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Chapter 8

Strings and Text I/O

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Objectives
✦ To use the String class to process fixed strings (§8.2).
✦ To use the Character class to process a single character (§8.3).
✦ To use the StringBuilder/StringBuffer class to process flexible
strings (§8.4).
✦ To know the differences between the String, StringBuilder, and
StringBuffer classes (§8.2-8.4).
✦ To learn how to pass strings to the main method from the
command line (§8.5).
✦ (Optional) To use the regular expressions to represent patterns
for matching, replacing, and splitting strings (§8.6).
✦ To discover file properties, delete and rename files using the File
class (§8.7).
✦ To write data to a file using the PrintWriter class (§8.8.1).
✦ To read data from a file using the Scanner class (§8.8.2).
✦ (Optional GUI) To add components to a frame (§8.9).
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The String Class
✦ Constructing a String:
– String message = "Welcome to Java“;
– String message = new String("Welcome to Java“);
– String s = new String();
✦ Obtaining String length and Retrieving Individual Characters in
a string
✦ String Concatenation (concat)
✦ Substrings (substring(index), substring(start, end))
✦ Comparisons (equals, compareTo)
✦ String Conversions
✦ Finding a Character or a Substring in a String
✦ Conversions between Strings and Arrays
✦ Converting Characters and Numeric Values to Strings
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java.lang.String

+String() Constructs an empty string


+String(value: String) Constructs a string with the specified string literal value
+String(value: char[]) Constructs a string with the specified character array
+charAt(index: int): char Returns the character at the specified index from this string
+compareTo(anotherString: String): int Compares this string with another string
+compareToIgnoreCase(anotherString: String): int Compares this string with another string ignoring case
+concat(anotherString: String): String Concat this string with another string
+endsWith(suffix: String): boolean Returns true if this string ends with the specified suffix
+equals(anotherString: String): boolean Returns true if this string is equal to anther string
+equalsIgnoreCase(anotherString: String): boolean Checks if this string equals anther string ignoring case
+getChars(int srcBegin, int srcEnd, char[] dst, int Copies characters from this string into the destination character
dstBegin): void array
+indexOf(ch: int): int Returns the index of the first occurrence of ch
+indexOf(ch: int, fromIndex: int): int Returns the index of the first occurrence of ch after fromIndex
+indexOf(str: String): int Returns the index of the first occurrence of str
+indexOf(str: String, fromIndex: int): int Returns the index of the first occurrence of str after fromIndex
+lastIndexOf(ch: int): int Returns the index of the last occurrence of ch
+lastIndexOf(ch: int, fromIndex: int): int Returns the index of the last occurrence of ch before fromIndex
+lastIndexOf(str: String): int Returns the index of the last occurrence of str
+lastIndexOf(str: String, fromIndex: int): int Returns the index of the last occurrence of str before fromIndex
+regionMatches(toffset: int, other: String, offset: Returns true if the specified subregion of this string exactly
int, len: int): boolean matches the specified subregion of the string argument
+length(): int Returns the number of characters in this string
+replace(oldChar: char, newChar: char): String Returns a new string with oldChar replaced by newChar
+startsWith(prefix: String): boolean Returns true if this string starts with the specified prefix
+subString(beginIndex: int): String Returns the substring from beginIndex
+subString(beginIndex: int, endIndex: int): String Returns the substring from beginIndex to endIndex-1.
+toCharArray(): char[] Returns a char array consisting characters from this string
+toLowerCase(): String Returns a new string with all characters converted to lowercase
+toString(): String Returns a new string with itself
+toUpperCase(): String Returns a new string with all characters converted to uppercase
+trim(): String Returns a string with blank characters trimmed on both sides
+copyValueOf(data: char[]): String Returns a new string consisting of the char array data
+valueOf(c: char): String Returns a string consisting of the character c
+valueOf(data: char[]): String Same as copyValueOf(data: char[]): String
+valueOf(d: double): String Returns a string representing the double value
+valueOf(f: float): String Returns a string representing the float value
+valueOf(i:
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Introduction to ReturnsEdition,
Java Programming, Sixth a string representing
(c) 2007 the int valueEducation, Inc. All
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+valueOf(l: long): String Returns a string
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Constructing Strings
String newString = new String(stringLiteral);

