and to the plane of the electrodes
If a metal pipe is used an electrically insulting line is provided on the
inside of the pipe
The magnetic coils may be excited by ac, dc, or pulsating dc voltage
These meters work on the principle of Faradays law of
electromagnetic induction, which states that whenever a conductor
moves through a magnetic field of a given magnetic field strength, a
voltage is induced in the conductor proportional to the relative velocity
between the conductor and magnetic field
In case of flow meters, electrically conductive flowing liquids work as the
conductor and the induced voltage (E) is given by E = c x B x L x v (1)
where, c = constant, B = Magnetic flux (Wb/m
2
), L = length of conductor
(fluid), v = velocity of conductor (fluid)
43
Magnetic Flowmeter (-contd.)
And the volumetric flow rate (Q) is given by Q = v x A (2)
where, v = fluid velocity, A = cross-sectional area of the pipe
From equations (1) & (2), we have



Therefore, the volumetric flow rate is directly proportional and linear
to the induced voltage
Magnetic flow meters are available in sizes from 2.54 mm 2.54 m in
diameter
The measurements taken by these meters are independent of
viscosity, density, temperature and pressure
|
.
|

\
|

= =


=
L B c
A
k , where E k
L B c
E A
Q
44
Magnetic Flowmeter (-contd.)
Advantages:
It can handle slurries and greasy materials
It can handle corrosive fluids
It has very low pressure drop
It is totally obstruction less
It is available in large sizes and capacity as well as in several
construction materials
It is capable of handling low flows and very high volume flow rate.
It can be used as bi-directional meter

Disadvantages
It is relatively expensive
It works only with fluids which are sufficiently electrical conductive
It becomes heavy as size increases
It must be full at all times
It must be explosion proof when installed in hazardous electrical areas
45
Magnetic Flowmeter (-contd.)
46
Magnetic Flowmeter (-contd.)
47
Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Basically an ultrasonic transducer for measurement of flow rate
consists of two piezo-electric crystals T and R (which act as
transceivers) in the fluid (liquid or gas) separated by a distance d
The crystals are either immersed in the fluid (fig. 29.87) or pressed to
the exterior of pipe (fig. 29.88) so that the signal is transmitted
through the fluid

For the case of Fig. (29.87): The oscillator provides a sinusoidal
signal of 100 kHz to transceivers
The transmitter emits an ultrasonic pulse, which is received at the
receiver after t time
The transit time in the direction of flow is t
1
= d / (c + v)
where, c = velocity of sound in the fluid, v = velocity of the fluid
When the signal is travelling in the opposite direction of the fluid flow,
the transit time is given by t
2
= d / (c - v)
Similarly, a sinusoidal signal of frequency f Hz travelling in the
direction of flow has a phase shift of
1
= 2fd / (c + v) 48
Ultrasonic Flowmeter (-contd.)
And that travelling against the direction of flow has a phase shift of

2
= 2fd / (c - v)
Therefore, the velocity of flow can be determined by either measuring
the transit time or the phase shift
The difference in transit times is t = t
2
t
1
= 2dv / (c
2
v
2
)
2dv / c
2
( since c>>v)
Hence, t is linearly proportional to flow velocity v
This system, though gives a linear relationship, is subjected to an
error due to uncertainty of the value of c

For the case of Fig. (29.88): A system based upon frequency shows
two self excited oscillating systems created because of using the
received pulses to trigger the transmitted pulses in feedback
arrangement
The pulse repetition frequencies in the forward & backward loops are
f
1
= 1 / t
1
and f
2
= 1 / t
2
respectively
That is, f
1
= [c + v cos()] / d and f
2
= [c - v cos()] / d
49
Ultrasonic Flowmeter (-contd.)
Hence, the difference in frequency is f = f
1
f
2
= 2v cos() / d
Thus, f is independent of c and is not subjected due to error in the
value of c

Advantages:
No obstruction to the flow
Insensitive to variations in viscosity, density and temperature
No moving parts
They lend themselves to bidirectional flow
Their dynamic response is excellent

