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Atomic Structure 2.

Questions

1. What are the three sub atomic particles that make


up the atom? Draw a representation of the atom and labelling the sub-atomic particles. Draw a table to show the relative masses and charges of the sub-atomic particles. State the atomic number, mass number and number of neutrons of: a) carbon, b) oxygen and c) selenium. Which neutral element contains 11 electrons and 12 neutrons?

3.
4. 5.

Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but different mass numbers, i.e. they have different numbers of neutrons. Each atom of chlorine contains the following:
35 Cl 17 37 Cl 17

17 protons 17 electrons 18 neutrons

17 protons 17 electrons 20 neutrons

The isotopes of chlorine are often referred to as chlorine-35 and chlorine-37

Isotopes
Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons. When a chemical reaction takes place, it is the electrons that are involved in the reactions. However isotopes of an element have the slightly different physical properties because they have different numbers of neutrons, hence different masses. The isotopes of an element with fewer neutrons will have:

Lower masses Lower densities

faster rate of diffusion lower melting and boiling points

Isotopes 2.

Questions

1. Explain what isotopes using hydrogen as an

example. One isotope of the element chlorine, contains 20 neutrons. Which other element also contains 20 neutrons?

3. State the number of protons, electrons and


neutrons in: a) one atom of carbon-12 b) one atom of carbon-14 c) one atom of uranium-235 d) one atom of uranium-238

Isotopes

H/W

Complete Exercise 1, 2, and 3 in the handbook for next session. Task: Find out the uses of isotopes in as much detail as possible. N.B. Please make sure you understand and write in your own words DO NOT COPY out of a text-book.

Mass Spectrometer
The mass spectrometer is an instrument used:
To measure the relative masses of isotopes
To find the relative abundance of the isotopes in a

sample of an element

When charged particles pass through a magnetic field, the particles are deflected by the magnetic field, and the amount of deflection depends upon the mass/charge ratio of the charged particle.

Mass Spectrometer

5 Stages

Once the sample of an element has been placed in the mass spectrometer, it undergoes five stages. Vaporisation the sample has to be in gaseous form. If the sample is a solid or liquid, a heater is used to vaporise some of the sample. X (s) X (g)
or X (l) X (g)

Mass Spectrometer

5 Stages

Ionisation sample is bombarded by a stream of high-energy electrons from an electron gun, which knock an electron from an atom. This produces a positive ion:
X (g) X + (g) + eAcceleration

an electric field is used to accelerate the positive ions towards the magnetic field. The accelerated ions are focused and passed through a slit: this produces a narrow beam of ions.

Mass Spectrometer
Deflection

5 Stages

The accelerated ions are deflected into the magnetic field. The amount of deflection is greater when: the mass of the positive ion is less the charge on the positive ion is greater the velocity of the positive ion is less the strength of the magnetic field is greater

Mass Spectrometer
If all the ions are travelling at the same velocity and carry the same charge, the amount of deflection in a given magnetic field depends upon the mass of the ion. For a given magnetic field, only ions with a particular relative mass (m) to charge (z) ration the m/z value are deflected sufficiently to reach the detector.

Mass Spectrometer
Detection ions that reach the detector cause electrons to be released in an ioncurrent detector The number of electrons released, hence the current produced is proportional to the number of ions striking the detector. The detector is linked to an amplifier and then to a recorder: this converts the current into a peak which is shown in the mass spectrum.

Atomic Structure

Mass Spec

Name the five stages which the sample undergoes in the mass spectrometer and make brief notes of what you remember under each stage. Complete Exercise 4, 5 and 6 in the handbook. Any incomplete work to be completed and handed in for next session. Card Sort Activity ???

Atomic Structure Mass Spec


Isotopes

of boron
m/z value
Relative abundance %

10 18.7

11 81.3

Ar of boron = (10 x 18.7) + (11 x 81.3) (18.7 + 81.3) = 187 + 894.3 100 = 1081.3 = 10.8 100

Mass Spectrometer
Complete Exercise 7 14

Questions

Energy Levels
Electrons go in shells or energy levels. The energy levels are called principle energy levels, 1 to 4. The energy levels contain sub-levels.
Principle energy level Number of sub-levels

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

These sub-levels are assigned the letters, s, p, d, f

Energy Levels
Each type of sub-level can hold a different maximum number of electron.
Sub-level
s p d f Maximum number of electrons 2 6 10 14

Energy Levels
The energy of the sub-levels increases from s to p to d to f. The electrons fill up the lower energy sub-levels first.
Looking at this table can you work out in what order the electrons fill the sub-levels?

Energy Levels
Lets take a look at the Periodic Table to see how this fits in.

Electronic Structure
So how do you write it?

1s2
Energy level Sub-level Number of electrons

Example For magnesium: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2

Electronic Structure
The electronic structure follows a pattern the order of filling the sub-levels is 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p After this there is a break in the pattern, as that the 4s fills before 3d. Taking a look at the table below can you work out why this is?
This is because the 4s sub-level is of lower energy than the 3d sub-level.

Electronic Structure
The order in this the energy levels are filled is called the Aufbau Principle. Example (Sodium 2, 8, 1)

Electronic Structure
There are two exceptions to the Aufbau principle. The electronic structures of chromium and copper do not follow the pattern they are anomalous. Chromium 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5, 4s1 Copper 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2. 3p6, 3d10, 4s1
Write the electronic configuration for the following elements: a) hydrogen c) oxygen e) copper b) carbon d) aluminium f) fluorine

Electronic Structure

of ions

When an atom loses or gains electrons to form an ion, the electronic structure changes:

Positive ions: formed by the loss of e1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6
Na atom Na+ ion

Negative ions: formed by the gain of e1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p6
O atom O- ion

Electronic Structure of transition metals


With the transition metals it is the 4s electrons that are lost first when they form ions:

Titanium (Ti) - loss of 2 eTi atom Ti2+ ion

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6 3d2 4s2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6 3d2

Chromium (Cr) - loss of 3 eCr atom Cr3+ ion

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6 3d5 4s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6 3d3

Electronic Structure

- Questions

Give the full electronic structure of the following poisitve ions: a) Mg2+ b) Ca2+ c) Al3+ Give the full electronic structure of the negative ions: a) Clb) Brc) P3-

Electronic Structure
Atomic no. Mg Al2+ S2Sc3+ Ni2+ 21 45 30 27 16 16 Mass no.

