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Apply general understanding on the organizing and preparation of raw data for statistical analysis by using different types of probability distributions to solve problems. (C3)


1.1 Understand statistics. 1.1.1 Define statistics. 1.1.2 State the types of statistics:
a. descriptive b. inferential

1.1.3 Differentiate population and sample. 1.1.4 Describe the types of variables used:
a. quantitative b. qualitative or categorical

1.1.5 Determine the different scales of measurement:

a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio

1.2 Organize data. 1.2.1 State examples of raw data. 1.2.2 Organize qualitative data:
a. frequency distributions b. relative frequency and percentage distributions c. draw graphs and charts to represent data

1.2.3 Organize quantitative data:

a. frequency distributions b. relative frequency and percentage distributions c. draw graphs and charts to represent data

1.3 Illustrate numerical descriptive measures. 1.3.1 Illustrate Measures of Central Tendency for ungrouped data:
a. mean b. median c. mode

1.3.2 Illustrate Measures of Dispersion for ungrouped data:

a. range b. variance and standard deviation c. coefficient of variation

1.3.3 Illustrate Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion for grouped data.

1.4 Understand probability. 1.4.1 Describe experiment, outcomes and sample space. 1.4.2 Calculate probability:
a. mutually exclusive events b. independent and dependent events c. complimentary events d. intersection of events e. multiplication rule f. union of events g. addition rule h. Bayes theorem

Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data.
Bluman Chapter 1

Discrete & Continuous variable

Discrete variable can only take individually separated values which usually occur through the process of counting, and not any value in between two given values. For example, number of children in a family could take values such as 0, 1, 2, 3 etc. and thus is a discrete variable. Continuous variable can take any value between two given values, limited only by the precision of the measurement. For example, time taken to complete a task could be quoted as 5 seconds or 5.17 seconds or 5.1689 seconds, thus is a continuous variable.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data. Inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. Descriptive statistics deals with scientific methods of describing a large mass of data that have been collected without drawing any conclusion or inference about a large group. Inferential statistics deals with scientific methods of finding out something about a population, based on a sample.
Bluman Chapter 1

Descriptive Statistics
Collect data
e.g., Survey

Present data
e.g., Tables and graphs

Summarize data
e.g., Sample mean =


Inferential Statistics
Estimation e.g., Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight Hypothesis testing e.g., Test the claim that the population mean weight is 120 pounds
Inference is the process of drawing conclusions or making decisions about a population based on sample results

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

A variable is a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values. The values that a variable can assume are called data. A population consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are studied. A sample is a subset of the population.
Bluman Chapter 1

Key Definitions
A population is the collection of all items of interest or under investigation N represents the population size A sample is an observed subset of the population n represents the sample size A parameter is a specific characteristic of a population A statistic is a specific characteristic of a sample

Population vs. Sample

a b cd

b c

ef gh i jk l m n o p q rs t u v w x y z o

r y


Values calculated using population data are called parameters

Values computed from sample data are called statistics

Examples of Populations
Names of all registered voters in the Malaysia
Incomes of all families living in Penang

Annual returns of all stocks traded on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Grade point averages of all the students in your Polytechnic

Random Sampling
Simple random sampling is a procedure in which
each member of the population is chosen strictly by chance, each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen, every possible sample of n objects is equally likely to be chosen

The resulting sample is called a random sample

Kata Kunci
1. Populasi (seluruh alam)

2. Sampel
Sebahagian daripada populasi

Populasi, sampel Parameter dan Statistik

3. Parameter
Ringkasan tentang Populasi

4. Statistik
Ringkasan tentang Sampel

Variables and Types of Data

Data Qualitative

Numerical, Can be ranked

Countable 5, 29, 8000, etc.
Bluman Chapter 1

Can be decimals 2.59, 312.1, etc.

Qualitative and Quantitative variable

A qualitative variable is a characteristic that an item has or does not have. A quantitative variable is a characteristic of an item whose values can be expressed as numerical quantities. For example, the height of a group of students is a quantitative variable, as each student will have a measurable height

Types of Data
Data sets can consist of two types of data: qualitative data and quantitative data.

