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Chapter 6

Arrays

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Objectives
✦ To describe why an array is necessary in programming (§6.1).
✦ To learn the steps involved in using arrays: declaring array
reference variables and creating arrays (§6.2).
✦ To initialize the values in an array (§6.2).
✦ To simplify programming using JDK 1.5 enhanced for loop (§6.2).
✦ To copy contents from one array to another (§6.3).
✦ To develop and invoke methods with array arguments and ruturn
type (§6.4-6.5).
✦ To sort an array using the selection sort algorithm (§6.6).
✦ To search elements using the linear or binary search algorithm
(§6.7).
✦ To declare and create multidimensional arrays (§6.8).
✦ To declare and create multidimensional arrays (§6.9 Optional).

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Introducing Arrays
Array is a data structure that represents a collection of the
same types of data.
double[] myList = new double[10];

myList reference
myList[0] 5.6
myList[1] 4.5
Array reference myList[2] 3.3
variable
myList[3] 13.2

myList[4] 4
Array element at
myList[5] 34.33 Element value
index 5
myList[6] 34

myList[7] 45.45

myList[8] 99.993

myList[9] 11123

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Declaring Array Variables
✦ datatype[] arrayRefVar;
Example:
double[] myList;

✦ datatype arrayRefVar[]; // This style is


allowed, but not preferred
Example:
double myList[];

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Creating Arrays
arrayRefVar = new datatype[arraySize];

Example:
myList = new double[10];

myList[0] references the first element in the array.


myList[9] references the last element in the array.

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Declaring and Creating
in One Step
✦ datatype[] arrayRefVar = new
datatype[arraySize];
double[] myList = new double[10];

✦ datatype arrayRefVar[] = new


datatype[arraySize];
double myList[] = new double[10];

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The Length of an Array
Once an array is created, its size is fixed. It cannot be
changed. You can find its size using

arrayRefVar.length

For example,

myList.length returns 10

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Default Values
When an array is created, its elements are
assigned the default value of

0 for the numeric primitive data types,


'\u0000' for char types, and
false for boolean types.

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Indexed Variables
The array elements are accessed through the index. The
array indices are 0-based, i.e., it starts from 0 to
arrayRefVar.length-1. In the example in Figure 6.1,
myList holds ten double values and the indices are
from 0 to 9.

Each element in the array is represented using the


following syntax, known as an indexed variable:

arrayRefVar[index];

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Using Indexed Variables
After an array is created, an indexed variable can
be used in the same way as a regular variable.
For example, the following code adds the value
in myList[0] and myList[1] to myList[2].

myList[2] = myList[0] + myList[1];

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Array Initializers
✦ Declaring, creating, initializing in one step:
double[] myList = {1.9, 2.9, 3.4, 3.5};

This shorthand syntax must be in one


statement.

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Declaring, creating, initializing
Using the Shorthand Notation
double[] myList = {1.9, 2.9, 3.4, 3.5};

This shorthand notation is equivalent to the


following statements:
double[] myList = new double[4];
myList[0] = 1.9;
myList[1] = 2.9;
myList[2] = 3.4;
myList[3] = 3.5;

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CAUTION
Using the shorthand notation, you
have to declare, create, and initialize
the array all in one statement.
Splitting it would cause a syntax
error. For example, the following is
wrong:
double[] myList;

myList = {1.9, 2.9, 3.4, 3.5};


Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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13
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
Declare array variable values, create an
array, and assign its reference to values

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) {
values[i] = values[i] + values[i-1];
}
values[0] = values[1] + values[4];

}
}
Aft

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
i becomes 1

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) {
values[i] = values[i] + values[i-1];
}
values[0] = values[1] + values[4];

Aft
}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
i (=1) is less than 5

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) {
values[i] = values[i] + values[i-1];
}
values[0] = values[1] + values[4];

Aft
}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this line is executed, value[1] is 1

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the first iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 0

} 3 0

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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animation

Trace Program with Arrays


After i++, i becomes 2

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5]; After the first iteration

for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 0 0


values[i] = values[i] + values[i-1]; 1 1

} 2 0

3 0
values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
18
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
i (= 2) is less than 5
public class Test {
public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { After the first iteration

values[i] = values[i] + values[i-1];


0 0
} 1 1
values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 2 0

} 3 0

} 4 0

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
19
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this line is executed,
values[2] is 3 (2 + 1)

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the second iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 0

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
20
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this, i becomes 3.