String message = new String("Welcome to Java");

Since strings are used frequently, Java provides a


shorthand initializer for creating a string:

String message = "Welcome to Java";

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Strings Are Immutable
A String object is immutable; its contents cannot be changed.
Does the following code change the contents of the string?
String s = "Java";
s = "HTML";

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animation

Trace Code
String s = "Java";
s = "HTML";

After executing String s = "Java"; After executing s = "HTML";

s : String s : String This string object is


now unreferenced
String object for "Java" String object for "Java"

Contents cannot be changed : String

String object for "HTML"

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animation

Trace Code

String s = "Java";
s = "HTML";

After executing String s = "Java"; After executing s = "HTML";

s : String s : String This string object is


now unreferenced
String object for "Java" String object for "Java"

Contents cannot be changed : String

String object for "HTML"

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Finding String Length
Finding string length using the length()
method:

message = "Welcome";
message.length() (returns 7)

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Retrieving Individual Characters
in a String
✦ Do not use message[0]
✦ Use message.charAt(index)
✦ Index starts from 0

Indices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

message W e l c o m e t o J a v a

message.charAt(0) message.length() is 15 message.charAt(14)

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String Concatenation
String s3 = s1.concat(s2);

String s3 = s1 + s2;

s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 + s5 same as
(((s1.concat(s2)).concat(s3)).concat(s4)).concat(s5);

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Extracting Substrings
You can extract a single character from a string using the
charAt method. You can also extract a substring from a
string using the substring method in the String class.

String s1 = "Welcome to Java";


String s2 = s1.substring(0, 11) + "HTML";

Indices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

message W e l c o m e t o J a v a

message.substring(0, 11) message.substring(11)


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String Comparisons
✦ equals

String s1 = new String("Welcome“);


String s2 = "welcome";

if (s1.equals(s2)){
// s1 and s2 have the same contents
}

if (s1 == s2) {
// s1 and s2 have the same reference
}
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String Comparisons, cont.
✦ compareTo(Object object)

String s1 = new String("Welcome“);


String s2 = "welcome";

if (s1.compareTo(s2) > 0) {
// s1 is greater than s2
}
else if (s1.compareTo(s2) == 0) {
// s1 and s2 have the same contents
}
else
// s1 is less than s2
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String Conversions
The contents of a string cannot be changed once
the string is created. But you can convert a string
to a new string using the following methods:

✦ toLowerCase
✦ toUpperCase
✦ trim
✦ replace(oldChar, newChar)
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Finding a Character or a
Substring in a String
"Welcome to Java".indexOf('W') returns 0.
"Welcome to Java".indexOf('x') returns -1.
"Welcome to Java".indexOf('o', 5) returns 9.
"Welcome to Java".indexOf("come") returns 3.
"Welcome to Java".indexOf("Java", 5) returns 11.
"Welcome to Java".indexOf("java", 5) returns -1.
"Welcome to Java".lastIndexOf('a') returns 14.

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Convert Character and Numbers
to Strings
The String class provides several static valueOf
methods for converting a character, an array of
characters, and numeric values to strings. These
methods have the same name valueOf with
different argument types char, char[], double, long,
int, and float. For example, to convert a double
value to a string, use String.valueOf(5.44). The
return value is string consists of characters ‘5’, ‘.’,
‘4’, and ‘4’.
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Example:
Finding Palindromes

✦ Objective: Checking whether a string


is a palindrome: a string that reads the
same forward and backward.

CheckPalindrome

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The Character Class
java.lang.Character

+Character(value: char) Constructs a character object with char value


+charValue(): char Returns the char value from this object
+compareTo(anotherCharacter: Character): int Compares this character with another
+equals(anotherCharacter: Character): boolean Returns true if this character equals to another
+isDigit(ch: char): boolean Returns true if the specified character is a digit
+isLetter(ch: char): boolean Returns true if the specified character is a letter
+isLetterOrDigit(ch: char): boolean Returns true if the character is a letter or a digit
+isLowerCase(ch: char): boolean Returns true if the character is a lowercase letter
+isUpperCase(ch: char): boolean Returns true if the character is an uppercase letter
+toLowerCase(ch: char): char Returns the lowercase of the specified character
+toUpperCase(ch: char): char Returns the uppercase of the specified character

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Examples
Character charObject = new Character('b');

charObject.compareTo(new Character('a')) returns 1


charObject.compareTo(new Character('b')) returns 0
charObject.compareTo(new Character('c')) returns -1
charObject.compareTo(new Character('d') returns –2
charObject.equals(new Character('b')) returns true
charObject.equals(new Character('d')) returns false

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Example: Counting Each Letter
in a String
This example gives a program that counts the
number of occurrence of each letter in a string.
Assume the letters are not case-sensitive.

