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GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING MASTER PROGRAM GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY

PETROLOGI TERAPAN (TKG 712, 2 SKS)


Semester I Th. 2013/2014
Team Teaching: Dr. Lucas Donny Setijadji Dr. I Wayan Warmada

General Sylabus:
1. Petrology and Petrogenesis of Igneous Rocks: non-fragmental and fragmental 2. Petrology and Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks 3. Applications of igneous and metamorphic rocks in science, technology and industry

References:
1. Winter, J.D. (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, Prentice Hall, 697 p.
2. Wilson, M. (1989) Igneous Petrogenesis: A Global Tectonic Approach, Springer, 466 p.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Bagian pendahuluan telah diberikan di kelas matrikulasi (Agustus 2013). Silakan dibaca lagi bagian ini, yang meliputi definisi batuan dan mineral, tekstur dan struktur, serta klasifikasi batuan beku dan metamorf

GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING MASTER PROGRAM GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY

Chapter 2 Magma and Igneous Rocks


Dr. Lucas Donny Setijadji Dr. I Wayan Warmada September 2013

Internal structures of Earth: - Lithosphere - Asthenosphere - Mesosphere - Core

Interior of the Earth

Earths Interior

Formation of Igneous Rocks

Scheme of magmatism and volcanism (Schmincke, 2004)

Magma
Magma A silicate molten rock inside the earth, formed by partial melting of its parental rocks inside the earths mantle or, in lesser amount in the lower crust. Magma has a mobile nature, and it can contain restite of parental rocks (xenolith), or surviving crystals (xenocryst) and crystals formed by solidifying magma

Lava
Magma that reaches the earth surface

Locations of Magma Formation

(Schmincke, 2004)

3 model of formation of basaltic magmas from partial melting of peridotite (Schmincke, 2004)

Magmatism is driven by addition of water released by subducted slab

Magmatism is driven by pressure drop (decompression melting) at mid oceanic ridge (MOR)

Magma Source: Partial Melting


Hypothetical Solid Rock: Intermediate Composition Melting Temp
1200C 1000C 800C

Mineral
A (Mafic)

B (Int)
C (Felsic)

Temperature = 500C

Magma Source : Partial Melting


Melting Temp
1200C 1000C 800C

Mineral
A (Mafic)

B (Int)
C (Felsic)

Temperature = 900C

Magma

Magma Separates

Felsic
Melting Temp
1200C 1000C 800C

Mineral
A (Mafic)

B (Int)
C (Felsic)

Remaining Rock:

More Mafic
Temperature = 900C

Magma

Bottom Line on Partial Melting

Partial Melting produces a magma that is more felsic than the parent rock
Rock Ultramafic Mafic Intermediate Felsic Magma from Partial Melting Mafic Intermediate Felsic (more) Felsic

Composition: Magma Source

Mafic

Intermediate

Felsic

Ultramafic mantle Source: Partial Melting of ultramafic mantle at Divergent Zones and

Composition: Magma Source

Mafic

Intermediate

Felsic

Source: Partial Melting of ultramafic mantle at Divergent Zones and Hot Spots

Composition: Magma Source

Mafic

Intermediate

Felsic

Source: Partial Melting of mantle, ocean crust and continent at Subduction Zones

Composition: Magma Source

Mafic

Intermediate

Felsic

Source: Partial melting felsic continent above Hot Spots & Subduction Zones

Extrusive (Volcanic) Surface

Magma Rises and Cools


Magma Chamber
Intrusive (Plutonic)

Crystallization of Magma
Magma which is rising towards the earths surface will experience many modifications (chemical and mineralogical) by various processes called differentiation. Differentiation will produce different types of magma and igneous rocks composition Original magma composition is called as Parental Magma or Primitive Magma Differentiation: processes that generate derivative magmas that differ from Primitive Parental Magma Commonly differentiation procceses occur within magma reservoir within the earth crust (depth < 10km), in which magma is in stangnation and cools slowly and crystallize Differentiation procceses consist of fractional crystallization (most important), assimilation and magma mixing.