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the second iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 0

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
21
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
i (=3) is still less than 5.

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the second iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 0

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
22
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this line, values[3] becomes 6 (3 + 3)

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the third iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 6

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this, i becomes 4

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the third iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 6

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
24
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
i (=4) is still less than 5

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the third iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 6

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 0

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
25
animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this, values[4] becomes 10 (4 + 6)

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) { After the fourth iteration

int[] values = new int[5]; 0 0


for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 1 1

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 2 3

} 3 6

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 4 10

}
}

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After i++, i becomes 5

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args)
{
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) {
After the fourth iteration
values[i] = i + values[i-1];
} 0 0
values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 1 1
} 2 3
} 6
3

4 10

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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animation

Trace Program with Arrays


i ( =5) < 5 is false. Exit the loop

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { After the fourth iteration
values[i] = i + values[i-1];
} 0

1
0
1
values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 2 3

} 3 6

} 4 10

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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animation
Trace Program with Arrays
After this line, values[0] is 11 (1 + 10)

public class Test {


public static void main(String[] args) {
int[] values = new int[5];
for (int i = 1; i < 5; i++) { 0 11

values[i] = i + values[i-1]; 1 1

} 2 3

values[0] = values[1] + values[4]; 3 6

} 4 10

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
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Processing Arrays
See the examples in the text.
1. (Initializing arrays)
2. (Printing arrays)
3. (Summing all elements)
4. (Finding the largest element)
5. (Finding the smallest index of the largest
element)
Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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JDK 1.5
Feature Enhanced for Loop
JDK 1.5 introduced a new for loop that enables you to traverse the complete array
sequentially without using an index variable. For example, the following code
displays all elements in the array myList:

for (double value: myList)


System.out.println(value);

In general, the syntax is

for (elementType value: arrayRefVar) {


// Process the value
}

You still have to use an index variable if you wish to traverse the array in a
different order or change the elements in the array.

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Example: Testing Arrays
✦ Objective: The program receives 6 numbers from
the user, finds the largest number and counts the
occurrence of the largest number entered.
Suppose you entered 3, 5, 2, 5, 5, and 5, the
largest number is 5 and its occurrence count is 4.

TestArray

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JBuilder
Optional See Arrays in JBuilder Debugger
You can trace the value of
array elements in the
debugger.

Array

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Example: Assigning Grades
✦ Objective: read student scores (int), get the best
score, and then assign grades based on the
following scheme:
– Grade is A if score is >= best–10;
– Grade is B if score is >= best–20;
– Grade is C if score is >= best–30;
– Grade is D if score is >= best–40;
– Grade is F otherwise.
AssignGrade

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Copying Arrays
Often, in a program, you need to duplicate an array or a part of an
array. In such cases you could attempt to use the assignment statement
(=), as follows:

list2 = list1;
Before the assignment After the assignment
list2 = list1; list2 = list1;

list1 list1
Contents Contents
of list1 of list1

list2 list2
Contents Contents
of list2 of list2
Garbage

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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Copying Arrays
Using a loop:
int[] sourceArray = {2, 3, 1, 5, 10};
int[] targetArray = new
int[sourceArray.length];

for (int i = 0; i < sourceArrays.length; i++)


targetArray[i] = sourceArray[i];

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The arraycopy Utility
arraycopy(sourceArray, src_pos,
targetArray, tar_pos, length);

Example:
System.arraycopy(sourceArray, 0,
targetArray, 0, sourceArray.length);

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Passing Arrays to Methods
public static void printArray(int[] array) {
for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
System.out.print(array[i] + " ");
}
}

Invoke the method

int[] list = {3, 1, 2, 6, 4, 2};


printArray(list);

Invoke the method


printArray(new int[]{3, 1, 2, 6, 4, 2});

Anonymous array

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Anonymous Array
The statement
printArray(new int[]{3, 1, 2, 6, 4, 2});

creates an array using the following syntax:


new dataType[]{literal0, literal1, ..., literalk};

There is no explicit reference variable for the array.