CountEachLetter

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StringBuilder and StringBuffer
The StringBuilder/StringBuffer class is
an alternative to the String class. In general, a
StringBuilder/StringBuffer can be used wherever
a string is used. StringBuilder/StringBuffer is
more flexible than String. You can add, insert, or
append new contents into a string buffer, whereas
the value of a String object is fixed once the string
is created.

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StringBuilder vs. StringBuffer
The StringBuilder class, introduced in JDK 1.5, is similar
to StringBuffer except that the update methods in
StringBuffer are synchronized. Use StringBuffer if it may
be accessed by multiple tasks concurrently. Using
StringBuilder is more efficient if it is accessed by a single
task. The constructors and methods in StringBuffer and
StringBuilder are almost the same.

This book covers StringBuffer. You may replace


StringBuffer by StringBuilder. The program can compile
and run without any other changes.

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The StringBuffer Class
The StringBuffer class is an alternative to the
String class. In general, a string buffer can be
used wherever a string is used.

StringBuffer is more flexible than String.


You can add, insert, or append new contents
into a string buffer. However, the value of
a String object is fixed once the string is created.

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java.lang.StringBuffer

+StringBuffer() Constructs an empty string buffer with capacity 16


+StringBuffer(capacity: int) Constructs a string buffer with the specified capacity
+StringBuffer(str: String) Constructs a string buffer with the specified string
+append(data: char[]): StringBuffer Appends a char array into this string buffer
+append(data: char[], offset: int, len: int): StringBuffer Appends a subarray in data into this string buffer
+append(v: aPrimitiveType): StringBuffer Appends a primitive type value as string to this buffer
+append(str: String): StringBuffer Appends a string to this string buffer
+capacity(): int Returns the capacity of this string buffer
+charAt(index: int): char Returns the character at the specified index
+delete(startIndex: int, endIndex: int): StringBuffer Deletes characters from startIndex to endIndex
+deleteCharAt(int index): StringBuffer Deletes a character at the specified index
+insert(index: int, data: char[], offset: int, len: int): Inserts a subarray of the data in the array to the buffer at
StringBuffer the specified index
+insert(offset: int, data: char[]): StringBuffer Inserts data to this buffer at the position offset
+insert(offset: int, b: aPrimitiveType): StringBuffer Inserts a value converted to string into this buffer
+insert(offset: int, str: String): StringBuffer Inserts a string into this buffer at the position offset
+length(): int Returns the number of characters in this buffer
+replace(int startIndex, int endIndex, String str): Replaces the characters in this buffer from startIndex to
StringBuffer endIndex with the specified string
+reverse(): StringBuffer Reveres the characters in the buffer
+setCharAt(index: int, ch: char): void Sets a new character at the specified index in this buffer
+setLength(newLength: int): void Sets a new length in this buffer
+substring(startIndex: int): String Returns a substring starting at startIndex
+substring(startIndex: int, endIndex:
Liang, Introduction int):
to Java String Sixth Edition,
Programming, Returns (c) a substring
2007 Pearsonfrom startIndex
Education, Inc. Allto endIndex
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StringBuffer Constructors
✦ public StringBuffer()
No characters, initial capacity 16 characters.

✦ public StringBuffer(int length)


No characters, initial capacity specified by the length argument.

✦ public StringBuffer(String str)


Represents the same sequence of characters
as the string argument. Initial capacity 16
plus the length of the string argument.

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Appending New Contents
into a String Buffer
StringBuffer strBuf = new StringBuffer();
strBuf.append("Welcome");
strBuf.append(' ');
strBuf.append("to");
strBuf.append(' ');
strBuf.append("Java");

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Example:
Checking Palindromes Ignoring
Non-alphanumeric Characters
This example gives a program that counts the
number of occurrence of each letter in a string.
Assume the letters are not case-sensitive.