Qualitative Data Consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.

Quantitative Data Consists of numerical measurements or counts.

Levels of Measurement
The level of measurement determines which statistical calculations are meaningful. The four levels of measurement are: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Levels of Measurement

Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Lowest to highest

Nominal Level of Measurement

Data at the nominal level of measurement are qualitative only. Nominal
Levels of Measurement Calculated using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.

Colors in the US flag

Names of students in your class

Textbooks you are using this semester

Ordinal Level of Measurement

Data at the ordinal level of measurement are qualitative or quantitative.
Levels of Measurement Arranged in order, but differences between data entries are not meaningful. Numbers on the back of each players shirt Top 50 songs played on the radio


Class standings: freshman, sophomore, junior, senior

Data at the interval level of measurement are quantitative. A zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero.
Levels of Measurement

Interval Level of Measurement


Arranged in order, the differences between data entries can be calculated. Atlanta Braves World Series victories


Years on a timeline

Data at the ratio level of measurement are similar to the interval level, but a zero entry is meaningful.
Levels of Measurement A ratio of two data values can be formed so one data value can be expressed as a ratio.

Ratio Level of Measurement

Ages Grade point averages Weights

Summary of Levels of Measurement

Level of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Put data in categories Yes Yes Yes Arrange data in order No Yes Yes Subtract data values No No Yes Determine if one data value is a multiple of another No No No






Taraf Pengukuran Data

Nominal Taraf terendah pengukuran Ordinal Interval Ratio Taraf tertinggi pengukuran

Taraf data Nominal

Angka yang diguna untuk mengkelas atau mengkategori
Contoh: Kelasifikasi Pekerjaan
1 untuk guru 2 untuk pekerja binaan 3 untuk pekerja perkilangan

Contoh: Ethnik
1 untuk Melayu 2 untuk Cina 3 untuk India 4 untuk lain-lain

Taraf Data Ordinal

Angka yang diguna untuk pemeringkatan atau susunan Magnitud angka relatif adalah bermakna Perbezaan di antara angka tidak boleh dibanding Contoh: Pemeringkatan produktiviti pekerja Contoh: Pemeringkatan ujian rasa untuk tiga jenis minuman ringan Contoh: Kedudukan dalam organisasi 1 untuk Presiden 2 untuk Timbalan President 3 untuk Pengurus Kilang 4 untuk Penyelia Jabatan 5 untuk Pekerja

Contoh Pengukuran Ordinal

1 6 2 4 3 5 f i n i s h


Data Ordinal
Cara pengajaran pensyarah amat baik

Strongly Agree




Strongly Disagree

Data Taraf Interval

Jarak antara dua integer adalah sama
Magnitud angka relatif adalah bermakna Perbezaan antara dua nombor boleh dibandingkan Kedudukan origin, sifar, adalah arbitrari Pintasan menegak unti pengukuran fungsi transformasi adalah tidak sifar Contoh: Fahrenheit Temperature Contoh: Calendar Time Contoh: Monetary Units

Data Taraf Ratio

Pengukuran taraf tertinggi Magnitud angka relatif adalah bermakna Perbezaan antara dua nombor boleh dibandingkan Kedudukan origin, sifar, adalah mutlak (natural) Pintasan menegak unti pengukuran fungsi transformasi adalah sifar Contoh: Tinggi, berat dan volum Contoh: Monetary Variables, such as Profit and Loss, Revenues, and Expenses Contoh: Financial ratios, such as P/E Ratio, Inventory Turnover, and Quick Ratio.

Potensi Kegunaan berbagai Taraf Data

Ratio Interval
Ordinal Nominal


Taraf Data, Operasi, dan Kaedah Statistik

Taraf Data Nominal Ordinal Interval Operasi Pengelasan dan Menghitung Semua diatas dan Pemeringkatan Semua diatas dan menambah, menolak, mendharab dan membahagi Kaedah Statistik Tidak Berparameter Tidak berparameter Berparameter


Semua diatas