Such array is called an anonymous array.

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Pass By Value
Java uses pass by value to pass parameters to a method. There
are important differences between passing a value of variables of
primitive data types and passing arrays.

✦ For a parameter of a primitive type value, the actual value is


passed. Changing the value of the local parameter inside the
method does not affect the value of the variable outside the
method.

✦ For a parameter of an array type, the value of the parameter


contains a reference to an array; this reference is passed to the
method. Any changes to the array that occur inside the method
body will affect the original array that was passed as the
argument.
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Simple Example
public class Test {
public static void main(String[] args) {
int x = 1; // x represents an int value
int[] y = new int[10]; // y represents an array of int values

m(x, y); // Invoke m with arguments x and y

System.out.println("x is " + x);


System.out.println("y[0] is " + y[0]);
}

public static void m(int number, int[] numbers) {


number = 1001; // Assign a new value to number
numbers[0] = 5555; // Assign a new value to numbers[0]
}
}
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Call Stack
Stack Heap
Space required for
method m
int[] numbers:reference
The arrays are
int number: 1 Array of stored in a
ten int heap.
Space required for the values is
main method stored here
int[] y: reference
int x: 1

When invoking m(x, y), the values of x and y are


passed to number and numbers. Since y contains the
reference value to the array, numbers now contains the
same reference value to the same array.

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Heap
Stack Heap
Space required for
xMethod
int[] numbers:reference
The arrays are
int number: 1 Array of stored in a
ten int heap.
Space required for the values are
main method stored here
int[] y: reference
int x: 1

The JVM stores the array in an area of memory,


called heap, which is used for dynamic memory
allocation where blocks of memory are allocated and
freed in an arbitrary order.
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Example:
Passing Arrays as Arguments
✦ Objective:Demonstrate differences of
passing primitive data type variables
and array variables.

TestPassArray

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Example, cont.
Stack Heap Stack
Space required for the
Space required for the swapFirstTwoInArray
swap method method
n2: 2 int[] array reference
n1: 1

Space required for the Space required for the


main method main method
int[] a reference int[] a reference
a[1]: 2
a[0]: 1
Invoke swap(int n1, int n2). Invoke swapFirstTwoInArray(int[] array).
The primitive type values in The arrays are The reference value in a is passed to the
a[0] and a[1] are passed to the stored in a swapFirstTwoInArray method.
swap method. heap.

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Returning an Array from a Method
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}
list
return result;
} result

int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};


int[] list2 = reverse(list1);

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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46
animation

Trace the reverse Method


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
Declare result and create array
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 0

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47
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 0 and j = 5
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 0

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48
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (= 0) is less than 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 0

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
49
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 0 and j = 5
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[0] to result[5]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 1

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rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
50
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);

After this, i becomes 1


public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes 4
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 1

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
51
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);

i (=1) is less than 6


public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 0 1

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
52
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 1 and j = 4
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[1] to result[4]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 2 1

Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved. 0-13-222158-6
53
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
After this, i becomes 2
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes 3
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (=2) is still less than 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 0 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 2 and j = 3
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[i] to result[j]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
After this, i becomes 3
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes 2
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (=3) is still less than 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 0 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 3 and j = 2
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[i] to result[j]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
After this, i becomes 4
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes 1
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (=4) is still less than 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 0 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 4 and j = 1
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[i] to result[j]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 5 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
After this, i becomes 5
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes 0
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 5 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (=5) is still less than 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 0 5 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i = 5 and j = 0
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { Assign list[i] to result[j]
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 6 5 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
After this, i becomes 6
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { and j becomes -1
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 6 5 4 3 2 1