PalindromeIgnoreNonAlphanumeric

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Main Method Is Just a Regular Method

You can call a regular method by passing actual


parameters. Can you pass arguments to main? Of
course, yes. For example, the main method in class
B is invoked by a method in A, as shown below:

public class A { class B {


public static void main(String[] args) { public static void main(String[] args) {
String[] strings = {"New York", for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++)
"Boston", "Atlanta"}; System.out.println(args[i]);
B.main(strings); }
} }
}

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Command-Line Parameters

class TestMain {
public static void main(String[] args) {
...
}
}

java TestMain arg0 arg1 arg2 ... argn

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Processing
Command-Line Parameters
In the main method, get the arguments from
args[0], args[1], ..., args[n], which
corresponds to arg0, arg1, ..., argn in
the command line.

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Example: Using Command-Line
Parameters
✦ Objective: Write a program that will perform
binary operations on integers. The program
receives three parameters: an operator and two
integers.

java Calculator 2 + 3
Calculator java Calculator 2 - 3
java Calculator 2 / 3
java Calculator 2 “*” 3
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Pedagogical NOTE
The previous edition of this book introduced
the StringTokenizer class for extracting
tokens from a string. Using regular
expressions is more powerful and flexible
than StringTokenizer for splitting strings.
Therefore, StringTokenizer is obsolete.

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Optional
Regular Expressions
A regular expression (abbreviated regex) is a
string that describes a pattern for matching a set of
strings. Regular expression is a powerful tool for
string manipulations. You can use regular
expressions for matching, replacing, and splitting
strings.

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Optional
Matching Strings
"Java".matches("Java");
"Java".equals("Java");

"Java is fun".matches("Java.*")
"Java is cool".matches("Java.*")
"Java is powerful".matches("Java.*")

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Optional
Regular Expression Syntax
Regular Expression Matches Example

x a specified character x Java matches Java


. any single character Java matches J..a
(ab|cd) a, b, or c ten matches t(en|im]
[abc] a, b, or c Java matches Ja[uvwx]a
[^abc] any character except Java matches Ja[^ars]a
a, b, or c
[a-z] a through z Java matches [A-M]av[a-d]
[^a-z] any character except Java matches Jav[^b-d]
a through z
[a-e[m-p]] a through e or Java matches
m through p [A-G[I-M]]av[a-d]
[a-e&&[c-p]] intersection of a-e Java matches
with c-p [A-P&&[I-M]]av[a-d]

\d a digit, same as [1-9] Java2 matches "Java[\\d]"


\D a non-digit $Java matches "[\\D][\\D]ava"
\w a word character Java matches "[\\w]ava"
\W a non-word character $Java matches "[\\W][\\w]ava"
\s a whitespace character "Java 2" matches "Java\\s2"
\S a non-whitespace char Java matches "[\\S]ava"

p* zero or more Java matches "[\\w]*"


occurrences of pattern p
p+ one or more Java matches "[\\w]+"
occurrences of pattern p
p? zero or one Java matches "[\\w]?Java"
occurrence of pattern p Java matches "[\\w]?ava"
p{n} exactly n Java matches "[\\w]{4}"
occurrences of pattern p
p{n,} at least n Java matches "[\\w]{3,}"
occurrences of pattern p
p{n,m} between n and m Java matches "[\\w]{1,9}"
occurrences (inclusive)

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Optional
Replacing and Splitting Strings
java.lang.String
+matches(regex: String): boolean Returns true if this string matches the pattern.
+replaceAll(regex: String, Returns a new string that replaces all
replacement: String): String matching substrings with the replacement.
+replaceFirst(regex: String, Returns a new string that replaces the first
replacement: String): String matching substring with the replacement.
+split(regex: String): String[] Returns an array of strings consisting of the
substrings split by the matches.

