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A gear is a wheel with teeth along its rim.

It is used to transmit power from one shaft to another.

Production of Gears
Hobbing Shaping

Lapping Plastic Injection Molding Powder Metal Sintering Forging Casting

Gear hobbing is a multipoint machining process in

which gear teeth are progressively generated by a series of cuts with a cutting tool known as hob. Both the hob and the workpiece revolve constantly as the hob is fed across the face width of the gear blank.

Process Characteristics
Is a gear generating process that uses a hob cutter
Cutters and blanks rotate in a timed relationship Maintains a proportional feed rate between the gear

blank and the hob

Cuts several teeth on a progressive basis used for high

production runs

Gear Production Parameters

Feed rate
Indexing head

Index and feed change gears establish the definite relationship for a specific gear.

The relationship between the rotation of the hob, the rotation of the work , and the amount and direction of feed that enables the gear to be cut.
Speed change gears can be changed without affecting

the relationship between hob, work and feed.

Indexing Head
The cutter spindle mounted on swirling head is

connected through toothed gearing of different combinations to the table upon which the blank is carried
For each revolution of the table and blank, the cutter

makes a definite number of revolution in the same period of time.

Indexing Movements
The movements of indexing head is controlled by following to main components
Indexing Gearing Feed Gearing

Indexing Gearing
The driving shaft and the table upon which the blank

is mounted both fixed and change gear wheels are usually employed. Generally for spur gears
No.of teeth in driving wheels = No.of teeth in drivenwheels No.of teeth to be cut in blank No.of theads in cutter x Constant quantity.

Feed Gearing
Controls the feed of the cutter relatively to the blank,it

is defined as the movement of the cutter with respect to the blank per revolution ot the blank and table,in direction parallel to axis of latter. For spur gears

No.of teeth in driving wheels

Feed per rev. of blank x No.of threads in cutter

= No of teeth to be cut in blank x Const.

No.of teeth in driven wheels

Relationship between index & feed

To maintain desired relationship between index and feed there are two constant, to decide correct change gears
Machine index constant Machine feed constant

Machine Index Constant

The machine index constant is the number of

revolutions of the hob spindle during one revolution of the work spindle For spur gears Index gear ratio = KT N K= machine index constant T= number of threads on hob N= number of teeth on gear

Machine Feed Constant

The machine feed constant is the distance in inches which the hob slide will advance during one revolution of the work spindle when the ratio of the feed change gear is 1:1
Feed gear ratio = F M F= feed in per revolution of the work M= machine feed constant

The index fixture consists of an index head, also called

a dividing head
Footstock which is similar to the tailstock of a lathe.
The index head and footstock attach to the worktable

of the milling machine by T-slot bolts

Index Plate
The indexing plate is a round plate with a series of six

or more circles of equally spaced holes. The index pin on the crank can be inserted in any hole in any circle. The interchangeable plates regularly furnished with most index heads, the spacing necessary for most gears, boltheads, milling cutters, splines, and so forth can be obtained.

Types of indexing
Direct indexing Indirect indexing Differential indexing

Direct Indexing
To perform this type of indexing,the worm shaft must

be disengaged from the worm gear wheel. Most direct indexing plate have 24 holes, all divisions of which 24 is a divisible (24, 12, 8, 6, 4, 3, 2) can be produced with this plates. Indexing data = N T N No. of holes in Indexing Plate T No. of required divisions

Indirect Indexing
The indexing data or the number of turns of the crank

for most division, it is necessary only to divide 40 by the number of divisions to be cut.

40 N (number of required divisions) Indexing plates which are available: Plate 1 16, 30, 33, 36, 39, 51, 57, 63 Plate 2 22, 24, 27, 29, 37, 43, 49, 59 Plate 3 23, 25, 28, 31, 41, 47, 53, 61

Indexing data =

Differential Indexing
Sometimes, a number of divisions is required which

cannot be obtained by simple indexing with the index plates regularly supplied.
To obtain these divisions, a differential index head is

used. The index crank is connected to the wormshaft by a train of gears instead of a direct coupling as with simple indexing.

Indexing In Degrees
Workpieces can be indexed in degrees as well as

fractions of a turn with the usual index head. There are 360 degrees in a complete circle and one turn of the index crank revolves the spindle 1/40 or 9 degrees. Therefore, 1/9 turn of the crank rotates the spindle 1 degree. Workpieces can therefore be indexed in degrees by using a circle of holes divisible by 9.

Hob work rotation relationship

Spur gears
For spur gears with a single thread hob,the blank

moves one tooth space while the hob rotates once the rotation is timed by means of change gears

Helical gears
For helical gears,the rotaion of the work is silightly

retarted or advanced in relationship to the rotation of the hob,and the feed is also held in a definite relationship with the work and the hob

Application in Gear Hobbing Machine
The two shafts (Hob spindle and work piece spindle)

are rotated at a proportional ratio This determines the number of teeth on the blank; for example, if the gear ratio is 40:1 the hob rotates 40 times to each turn of the blank, which produces 40 teeth in the blank.