Bowens reaction series

Palisades Intrusion

Assimilation and magma mixing

Igneous Environments
Extrusive Igneous Rock. Produced when lava erupts onto the surface. The lava freezes on exposure to air or water. Crystal grains lack time for growth and are mostly invisible. Intrusive Igneous Rock. Produced by the crystallization of magma while still underground. The magma freezes because of the gradual loss of heat to the country rock. Crystal grains have time to grow and are mostly visible.

Intrusive and Extrusive

Fine Grained

Coarse Grained

Igneous Rocks
Intrusive
Batholith Stock Lopolith Laccolith Volcanic neck Sill Dike

Extrusive
Lava flow or plateau Volcano (many types) Crater Caldera Fissure
31

Schematic block diagram of some intrusive bodies

Types of Igneous Contacts with Surrounding Rocks Contacts (boundary between two rock bodies) can be:
Concordant
Does not cross cut country rock (surrounding rock) structure, bedding, or metamorphic fabric Ex: laccolith, sill

Discordant
Cross cuts country rock structure Ex: dike, batholith, stock
33

Extrusive Igneous Structures


Volcano:
Anywhere material reaches earths surface

34

Extrusive Igneous Structures: Scale


Large scale structures
Lava plateau (LIP; flood basalt) Ignimbrite (ash flow tuff; pyroclastic sheet)

Intermediate scale structures


Shield volcano Composite volcano (stratovolcano) Caldera, crater Lava flow or dome

Small scale structures


Tephra (pyroclastic material) Lava flow features Cinder cone

35

Types of Igneous Rock

Geologists divide igneous rocks into two main categories:


Volcanic (or extrusive) rocks cool from lava eruptions and tend to have a fine-grained texture. Plutonic (or intrusive) rocks solidify underground and tend to have a coarse-grained texture.

Fine-grained

Coarse-grained

Igneous Composition

Mafic

Felsic

Igneous Rocks
Textures

Textural classification of igneous rocks

Phaneritic: crystals visible with naked eye Plutonic or intrusive rocks Aphanitic: crystal too small for naked eye Volcanic or extrusive rocks Porphyritic: two different, dominant grain sizes
Large xtals = phenocrysts; small xtals = groundmass

Fragmental: composed of disagregated igneous material Pyroclastic rocks

Porphyritic Size Distribution

Porphyritic - bimodal size distribution, with large grains surrounded by numerous small grains or glass Phenocrysts - Large crystals formed by relatively slow cooling below the earths surface Groundmass - Small crystals or glass, formed by more rapid cooling
40

Textural classification of igneous rocks Pegmatitic: very large xtals (cm to 10s of cm); i.e., slowly cooled Forms veins or layers within plutonic body Glassy: non-crystalline; cools very fast (e.g., obsidian) Volcanic rocks Vesicular: vesicles (holes, pores, cavities) form as gases expand Volcanic rocks

Igneous Minerals
Mineral Olivine Plagioclase Pyroxene Amphibole Biotite Orthoclase Muscovite Quartz Properties Green to yellow-green; vitreous; fractures; small, equidimensional grains Usually white or gray; 2 cleavages at 90; elongate grains; striations sometimes visible Greenish black or brow nish black; rather dull luster; blocky grains Black with shiny, splintery appearance; two cleavages at 60 and 120; elongate grains Shiny, black sheets; one perfect cleavage Usually white or pink; 2 cleavages at 90; equidimensional grains Shiny, silvery sheets; one perfect cleavage Colorless to gray; vitreous with conchoidalfracture; irregular grains in intrusive rocks; equidimensional phenocrysts in extrusive rocks

Compositional terms for igneous rocks


Felsic: feldspar + silica ~55-70% silica, K-feldspar > 1/3 of feldspars present light-colored silicate minerals Continental crust Intermediate: between felsic and mafic ~55-65% silica, plag > 2/3 of feldspars present Na-rich plag predominates over Ca-rich plag Mafic: magnesium + ferric iron ~45-50% silica; Ca-rich plag dominant feldspar dark silicate minerals Oceanic crust Ultramafic: >90% mafic minerals, silica < 45%, few or no feldspars Mantle-derived

