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Basics of Thermodynamics

Temperature
Temperature indicates how warm or cold something is. Temperature does not depend on how much of a substance you have. The hotter a substance is, the faster the particles in it are moving. Temperature is measured on one of three scales:
Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Converting from Fahrenheit to Celsuis:

Lets convert 70 F into C: = = =


5 ( 32) 9 5 (70 32) 9 5 (38) 9

= 21.11 C

Converting from Celsuis to Fahrenheit:


= ( +)
Lets convert 72C into F: = = =
9 ( + 32) 5 9 (72 + 32) 5 9 (104) 5

= 187.2

Converting from Celsuis into Kelvin:

Lets convert 21.11 C into K: = + 273.15 = 21.11 + 273.15 = 294.26

When KINETIC ENERGY is produced from combustion, fission, or fusion reactions, radiation is released in the form of THERMAL ENERGY.

HEAT is the amount of thermal energy transferred from one thing to another due to the temperature difference (measured in joules).

Heat energy (H) is also called ENTHALPY.

The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics


You do not talk about Thermodynamics.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

In other words When heat flows to or from a system, the system gains or loses an amount of energy equal to the amount of heat transferred. Think LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

A motor does 2,000 J of work on its surroundings while releasing 3,000 J of heat. By how much does its internal energy change?
= = 2000 3,000 = 5,000

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Entropy = order disorder

CHAOS REIGNS SUPREME

Lets talk about the steam engines on trains in the 1800s.


2.) Water Tank. Cold water enters, heated by fire box, exits to steam turbine. Heat lost to non insulated water tank and pipes. Heat Loss 1.) Fire box. Some heat rises up to heat water, but most escapes to air around box. 3.) Steam Turbine More heat wasted on Friction at joints.

Cold water Heated water

Fire

Jake Burkholder 2012

Heat Loss?
Where does the lost heat go to? What does it do?

Jake Burkholder 2012

Heat Loss: goes where?


Heat is lost to air. It increases the temperature of the air molecules, which means the speed of the air molecules increase, which makes them more random, i.e., it increases the entropy of air.
Jake Burkholder 2012

Cold water Heated water

Fire

Heat Loss

2nd Law of Thermo leads to: Machines cannot be 100% efficient which means that 1.) you cannot build a perpetual motion machine and 2.) You cannot create energy, (i.e., efficiency cannot exceed 100%)
Jake Burkholder 2012

Thermal energy always flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, until thermal equilibrium is reached.

Why does ice freeze? =

T is negative, because the temperature drops H is negative, because the system loses heat So, S is negative, because the system is spontaneous (this means it wants to be more ordered)

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

Heat and Specific Heat Capacity

Steel

has a lower specific heat capacity than water.

Specific Heat Capacity


specific heat capacity (c): the quantity of heat needed to change a unit mass (1 g) of the material by a unit amount in temperature (1 C).

It is a property of the material, determined by experiment.

The specific heat capacity of water is 1 cal/gC


Specific capacity of some common substances:

Substance Water Ice Steam Ethyl alcohol Glass Aluminum

Specific Heat Capacity (in Cal/g/C) 1.0 0.49 0.48 0.58 0.20 0.215

When a materials temperature is changed, we can calculate how much heat absorbed/released by the material: Q = mcT where Q = quantity of heat m = mass c = specific heat capacity T = change in temperature
How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 70g of water from 20C to 80C???
= = (70)(1

)(80 20)

= 4200