Limitations:
Complexity and relatively high cost limit the use of this instrument for
individual application
The range is 0-80 km/hour for air with an accuracy of 0.5%
50
Ultrasonic Flowmeter (-contd.)
51
Ultrasonic Flowmeter (-contd.)
52
Strain Gauges
Strain gauge is an example of a passive transducer that uses the
variation in electrical resistance in wires to sense the strain
(elongation or compression/unit length), produced by a force on the
wires
If a metal conductor (wire) is stretched or compressed, its resistance
(R= l/A) changes on account of the fact that both the length and
diameter of the conductor changes
Also, there is a change in the value of the resistivity of the conductor
when subjected to strain, a property called the piezo-resistive effect
Therefore, resistance strain gauges are also known as piezo-resistive
gauges
Some of the most important types of strain gauges used are:
(a) Resistance Wire Strain Gauges
(b) Semiconductor Strain Gauges
53
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges
(i) Un-bonded Resistance Wire Strain Gauge
(ii) Bonded Resistance Wire Strain Gauge

(i) Un-bonded Resistance Wire Strain Gauge:
An un-bonded strain gauge consists of a wire (25 m in dia.)
stretched between two points in an insulating medium such as air
The wires are kept under tension so that there is no sag and no free
vibration
Un-bonded strain gauges are usually connected in a bridge circuit
The bridge is balanced with no load applied and when an external
load is applied, the resistance of the strain gauge changes, causing
an un-balanced of the bridge circuit resulting in a output voltage
which is proportional to the strain
A displacement of the order of 50m can be detected with these
strain gauges
54
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
(ii) Bonded Resistance Wire Strain Gauge:
A fine wire element about 25 m or less in diameter is looped back
and forth on a carrier (base) or mounting plate (which is usually
connected to the member undergoing stress)
The grid of fine wire is connected on a carrier which may be a thin
paper sheet, bakelite, or Teflon
The wire is covered on the top with a thin material, so that it is not
damages mechanically
The spreading of the wire permits uniform distribution of stress
The carrier is then bonded or cemented to the member being studied
This permits a good transfer of strain from carrier to the wire

The resistance of a conducting wire is given by

) 1 ...(
d ) 4 / (
L
A
L
R
2
t
= =
55
As a result of strain, two physical parameters: (i) the change in
gauge resistance, & (ii) the change in length, are of particular
interest
The measurement of the sensitivity of a material to strain, called
Gauge Factor (K) is given by



where, R = change in the initial resistance (R); L = change in initial
length (L)
When the conductor is stressed (due to strain), the length of the
conductor increases by L & simultaneously its diameter decreases
by d
Hence, now the resistance of the conductor can be written as:

Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
...(2)
length in Change %
Resistance in Change %
L/L
R/R
K = =
) d d . d 2 d ( ) 4 / (
) L L (
) d d ( ) 4 / (
) L L (
R
2 2 2
s
A A t
A +
=
A t
A +
=
56
Since, d is very small, d
2
will be further very small and can be
neglected. Therefore,



Poissons Ratio () is defined as the ratio of strain in the lateral
direction to the strain in the axial direction, i.e.,


Substituting the value of d/d from eq. (4) into eq. (3), we get



) 3 ...(
) d / d 2 1 (
) L / L 1 (
R
) d / d 2 1 ( d ) 4 / (
) L / L 1 ( L
) d . d 2 d ( ) 4 / (
) L L (
R
2 2
s
A
A +
=
A t
A +
=
A t
A +
=
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
) 4 ...( ) L / L ( d / d
L / L
d / d
A = A
A
A
=
] L / L ) 2 1 ( 1 [ R
) L / L ( 4 1
) L / L ( 2 L / L ) 2 1 ( 1
R
) L / L 2 1 )( L / L 2 1 (
) L / L 2 1 )( L / L 1 (
R
) L / L 2 1 (
) L / L 1 (
R R
2 2
2
s
A + + ~
(

A
A + A + +
=
A + A
A + A +
=
A
A +
=
57
Hence,

From eq. (2) & eq. (5), we get

As shown in fig. (13.5), the strain gauge is normally used in a bridge
arrangement (ac or dc actuated) in which the gauge forms one arm of
the bridge
Only one of the gauges is active element, producing an output
proportional to the strain
The other (dummy) gauge is not strained, but simply balances the
bridges (compensation)
Since the resistance of the conductor (fine wire) is sensitive to
temperature as well as stress variation, any change in temperature
will cause a change in the bridge balance conditions
This effect can cause error in the strain arrangement, thereby
affecting the accuracy

Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
) 5 ...( R R ) L / L )( 2 1 ( R R R
s
A + = A + + =
) 6 ...( ) 2 1 ( K + =
58
Therefore, the dummy gauge is used to accomplish the
compensation as it is placed in the same temperature environment as
the active gauge but not subjected to strain
Consequently, the temperature change causes the same change of
resistance in the two strain gauges and the bridge balance is not
affected by the temperature
If R
1
and R
2
have negligible temperature coefficients, the bridge
retains its balance under conditions of no strain at any temperature
within this operating range
Since only one gauge (active) responds to the strain, the stain
causes bridge unbalance just as in the case of a simple gauge and
proportional output is produced

Ex: A resistance strain gauge with a gauge factor of 2 is cemented to
a steel member, which is subjected to a strain of 1x10
-6
. If the original
resistance value of the gauge is 130 , calculate the change in
resistance. (Ans. 260 )
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
59
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
60
Resistance Wire Strain Gauges (-contd.)
61
Semiconductor Strain Gauges
To have a high sensitivity, a high value of gauge factor is desirable
A high gauge factor means relatively higher change in resistance, which
can be easily measured with a good degree of accuracy
Semi-conductor (Si or Ge) strain gauges have a very high gauge factor
(50 times as high as resistance wire strain gauges)
The resistance of a semiconductor changes with change in applied strain
Therefore, the semiconductor strain gauges work on the piezo-resistive
effect (i.e. change in value of the resistance due to change in resistivity)
As shown in figure, a typical strain gauge consists of a semiconductor
material and leads that are placed in a protective box
Semiconductor wafer or filaments which have a thickness of 0.05mm are
used
They are bonded on suitable insulating substrates such as Teflon
Gold leads are generally used for making contacts
These strain gauges can be fabricated along with an IC op-amp which
can act as a pressure sensitive transducer
62
The large gauge factor is accompanied by a thermal rate of change of
resistance, approximately 50 times higher than that for resistive gauges
Hence, a semiconductor strain gauge is as stable as the metallic type, but
has a much higher output
Simple temperature compensation methods can be applied to
semiconductor strain gauges so that small values of strain (of the order of
10
-6
) can also be measured
Advantages:
Semiconductor strain gauges have a very high gauge factor of about 130,
which allows measurement of very small strains of the order of 0.01
Life in excess of 10
7
operations and a frequency response of the order of
10
12
Hz
Very small in size (ranging in length from 0.7 mm 7.0 mm)
Disadvantages:
Very sensitive to change in temperature
Linearity is poor
More expensive
Semiconductor Strain Gauges (-contd.)
63
Semiconductor Strain Gauges (-contd.)
64
Analog pH Meter
A very important measurement in many liquid chemical processes
(industrial, pharmaceutical, food production, etc.) is that of pH: the
measurement of hydrogen ion concentration in a liquid solution
pH is defined as the negative logarithm of concentration of the active
hydrogen ions, i.e., pH value = - log
10
[H
+
]
It is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution
The pH term translates the values of the hydrogen ion concentration
(which ordinarily ranges between about 1 & 10
-14
gram-equivalents/litre)
into numbers between 0 and 14 (with pH=7, the neutral point, being the
pH of pure water at 25
0
C)
The lower value of pH shows the strong acidity of the solution and
increasing pH values above 7.0 indicates increasing alkalinity
A pH measurement loop is made up of three components, the pH sensor
(which includes a measuring electrode, a reference electrode, and a
temperature sensor); a preamplifier; and an analyzer or transmitter
A pH measurement loop is essentially a battery where the positive
terminal is the measuring electrode and the negative terminal is the
reference electrode
65
The measuring electrode, which is sensitive to the hydrogen ion,
develops a potential (voltage) directly related to the hydrogen ion
concentration of the solution
The reference electrode provides a stable potential against which the
measuring electrode can be compared
Typical pH Sensor:
When immersed in the solution, the reference electrode potential
does not change with the changing H
+
concentration, it only
completes the circuit
Output of the measuring electrode changes with temperature (even
though the process remains at a constant pH), so a temperature
sensor is necessary to correct for this change in output
This is done in the analyzer or transmitter
The pH sensor components are usually combined into one device
called a combination pH electrode
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
66
The preamplifier is a signal-conditioning device, which takes the high-
impedance pH electrode signal and changes it into a low-impedance
signal
The preamplifier also strengthens and stabilizes the signal, making it
less susceptible to electrical noise
pH Measurement:
The two electrodes generate a voltage directly proportional to the pH
of the solution
At a pH of 7 (neutral), the electrodes will produce 0 volts between
them
At a low pH (acid) a voltage will be developed of one polarity, and at
a high pH (caustic) a voltage will be developed of the opposite
polarity
A design constraint of pH electrodes is that the measurement
electrode must be constructed of special glass to create the ion-
selective barrier needed to screen out hydrogen ions from all the
other ions floating around in the solution

Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
67
This glass is chemically doped with lithium ions, which is what makes
it react electrochemically to hydrogen ions
The circuit path from one electrode contact (through the glass barrier
& the solution) to the other electrode, and back through the other
electrode's contact, is one of extremely high resistance
The reference electrode is made from a chemical solution of neutral
(7) pH buffer solution (usually potassium chloride) allowed to
exchange ions with the process solution through a porous separator,
forming a relatively low resistance connection to the test liquid
The measurement electrode's purpose is to generate the voltage
used to measure the solution's pH and the reference electrode's
purpose is to provide the stable, zero-voltage connection to the liquid
solution
While the reference electrode's connection to the test liquid may only
be a few kilo-ohms, the glass electrode's resistance may range 10-
900 M, depending on electrode design
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
68
An ordinary analog or even digital voltmeter has much too low of an
internal resistance to measure voltage in such a high-resistance
circuit
The equivalent circuit diagram of a typical pH probe circuit illustrates
the problem
Even a very small circuit current flowing through the high resistances
of each component in the circuit will produce relatively substantial
voltage drops across those resistances, seriously reducing the
voltage measured by the meter
Making matters worse is the fact that the potential difference
generated by the measurement electrode is very small (ideally 59.16
mV per pH unit at room temperature)
The meter used for this task must be very sensitive and have an
extremely high input resistance
Another approach is to use a potentiometric "null-balance" voltage
measurement setup to measure this voltage without drawing any
current from the circuit under test
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
69
In this arrangement, the precision voltage supply would be adjusted
until the null detector registered zero, then the voltmeter connected in
parallel with the supply would be viewed to obtain a voltage reading
With the detector at "null" position, zero current in the pH electrode
circuit, and therefore no voltage dropped across the resistances of
either electrode, giving the real electrode voltage at the voltmeter
terminals
Temperature changes in the measured liquid affect both the
response of the measurement electrode to a given pH level (ideally at
59 mV per pH unit), and the actual pH of the liquid
Temperature measurement devices can be inserted into the liquid,
and the signals from those devices used to compensate for the effect
of temperature on pH measurement, but this will only compensate for
the measurement electrode's mV/pH response, not the actual pH
change of the process liquid
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
70
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
71
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
72
Analog pH Meter (-contd.)
73
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Transducers (e.g., strain gauges, flow meters, etc.) generate a small
difference signal, which usually must be amplified before further
processing
Instrumentation amplifier (as shown in fig. ) provides an output that is
precise multiple of the difference between two input signals, hence,
V
o
is given by





If the signals V
1
& V
2
have source resistances R
s1
& R
s2
, then these
resistances are added to R
1
& R
2
respectively
Note that the signal source V
2
sees a resistance R
3
+ R
4
= 101 k
If V
2
=0, the inverting input is also at ground potential & hence V
1
is
loaded by R
1

) 2 ...( ) V V (
R
R
V then
R
R
R
R
Assume
) 1 ...( V
R
R
V )
R
R
1 (
R R
R
V
1 2
1
2
o
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
4 3
4
o
= =
+
+
=
74
Instrumentation Amplifiers (-contd.)
If this is too much load for a transducer, a high resistance buffer may
be used preceding each input, which results into an improved
instrumentation amplifier with very high input resistance & improved
CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio)
If V
1
= V
2
(common mode voltage, i.e., almost zero voltage between
amplifier input terminals), the voltage across R is zero & hence there is
zero current in R & R


Consequently, V
2

= V
2
& V
1

= V
1
and the buffers act as unity gain
amplifiers
However, if V
1
> V
2
, there exists a current in R & R

and (V
2

V
1

) >
(V
2
V
1
)
Therefore, the differential gain & the CMRR of this improved
instrumentation amplifier have been increased and the output voltage
V
o
is given by


Note that the difference gain may be varied by using an adjustable
resistance for R
) 3 ...( ) ( )
2
1 (
1 2
1
2
'
V V
R
R
R
R
V
o
+ =
75
Instrumentation Amplifiers (-contd.)
Fig. 1(a) An Op-Amp used as an
Instrumentation Amplifier. Setting
R
1
/R
2
=R
3
/R
4
causes V
0
to be
proportional to (V
2
-V
1
)

Fig. 1(b) An Improved Instrumentation Amplifier

76