Igneous Textures - Crystalline


Coarse Grained Fine Grained

Igneous Textures - Crystalline


Porphyritic

Groundmass

Phenocrysts

Igneous Textures - Crystalline

Glassy

Vesicular

Igneous Textures - Pyroclastic/Fragmental

Made of rock fragments rather than crystals

Igneous Rocks
Classification

Hierarchy of Igneous Rocks Classification


Has the rock pyroclastic features? [NO] Carbonates > 50 %? [NO] see classification for melilitic, kalsilitic, leucitic rocks and kimberlites, lamproites and lamprophyres [NO] Is it charnockitic? [NO] Is it plutonic? YES => [NO] Is it volcanic? YES => YES => YES => Use pyroclastic rock classification Use carbonatite classification

=> =>

Flow chart for melilitic, kalsilitic, leucitic rocks... and lamprophyres

YES => M < 90 %? YES => [NO] =>

Use charnockite classification Use plutonic QAPF Use ultramafic classification

Mode possible? YES => Use volcanic QAPF [NO] Is it high-Mg? YES => Use high-Mg classification [NO]

If you get to this point, either the rock is not igneous or you have made a serious mistake.

_____=>____ <= [NO]

Use TAS

Modified from http://www.geol.lsu.edu

1. Classification of Pyroclastic Rocks

(a) Based on type of material. After Pettijohn (1975) Sedimentary Rocks, Harper & Row, and Schmid (1981) Geology, 9, 40-43. (b) Based on the size of the material. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Rev., 1, 287-298.

2. Plutonic Rock Classification


Phaneritic Intrusive Rocks: QAPF of IUGS (Streckeisen, 1976)
60

Quartzolite
90 90

Quartz-rich Granitoid
60

Granite

Granodiorite

Alkali Fs. Quartz Syenite Alkali Fs. Syenite


5

20

20

Quartz Syenite
10

Quartz Monzonite
35

Quartz Monzodiorite
65

Qtz. Diorite/ Qtz. Gabbro


5 Diorite/Gabbro/

Syenite
(Foid)-bearing Syenite

A
10

Monzonite (Foid)-bearing Monzonite

Monzodiorite
(Foid)-bearing Monzodiorite

90

Anorthosite

P
10 (Foid)-bearing Diorite/Gabbro

(Foid)-bearing Alkali Fs. Syenite (Foid) Monzosyenite (Foid) Monzodiorite

60

60

(Foid)olites

A classification of the phaneritic igneous rocks. a. Phaneritic rocks with more than 10% (quartz + feldspar + feldspathoids). After IUGS.
F

IUGS Classification for Mafic and Ultramafic Igneous Rocks


Plagioclase

Batuan Mafik 90 (Gabbroit)

Anorthosite

A classification of the phaneritic igneous rocks. b. Gabbroic rocks. c. Ultramafic rocks. After IUGS.

Ga bb ro

Batuan Ultramafik
Olivine
Dunite
90

(c)

lite cto Tro

Olivine gabbro

Peridotites
Plagioclase-bearing ultramafic rocks

Lherzolite
40

Pyroxene

(b)

Olivine
Olivine Websterite
10

Orthopyroxenite

Pyroxenites

10

Orthopyroxene

Websterite Clinopyroxenite

Clinopyroxene

3.A. Classification for Volcanic Rocks based on minerals by IUGS (Streckeisen, 1976)
60 60

Rhyolite

Dacite

20

20

Trachyte

Latite
35

Andesite/Basalt
65

A
10

(foid)-bearing Trachyte

(foid)-bearing Latite

(foid)-bearing Andesite/Basalt

10

Phonolite

Tephrite

A classification and nomenclature of volcanic rocks. After IUGS.


60 60

(Foid)ites

3.B. TAS (Total Alkali Silica) classification based on chemical composition for Volcanic Rocks

A chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis vs. silica. After Le Bas et al. (1986) J. Petrol., 27, 745-750. Oxford University Press.