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animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
i (=6) < 6 is false. So exit
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) { the loop.
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

result 6 5 4 3 2 1

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67
animation

Trace the reverse Method, cont.


int[] list1 = new int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6};
int[] list2 = reverse(list1);
Return result
public static int[] reverse(int[] list) {
int[] result = new int[list.length];

for (int i = 0, j = result.length - 1;


i < list.length; i++, j--) {
result[j] = list[i];
}

return result;
}

list 1 2 3 4 5 6

list2
result 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Example: Counting Occurrence of
Each Letter

✦ Generate 100 lowercase (a) Executing


createArray in Line 6
(b) After exiting
createArray in Line 6

letters randomly and assign Stack Heap Stack Heap

to an array of characters. Space required for the


createArray method
Array of 100
characters
Array of 100
characters
char[] chars: ref
✦ Count the occurrence of each Space required for the
main method
Space required for the
main method

letter in the array. char[] chars: ref char[] chars: ref

CountLettersInArray Run
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Searching Arrays
Searching is the process of looking for a specific element in
an array; for example, discovering whether a certain score is
included in a list of scores. Searching is a common task in
computer programming. There are many algorithms and
data structures devoted to searching. In this section, two
commonly used approaches are discussed, linear search and
binary search.
public class LinearSearch {
/** The method for finding a key in the list */
public static int linearSearch(int[] list, int key) {
for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++)
if (key == list[i]) [0] [1] [2] …
return i; list
return -1;
} key Compare key with list[i] for i = 0, 1, …
}

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Linear Search
The linear search approach compares the key
element, key, sequentially with each element
in the array list. The method continues to do so
until the key matches an element in the list or
the list is exhausted without a match being
found. If a match is made, the linear search
returns the index of the element in the array
that matches the key. If no match is found, the
search returns -1.

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animation

Linear Search Animation


Key List
3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8

3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8

3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8

3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8

3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8

3 6 4 1 9 7 3 2 8
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From Idea to Solution
/** The method for finding a key in the list */
public static int linearSearch(int[] list, int key) {
for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++)
if (key == list[i])
return i;
return -1;
}

Trace the method


int[] list = {1, 4, 4, 2, 5, -3, 6, 2};
int i = linearSearch(list, 4); // returns 1
int j = linearSearch(list, -4); // returns -1
int k = linearSearch(list, -3); // returns 5
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Linear Search Applet
An applet was developed by a student to
visualize the steps for linear search

Linear Search source code

LinearSearch

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Binary Search
For binary search to work, the elements in the
array must already be ordered. Without loss of
generality, assume that the array is in
ascending order.
e.g., 2 4 7 10 11 45 50 59 60 66 69 70 79
The binary search first compares the key with
the element in the middle of the array.

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Binary Search, cont.
Consider the following three cases:
✦ If the key is less than the middle element,
you only need to search the key in the first
half of the array.
✦ If the key is equal to the middle element,
the search ends with a match.
✦ If the key is greater than the middle
element, you only need to search the key in
the second half of the array.
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animation

Binary Search

Key List

8 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

8 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

8 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

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Binary Search, cont.
key is 11 low mid high

key < 50 [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]
list 2 4 7 10 11 45 50 59 60 66 69 70 79
low mid high

[0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]


key > 7 list 2 4 7 10 11 45

low mid high

[3] [4] [5]


key == 11 list 10 11 45

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key is 54 Binary
low
Search,midcont. high

key > 50 [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]
list 2 4 7 10 11 45 50 59 60 66 69 70 79
low mid high

[0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]
key < 66 list 59 60 66 69 70 79

low mid high

[7] [8]
key < 59 list 59 60

low high

[6] [7] [8]


59 60
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Binary Search, cont.
The binarySearch method returns the index of the
search key if it is contained in the list. Otherwise,
it returns –insertion point - 1. The insertion point
is the point at which the key would be inserted into
the list.