- Questions

Copy and complete the following table:


No. of No. of No. of protons neutrons electrons 12 10 Electronic structure 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

26

Orbitals
The energy sub levels are made up of orbitals, each which can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. Different sub-levels have different number of orbitals:
Sub-level s p d f No. of orbitals 1 3 5 7 Max. no. of electrons 2 6 10 15

Orbitals
The orbitals in different sub-levels have different shapes:
s orbitals 1s 2s

p orbitals

Orbitals
Within a sub-level, the electrons occupy orbitals as unpaired electrons rather than paired electrons. (This is known as Hunds Rule). We use boxes to represent orbitals:
2p
Electronic structure of carbon, 1s2, 2s2, sp2

2s 1s

Orbitals
The arrows represent the electrons in the orbitals. The direction of arrows indiactes the spin of the electron. Paired electrons will have opposite spin, as this reduced the mutual repulsion between the paired electrons.
2p

Electronic structure of carbon, 1s2, 2s2, 2p2

2s
1s

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

2p 2s 1s

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

Electronic structure of lithium: 1s2, 2s1

2p

2s 1s

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

1s

2s

2p

Electronic structure of fluorine: 1s2, 2s2

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

Electronic structure of potassium: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s1

4s 3p 3s

2p 2s
1s

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

Electronic structure of nitrogen: 1s2, 2s2, 2p3

2p

2s 1s

Orbitals
Using boxes to represent orbitals, give the full electronic structure of the following atoms:
a) lithium d) nitrogen b) fluorine e) oxygen c) potassium

Electronic structure of oxygen: 1s2, 2s2, 2p4

2p

2s 1s

Ionisation Energy
Ionisation of an atom involves the loss of an electron to form a positive ion. The first ionisation energy is defined as the energy required to remove one electron from a gaseous electron. The first ionisation energy of an atom can be represented by the following general equation: X(g) X+ + eH +ve Since all ionisations requires energy, they are endothermic processes and have a positive enthalpy change (H) value.

Ionisation Energy
The value of the first ionisation energy depends upon two main factors: The size of the nuclear charge The energy of the electron that has been removed (this depends upon its distance from the nucleus)

Ionisation Energy
As the size of the nuclear charge increases the force of the attraction between the negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nucleus increases.
Small nuclear charge Small force of attraction Smaller ionisation energy

Large nuclear charge Large force of attraction Greater ionisation energy

Ionisation energy
As the energy of the electron increases, the electron is farther away from the nucleus. As a result the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron decreases.
Electrons closer to positive nucleus Large force of attraction Greater ionisation energy

Electrons further away from positive nucleus Small force of attraction Smaller ionisation energy

Ionisation energy -

Questions

Write an equation to represent the first ionisation of: a) aluminium b) lithium c) sodium

Trends across a Period


Going across a period, the size of the 1st ionisation energy shows a general increase. This is because the electron comes from the same energy level, but the size of the nuclear charge increases.
+

Going across a Period

Trends across a Period

(2 exceptions)

The first ionisation of Al is less than that of Mg, despite the increase in the nuclear charge. The reason for this is that the outer electron removed from Al is in a higher sub-level: the electron removed from Al is a 3p electron, whereas that removed from Mg is a 3s.
Electronic structure Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p1 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p2 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p4 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p5 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6 Ionisation energy/kJ mol-1 494 736 577 786 1060 1000 1260 1520

Trends across a Period

(2 exceptions)

The first ionisation energy of S is less than that of P, despite the increase in the nuclear charge. In both cases the electron removed is from the 3p sublevel. However the 3p electron removed from S is a paired electron, whereas the 3p electron removed from P is an unpaired electron. When the electrons are paired the extra mutual repulsion results in less energy being required to remove an electron, hence a reduction in the ionisation energy.
Phosphorus 3p 3s Sulphur 3p 3s

Trends across a Period -

Questions

There is a break in this general trend going across a Period. Look at the table below and point out where the break in the the trend is and try to give an explanation.
Electronic structure Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p1 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p2 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p3 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p4 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p5 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6 Ionisation energy/kJ mol-1 494 736 577 786 1060 1000 1260 1520

Clue: which sub-level (s, p, d or f is the outer electron in?

Trends across a Period Now take a look at the graph below:


3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0
First ionisation energy/kJ mol-1
He N H F O Na Mg Al P Si Cl S K Ne Ar Ca

Questions

Be
Li

C B

10

15

20

25

Atomic number (Z)

a) Explain what the graph shows in as much detail as possible b) There is one other break in the general pattern going across a Period. What is it and explain why that is.

Trends down a Group


Ionisation energy decreases going down a Group. Going down a Group in the Periodic Table, the electron removed during the first ionisation is from a higher energy level and hence it is further from the nucleus. The nuclear charge also increases, but the effect of the increased nuclear charge is reduced by the inner electrons which shield the outer electrons.

Down the Group

Ionisation energy

- Questions

1. Explain why sodium has a higher first

ionisation energy than potassium. 2. Explain why the first ionisation energy of boron is less than that of beryllium. 3. Why does helium have the highest first ionisation energy of all the elements? 4. Complete Tasks