Igneous Rocks Classification

Igneous Rocks

Mafic
Coarse
Gabbro

Intermediate
Diorite Granodiorite

Felsic
Granite

Fine
Basalt

Andesite

Dacite

Rhyolite

Examples of Igneous Rocks

Intrusive Rocks (Plutonic)


Granite is a coarse-grained, light colored, intrusive igneous rock that contains mainly quartz and feldspar minerals. The specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Diorite is a coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock that contains a mixture of feldspar, pyroxene, hornblende and sometimes quartz. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Intrusive Rocks (Plutonic)


Gabbro : is a coarse-grained, dark colored, intrusive igneous rock that contains feldspar, augite and sometimes olivine. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.
Peridotite : is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock that is composed almost entirely of olivine. It may contain small amounts of amphibole, feldspar, quartz or pyroxene. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Acid, late phase intrusive rocks


Pegmatite : is a light-colored, extremely coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock. It forms near the margins of a magma chamber during the final phases of magma chamber crystallization. It often contains rare minerals that are not found in other parts of the magma chamber. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Aplite: very fine-grained, white, grey or pinkish intrusive rock dominated by quartz and feldspar. Dykes of aplite are commonly observed traversing granitic bodies.

Granite

Aplite

Intrusive Rock
Syenite : coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock of the same general composition as granite but lack in quartz. Feldspar is dominated by orthoclase

Monzonite : intrusive rock with approximately equal amounts of plagioclase and alkali feldspar, with less than 5% quartz by weight.

Granodiorite
Granodiorite : intrusive igneous rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase than orthoclase-type feldspar. It usually contains abundant biotite mica and hornblende, giving it a darker appearance than true granite.

Tonalite
Tonalite : intrusive rock of felsic composition, phaneritic texture, contains plagioclase (typically oligoclase or andesine) with 10% or less alkali feldspar. Quartz is present as more than 20% of the rock. Amphiboles and pyroxenes are common accessory minerals. In older references tonalite is sometimes used as a synonym for quartz diorite. However the current IUGS classification defines tonalite as having greater than 20% quartz and quartz diorite with from 5 to 20% quartz.

Ultramafic Intrusive Rocks


Dunite : ultramafic plutonic rock, phaneritic texture, with composition is > 90% olivine, with minor amounts of other minerals such as pyroxene.

Peridotite : coarse-grained ultramafic igneous rock, consisting mostly of olivine and pyroxene.

Ultramafic Intrusive Rocks


Pyroxenite : ultramafic igneous rock consisting essentially of minerals of the pyroxene group, such as augite and diopside, hypersthene, bronzite or enstatite.

Hornblendite : rare ultramafic plutonic rock consisting mainly of the amphibole hornblende.

Anorthosite : phaneritic, intrusive ultramafic igneous rock characterized by a predominance of calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar (90100%), and a minimal mafic component (010%) such as pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine.

Carbonatites : intrusive or extrusive igneous rocks defined by mineralogic composition of > 50 % carbonate minerals.

Volcanic Rocks
Diabase / dolerite : a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro; dominated by plagioclase and pyroxene.
Andesite : is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. The specimen shown is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Volcanic Rocks
Rhyolite : light-colored, fine-grained, felsic extrusive igneous rock that typically contains quartz and feldspar minerals.
Obsidian : extrusive igneous rock of intermediate-acid composition, forms when magma cools so rapidly that atoms are unable to arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. The result is a volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a conchoidal fracture.

Volcanic Rocks
Pumice : light-colored vesicular igneous rock, forms through very rapid solidification of acid-intermediate magma. The vesicular texture is a result of gas trapped in the melt at the time of solidification. Scoria : dark-colored igneous rock with abundant round cavities known as vesicles. It ranges in color from black or dark gray to deep reddish brown. Scoria usually has a composition basalt, but can also andesite.

Volcanic Rocks
Basalt : dark-colored, fine-grained, mafic igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow, but can also form in small intrusive bodies, such as an igneous dike or a thin sill.

Komatiite : ultramafic volcanic rock with low silicon, potassium and aluminium, and high to extremely high magnesium content.

Lamprophyre
Lamprophyre : uncommon, small volume ultrapotassic igneous rocks primarily occurring as dikes, lopoliths, laccoliths, stocks and small intrusions. They are alkaline silica-undersaturated, ultramafic rocks with high magnesium oxide, >3% potassium oxide, high sodium oxide and high nickel and chromium.

Lamprophyre dyke

Feldspatoid Igneous Rocks


Nepheline-bearing rock Leucite-bearing rock

Feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content. They occur in rare and unusual types of igneous rocks, both intrusive and vulcanic.

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