Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

Psychology 205

Perception

Day 09

18 Feb 03

   
Sounds, the Ear, and Deafness

Fourier's theorem
Fourier analysis
frequency  (Hz) pitch
amplitude  (dB) loudness
phase  (deg)      ­­­              (auditory localization)

"complexity" timbre ­­ onset, harmonics

Fourier synthesis
Fletcher­Munson curves
auditory pathways
hearing anomalies and deafness
   
Fourier's theorem
Fourier analysis and the ear
  physical  psychological
dimensions counterparts

frequency  (Hz)     pitch
amplitude  (dB)     loudness
phase  (deg)      ­­­              (auditory localization)

"complexity"     timbre ­­ onset, harmonics

   
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier  1784­1830
Egyptologist at the time of Napoleon
mathematician before and after

remembered for his theorem, Fourier’s Theorem

All signals can be analyzed into sine waves of
different frequency, amplitude, and phase

   
signals  ­ audition, vision, tactile ….    moguls

analyzed  ­   completely known, triumph of Enlightenment

sine waves of different ….   ­  basis functions (symmetric) 

frequency  ­   cycles per second, Hz (after Heinrich 
Hertz)

amplitude  ­     dB (after Alexander 
Graham Bell) 

phase         ­     ° (degrees)
   
   
difference in frequency

   
difference in amplitude

   
difference in
phase

90 degrees

   
QuickTimeª and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

transverse wave motion propagation

QuickTimeª and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

longitudinal wave motion propagation

   
Www.kettering.edu/^drussel/Demos/waves/wavemotion.ht
ml
sound propagates as a longitudinal wave

water waves are both longitudinal and transverse
motion

QuickTimeª and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

   
Fourier analysis          whole is sum of the parts
 
Fourier synthesis         parts sum to the whole

   
from a sine wave 
to a square wave

plot of sine wave

plot of spectrum:
amplitude x
frequency

   
From a sine wave 
to a square wave

3 times the
frequency, 1/3rd the
amplitude

   
From a sine wave 
to a square wave

when adding harmonics


(multiples of original
frequency), the original
is called the fundamental
frequency
next time: speech

   
From a sine wave 
to a square wave

   
From a sine wave 
to a square wave

5 times the
frequency, 1/5th the
amplitude

   
From a sine wave 
to a square wave

odd times the frequency,


1/oddth the amplitude

   
Anatomy & Pathways              function

outer ­         pinna  directional antenna 


       external auditory meatus (ear canal) amplifier

middle­       ossicles  impedence matching
               malleus, incus, stapes    (amplifier)
       muscles filter
                tensor tympani, stapedius

inner ­        cochlea frequency analyzer


oval window
basilar membrane
helicotrema
round window

brain ­        auditory nerve
inferior colliculus, medial geniculate, auditory cortex
Heschl's gyrus
tonotopic organization
   
sustained & transient responses
stapediu
s

   
   
Peak of the envelope of
the traveling wave
corresponds to the
frequency heard

   
high freq/ low freq/
stiff end loose
end

condensed
  from text   helicotrem
a
Decussation
exceptions so far:
tonotopic 1. Olfaction

Pathway
organization
2. Audition (partial)
(in strips)

adapted sound
  from text   localization
somatosensory
cortex for
tongue and lips

Heschl’s
gyrus for
audition

left
hemisphere
   
responses of
cortical cells

   
Fletcher-Munson curves

Range of hearing pain

20 dB =
10x physical
amplification

log scales
equal
    loudness
functions
Fletcher-Munson curves

Range of hearing

2. quiet
anisomorphis
m
1. “conversational”

3. very quiet

   
Fletcher-Munson curves

Range of hearing
near pain:
fairly flat
function

threshold:
not a flat conversationa
function l speech

reference
pt dimple due
   
to ear canal
Hearing anomalies & deafness

tinnitus     ringing in one’s ear, can be endogenous, 
      outer hair cells
eyebrow­stapedius reflex and speech             filter

auditory fatigue
tone dip

conduction deafness
sensorineural deafness
   
conversational
speech

   
speech
information

   
results of
ossicular
dampening
,
stapedius

As much as 30 dB
attenuation below
500 Hz

   
generally uniform,
temporary hearing loss due
to exposure to loud sounds
reflects spectrum of sounds
exposed to for a long
period.
minutes, hours

   
permanent hearing loss due to
habitual exposure to loud,
small ranges of sound.
years.

   
same-shaped
deficit as auditory
fatigue

ear wax
ossicular
dislocation
   
anchor stapes
against round
rather than oval
   
window
   
student life at Gallaudet College

   
Sounds, the Ear, and Deafness

Fourier's theorem
Fourier analysis
frequency  (Hz) pitch
amplitude  (dB) loudness
phase  (deg)      ­­­              (auditory localization)
"complexity" timbre ­­ onset, harmonics

Fourier synthesis
Fletcher­Munson curves
auditory pathways
hearing anomalies and deafness