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Scanning

electron microscope (SEM)

Scanning electron micrograph of cilia

Figure 4.1B

Transmission electron microscope (TEM)

Transmission electron micrograph of cilia


Figure 4.1C

prokaryotic cell is enclosed by a plasma membrane and is usually encased in a rigid cell wall

The cell wall may be covered by a sticky capsule


Inside the cell are its DNA and other parts

Ribosomes

Capsule
Cell wall Plasma membrane

Prokaryotic flagella

Pili

Nucleoid region (DNA) Figure 4.4

An

animal cell
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus

Flagellum Not in most plant cells Lysosome Centriole Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane

Peroxisome

Microtubule Cytoskeleton Intermediate filament Microfilament


Figure 4.5A

Mitochondrion

Nucleus

Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Microtubule Not in animal cells Central vacuole Chloroplast Microfilament Cell wall Intermediate filament Cytoskeleton

Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane


Figure 4.5B

The

largest organelle is usually the nucleus The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope The nucleus is the cellular control center

It contains the DNA that directs the cells activities

NUCLEUS Chromatin Nucleolus Pore Two membranes of nuclear envelope

ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Ribosomes


Figure 4.6

Ribosome translating a protein that is secreted into the endoplasmic reticulum Free ribosomes: proteins are released into the cytosol and used within the cell Membrane-bound ribosomes: proteins that are needed in some organelles

Smooth

ER synthesizes lipids In some cells, it regulates carbohydrate metabolism and breaks down toxins and drugs

The

Golgi apparatus

The

various organelles of the endomembrane system are interconnected structurally and functionally
Transport vesicle from ER Transport vesicle from Golgi Plasma membrane

Rough ER

Vacuole Nucleus Lysosome Smooth ER Nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus Figure 4.14

Chloroplasts

are found in plants and some protists Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy in sugars

Chloroplast

Stroma Inner and outer membranes Granum Intermembrane space

Figure 4.15

Mitochondria

carry out cellular respiration

This process uses the chemical energy in food to make ATP for cellular work

MITOCHONDRION

Outer membrane

Intermembrane space

Inner membrane Cristae Matrix

Figure 4.16

Enclosed

by two membranes that have phospholipid bilayers outer membrane is smooth and highly permeable Inner membrane is contains enzymes that are involved in cellular respiration. The membrane' have many infoldings called cristae

Walls of two adjacent plant cells

Vacuole PLASMODESMATA

Layers of one plant cell wall

Cytoplasm

Plasma membrane

Figure 4.19A

Tight junctions can bind cells together into leakproof sheets

Anchoring junctions link animal cells Communicating junctions allow substances to flow from cell to cell
Figure 4.19B

TIGHT JUNCTION

ANCHORING JUNCTION

COMMUNICATING JUNCTION

Plasma membranes of adjacent cells Extracellular matrix

biosel_S1_bio

amfipatik

Struktur molekul fosfolipid


biosel_S1_bio

Kolesterol membran

biosel_S1_bio

hidrofilik hidrofobik

hidrofilik

1. Protein integral/ transmembran amfipatik


biosel_S1_bio

2. Protein periferal hanya di salah satu sisi membran

TRANSPOR LINTAS MEMBRAN MELIBATKAN PROTEIN TRANSPOR BEKERJA SPESIFIK

Rough ER

Transport vesicle (containing inactive hydrolytic enzymes) Plasma membrane

Golgi apparatus

Engulfment of particle Food LYSOSOMES

Lysosome engulfing damaged organelle

Food vacuole
Figure 4.11B

Digestion

Enzim

Substrat Fosfomonoester Fosfodiester RNA DNA Protein Kolagen Dermatan sulfat Keratan sulfat Heparan sulfat Heparan sulfat

Fosfatase - fosfatase asam - fosfodiesterase asam Nuklease - ribonuklease asam - deoksiribonuklease asam Protease - katepsin - kolagenase Enzim-enzim penghidrolisis GAG - iduronat sulfatase - b-galaktosidase - heparan N-sulfatase - a-Nasetilglukosaminidase

ENZIM LISOSOMAL PENTING

Enzim-enzim lisosomal umumnya adalah enzim yang dapat berfungsi baik di lingkungan asam

LISOSOM MENGGUNAKAN SEKITAR 40 JENIS ENZIM HIDROLITIK, ENZIM-ENZIM TERSEBUT DIRAKIT DI DALAM RETIKULUM ENDOPLASMA DAN DIMODIFIKASI DI BADAN GOLGI

Clathrin-coated vesicles dari TGN ke endosom, lisosom, dan vakuola pada sel tumbuhan

LISOSOM MENCERNA MAKROMOLEKUL YANG BERASAL DARI LUAR SEL (heterofagi) dan KOMPONEN SEL (autofagi)
/Heterophagy

Fungsi utama lisosom adalah 1. endositosis, 2. fagositosis, dan 3. Autofagi Pada tumbuhan: vakuola, yang selain untuk mencerna, mempunyai fungsi menyimpan senyawa organik yang dihasilkan tanaman.

RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS

Membranes

organize the chemical reactions making up metabolism

Cytoplasm
Figure 5.10

Phospholipids

are the main structural components of membranes They each have a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails

Head

Symbol

Tails
Figure 5.11A

In

water, phospholipids form a stable bilayer

The heads face outward and the tails face inward

Water Hydrophilic heads

Hydrophobic tails

Water
Figure 5.11B

The

plasma membrane of an animal cell

Glycoprotein

Carbohydrate (of glycoprotein)

Fibers of the extracellular matrix Glycolipid

Phospholipid Cholesterol Microfilaments of the cytoskeleton

Proteins
CYTOPLASM

Many

membrane proteins are enzymes

Some proteins function as receptors for chemical messages from other cells The binding of a messenger to a receptor may trigger signal transduction
Messenger molecule Receptor

Activated molecule
Figure 5.13

Enzyme activity

Signal transduction

Osmosis

causes cells to shrink in a hypertonic solution and swell in a hypotonic solution


The control of water balance (osmoregulation) is essential for organisms
ISOTONIC SOLUTION HYPOTONIC SOLUTION HYPERTONIC SOLUTION

ANIMAL CELL

(1) Normal

(2) Lysing

(3) Shriveled
Plasma membrane

PLANT CELL

Figure 5.16

(4) Flaccid

(5) Turgid

(6) Shriveled

Active

FLUID OUTSIDE CELL

transport in two solutes across a membrane


1

Transport protein

Phosphorylated transport protein

First solute

First solute, inside cell, binds to protein

ATP transfers phosphate to protein

Protein releases solute outside cell

Second solute

4
Figure 5.18

Second solute binds to protein

Phosphate detaches from protein

Protein releases second solute into cell

An example: active transport is the sodium-potassium pump

To

move large molecules or particles through a membrane


a vesicle may fuse with the membrane and expel its contents (exocytosis)

FLUID OUTSIDE CELL

Figure 5.19A

CYTOPLASM

or the membrane may fold inward, trapping material from the outside (endocytosis)

Figure 5.19B

Harmful

levels of cholesterol can accumulate in the blood if membranes lack cholesterol receptors

LDL PARTICLE

Phospholipid outer layer Receptor protein

Protein Cholesterol

Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Figure 5.20

Vesicle