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From Idea to Soluton
/** Use binary search to find the key in the list */
public static int binarySearch(int[] list, int key) {
int low = 0;
int high = list.length - 1;

while (high >= low) {


int mid = (low + high) / 2;
if (key < list[mid])
high = mid - 1;
else if (key == list[mid])
return mid;
else
low = mid + 1;
}

return -1 - low;
}

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Binary Search Applet
An applet was developed by a student to
visualize the steps for binary search

Binary Search source code

BinarySearch

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The Arrays.binarySearch Method
Since binary search is frequently used in programming, Java provides several
overloaded binarySearch methods for searching a key in an array of int, double,
char, short, long, and float in the java.util.Arrays class. For example, the
following code searches the keys in an array of numbers and an array of
characters.

int[] list = {2, 4, 7, 10, 11, 45, 50, 59, 60, 66, 69, 70, 79};
System.out.println("Index is " +
java.util.Arrays.binarySearch(list, 11)); Return is 4

char[] chars = {'a', 'c', 'g', 'x', 'y', 'z'};


System.out.println("Index is " +
Return is –4 (insertion point
java.util.Arrays.binarySearch(chars, 't'));
is 3, so return is -3-1)

For the binarySearch method to work, the array must be pre-sorted in increasing
order.

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Sorting Arrays
Sorting, like searching, is also a common task in
computer programming. It would be used, for
instance, if you wanted to display the grades from
Listing 6.2, “Assigning Grades,” in alphabetical
order. Many different algorithms have been
developed for sorting. This section introduces two
simple, intuitive sorting algorithms: selection sort
and insertion sort.

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swap

Selection Sort 2 9 5 4 8 1 6

Select 9 (the largest) and swap it


with 6 (the last) in the list swap

Selection sort finds the 2 6 5 4 8 1 9


The number 9 now is in the
correct position and thus no
longer need to be considered.
largest number in the Select 8 (the largest) and swap it
with 1 (the last) in the remaining
list and places it last. It list
swap

The number 8 now is in the


then finds the largest 2 6 5 4 1 8 9 correct position and thus no
longer need to be considered.

number remaining and Select 6 (the largest) and swap it


with 1 (the last) in the remaining
list
swap

places it next to last, 2 1 5 4 6 8 9


The number 6 now is in the
correct position and thus no

and so on until the list Select 5 (the largest) and swap it


longer need to be considered.

with 4 (the last) in the remaining


contains only a single list
The number 5 now is in the
number. Figure 6.17 2 1 4 5 6 8 9 correct position and thus no
longer need to be considered.

shows how to sort the 4 is the largest and last in the list.
No swap is necessary swap

list {2, 9, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6} 2 1 4 5 6 8 9
The number 4 now is in the
correct position and thus no
using selection sort. Select 2 (the largest) and swap it
longer need to be considered.

with 1 (the last) in the remaining


list
The number 2 now is in the
1 2 4 5 6 8 9 correct position and thus no
longer need to be considered.
Since there is only one number in
the remaining list, sort is
completed

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animation

Selection Sort
int[] myList = {2, 9, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6}; // Unsorted

2 9 5 4 8 1 6
2 6 5 4 8 1 9
2 6 5 4 1 8 9
2 1 5 4 6 8 9
2 1 4 5 6 8 9
2 1 4 5 6 8 9

1 2 4 5 6 8 9

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86
From Idea to Solution
for (int i = list.length - 1; i >= 1; i--) {
select the largest element in list[0..i];
swap the largest with list[i], if necessary;
// list[i] is in place. The next iteration applies on list[0..i-1]
}
list[0] list[1] list[2] list[3] ... list[10]

list[0] list[1] list[2] list[3] ... list[9]

list[0] list[1] list[2] list[3] ... list[8]

list[0] list[1] list[2] list[3] ... list[7]

...

list[0]
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for (int i = list.length - 1; i >= 1; i--) {
select the largest element in list[0..i];
swap the largest with list[i], if necessary;
// list[i] is in place. The next iteration applies on list[0..i-1]
}