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Examples
String s = "Java Java Java".replaceAll("v\\w", "wi") ;

String s = "Java Java Java".replaceFirst("v\\w", "wi") ;

String[] s = "Java1HTML2Perl".split("\\d");

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Pedagogical NOTE
The previous edition of this book introduced text I/O
using many subclasses of java.io.Writer and
java.io.Reader. These classes are lower-level and difficult
to learn. The java.util.PrintWriter and java.util.Scanner
classes are higher-level and easy to use. All the programs
written using the lower-level text I/O classes can be
revised using the PrintWriter and Scanner classes.
Therefore, the PrintWriter and Scanner classes supersede
the lower-level text I/O classes. If students need to know
these lower-level text I/O classes, please refer to
Supplement V.I, “Text I/O Using Reader and Writer.”

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The File Class
The File class is intended to provide an abstraction that
deals with most of the machine-dependent complexities
of files and path names in a machine-independent
fashion. The filename is a string. The File class is a
wrapper class for the file name and its directory path.

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java.io.File
Obtaining file
+File(pathname: String) Creates a File object for the specified pathname. The pathname may be a
properties and directory or a file.

manipulating +File(parent: String, child: String) Creates a File object for the child under the directory parent. child may be a
filename or a subdirectory.
file +File(parent: File, child: String) Creates a File object for the child under the directory parent. parent is a File
object. In the preceding constructor, the parent is a string.
+exists(): boolean Returns true if the file or the directory represented by the File object exists.
+canRead(): boolean Returns true if the file represented by the File object exists and can be read.
+canWrite(): boolean Returns true if the file represented by the File object exists and can be written.
+isDirectory(): boolean Returns true if the File object represents a directory.
+isFile(): boolean Returns true if the File object represents a file.
+isAbsolute(): boolean Returns true if the File object is created using an absolute path name.
+isHidden(): boolean Returns true if the file represented in the File object is hidden. The exact
definition of hidden is system-dependent. On Windows, you can mark a file
hidden in the File Properties dialog box. On Unix systems, a file is hidden if
its name begins with a period character '.'.
+getAbsolutePath(): String Returns the complete absolute file or directory name represented by the File
object.
+getCanonicalPath(): String Returns the same as getAbsolutePath() except that it removes redundant
names, such as "." and "..", from the pathname, resolves symbolic links (on
Unix platforms), and converts drive letters to standard uppercase (on Win32
platforms).
+getName(): String Returns the last name of the complete directory and file name represented by
the File object. For example, new File("c:\\book\\test.dat").getName() returns
test.dat.
+getPath(): String Returns the complete directory and file name represented by the File object.
For example, new File("c:\\book\\test.dat").getPath() returns c:\book\test.dat.
+getParent(): String Returns the complete parent directory of the current directory or the file
represented by the File object. For example, new
File("c:\\book\\test.dat").getParent() returns c:\book.
+lastModified(): long Returns the time that the file was last modified.
+delete(): boolean Deletes this file. The method returns true if the deletion succeeds.
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+renameTo(dest: File): boolean Renames
rights reserved. this file. The method returns true if the operation succeeds.
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Example: Using the File Class
Objective: Write a program that demonstrates how to
create files in a platform-independent way and use the
methods in the File class to obtain their properties. Figure
16.1 shows a sample run of the program on Windows,
and Figure 16.2 a sample run on Unix.

TestFileClass
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Text I/O
A File object encapsulates the properties of a file
or a path, but does not contain the methods for
reading/writing data from/to a file. In order to
perform I/O, you need to create objects using
appropriate Java I/O classes. The objects contain
the methods for reading/writing data from/to a file.
This section introduces how to read/write strings
and numeric values from/to a text file using the
Scanner and PrintWriter classes.

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Writing Data Using PrintWriter
java.io.PrintWriter
+PrintWriter(filename: String) Creates a PrintWriter for the specified file.
+print(s: String): void Writes a string.
+print(c: char): void Writes a character.
+print(cArray: char[]): void Writes an array of character.
+print(i: int): void Writes an int value.
+print(l: long): void Writes a long value.
+print(f: float): void Writes a float value.
+print(d: double): void Writes a double value.
+print(b: boolean): void Writes a boolean value.
Also contains the overloaded A println method acts like a print method; additionally it
println methods. prints a line separator. The line separator string is defined
Also contains the overloaded by the system. It is \r\n on Windows and \n on Unix.
printf methods. The printf method was introduced in §3.6, “Formatting
Console Output and Strings.”
.
WriteData
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Reading Data Using Scanner
java.util.Scanner
+Scanner(source: File) Creates a Scanner that produces values scanned from the specified file.
+Scanner(source: String) Creates a Scanner that produces values scanned from the specified string.
+close() Closes this scanner.
+hasNext(): boolean Returns true if this scanner has another token in its input.
+next(): String Returns next token as a string.
+nextByte(): byte Returns next token as a byte.
+nextShort(): short Returns next token as a short.
+nextInt(): int Returns next token as an int.
+nextLong(): long Returns next token as a long.
+nextFloat(): float Returns next token as a float.
+nextDouble(): double Returns next token as a double.
+useDelimiter(pattern: String): Sets this scanner’s delimiting pattern.
Scanner

ReadData
Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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Example: Replacing Text
Write a class named ReplaceText that replaces a string in a text
file with a new string. The filename and strings are passed as
command-line arguments as follows:
java ReplaceText sourceFile targetFile oldString newString
For example, invoking
java ReplaceText FormatString.java t.txt StringBuilder StringBuffer
replaces all the occurrences of StringBuilder by StringBuffer in
FormatString.java and saves the new file in t.txt.

ReplaceText

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The StringTokenizer Class

java.util.StringTokenizer

+StringTokenizer(s: String) Constructs a string tokenizer for the string.


+StringTokenizer(s: String, delimiters: Constructs a string tokenizer for the string
String) with the specified delimiters.
+StringTokenizer(s: String, delimiters: Constructs a string tokenizer for the string
String, returnDelimiters: boolean) with the delimiters and returnDelims.
+countTokens(): int Returns the number of remaining tokens.
+hasMoreTokens(): boolean Returns true if there are more tokens left.
+nextToken(): String Returns the next token.
+nextToken(delimiters: String): String Returns the next token using new delimiters.

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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Examples 1
String s = "Java is cool.";
StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(s);

System.out.println("The total number of tokens is " +


tokenizer.countTokens());

while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens())
System.out.println(tokenizer.nextToken());
The code displays
The total number of tokens is 3
Java
is
cool.
Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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Examples 2
String s = "Java is cool.";
StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(s, "ac");

System.out.println("The total number of tokens is " +


tokenizer.countTokens());

while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens())
System.out.println(tokenizer.nextToken());
The code displays
The total number of tokens is 4
J
v
is
ool.
Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
49
Examples 3
String s = "Java is cool.";
StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(s, "ac", ture);

System.out.println("The total number of tokens is " +


tokenizer.countTokens());

while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens())
System.out.println(tokenizer.nextToken());
The code displays The total number of tokens is 7
J
a
v
a
is
c
ool.
Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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JDK 1.5
Feature
The Scanner Class
The delimiters are single characters in StringTokenizer. You can use the
new JDK 1.5 java.util.Scanner class to specify a word as a delimiter.

String s = "Welcome to Java! Java is fun! Java is cool!";


Creates an instance of Scanner for the
Scanner scanner = new Scanner(s); string.
scanner.useDelimiter("Java");
Sets “Java” as a delimiter.
while (scanner.hasNext())
hasNext() returns true if there are
System.out.println(scanner.next()); still more tokens left.
The next() method returns a
token as a string.
Welcome to
!
is fun! Output
is cool!

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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JDK 1.5
Feature Scanning Primitive Type Values
If a token is a primitive data type value, you can use the methods nextByte(),
nextShort(), nextInt(), nextLong(), nextFloat(), nextDouble(), or nextBoolean() to
obtain it. For example, the following code adds all numbers in the string. Note
that the delimiter is space by default.

String s = "1 2 3 4";


Scanner scanner = new Scanner(s);

int sum = 0;
while (scanner.hasNext())
sum += scanner.nextInt();

System.out.println("Sum is " + sum);

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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JDK 1.5
Feature Console Input Using Scanner
Another important application of the Scanner class is to read input
from the console. For example, the following code reads an int value
from the keyboard:

System.out.print("Please enter an int value: ");


Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
int i = scanner.nextInt();

NOTE: StringTokenizer can specify several single characters as


delimiters. Scanner can use a single character or a word as the
delimiter. So, if you need to scan a string with multiple single
characters as delimiters, use StringTokenizer. If you need to use a
word as the delimiter, use Scanner.

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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