Expand
// Find the maximum in the list[0..i]
double currentMax = list[0];
int currentMaxIndex = 0;

for (int j = 1; j <= i; j++) {


if (currentMax < list[j]) {
currentMax = list[j];
currentMaxIndex = j;
}
}

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for (int i = list.length - 1; i >= 1; i--) {
select the largest element in list[0..i];
swap the largest with list[i], if necessary;
// list[i] is in place. The next iteration applies on list[0..i-1]
}

Expand
// Find the maximum in the list[0..i]
double currentMax = list[0];
int currentMaxIndex = 0;

for (int j = 1; j <= i; j++) {


if (currentMax < list[j]) {
currentMax = list[j];
currentMaxIndex = j;
}
}

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for (int i = list.length - 1; i >= 1; i--) {
select the largest element in list[0..i];
swap the largest with list[i], if necessary;
// list[i] is in place. The next iteration applies on list[0..i-1]
}

Expand
// Swap list[i] with list[currentMaxIndex] if necessary;
if (currentMaxIndex != i) {
list[currentMaxIndex] = list[i];
list[i] = currentMax;
}

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Wrap it in a Method
/** The method for sorting the numbers */
public static void selectionSort(double[] list) {
for (int i = list.length - 1; i >= 1; i--) {
// Find the maximum in the list[0..i]
double currentMax = list[0];
int currentMaxIndex = 0; Invoke it
for (int j = 1; j <= i; j++) { selectionSort(yourList)
if (currentMax < list[j]) {
currentMax = list[j];
currentMaxIndex = j;
}
}

// Swap list[i] with list[currentMaxIndex] if necessary;


if (currentMaxIndex != i) {
list[currentMaxIndex] = list[i];
list[i] = currentMax;
}
}
} Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Sixth Edition, (c) 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All
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Selection Sort Applet
An applet was developed by a student to
visualize the steps for selection sort Selection Sort Applet

Selection Sort source code SelectionSort

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Optional
Insertion Sort
int[] myList = {2, 9, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6}; // Unsorted
The insertion sort Step 1: Initially, the sorted sublist contains the 2 9 5 4 8 1 6
algorithm sorts a list first element in the list. Insert 9 to the sublist.

of values by
Step2: The sorted sublist is {2, 9}. Insert 5 to the
repeatedly inserting sublist.
2 9 5 4 8 1 6

an unsorted element
into a sorted sublist Step 3: The sorted sublist is {2, 5, 9}. Insert 4 to 2 5 9 4 8 1 6
the sublist.
until the whole list
is sorted. Step 4: The sorted sublist is {2, 4, 5, 9}. Insert 8 2 4 5 9 8 1 6
to the sublist.

Step 5: The sorted sublist is {2, 4, 5, 8, 9}. Insert 2 4 5 8 9 1 6


1 to the sublist.

Step 6: The sorted sublist is {1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9}. 1 2 4 5 8 9 6


Insert 6 to the sublist.

Step 7: The entire list is now sorted 1 2 4 5 6 8 9

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animation

Insertion Sort
int[] myList = {2, 9, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6}; // Unsorted

2 9 5 4 8 1 6
2 9 5 4 8 1 6
2 5 9 4 8 1 6
2 4 5 9 8 1 6
2 4 5 8 9 1 6
1 2 4 5 8 9 6
1 2 4 5 6 8 9

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How to Insert?
Optional

The insertion sort [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
algorithm sorts a list list 2 5 9 4 Step 1: Save 4 to a temporary variable currentElement

of values by [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]


repeatedly inserting list 2 5 9 Step 2: Move list[2] to list[3]
an unsorted element [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
into a sorted sublist list 2 5 9 Step 3: Move list[1] to list[2]
until the whole list
[0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
is sorted. list 2 4 5 9 Step 4: Assign currentElement to list[1]

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Optional
Insertion Sort Applet
An applet was developed by a student to
visualize the steps for selection sort

Selection Sort source code

InsertionSort

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The Arrays.sort Method
Since sorting is frequently used in programming, Java provides several
overloaded sort methods for sorting an array of int, double, char, short,
long, and float in the java.util.Arrays class. For example, the following
code sorts an array of numbers and an array of characters.

double[] numbers = {6.0, 4.4, 1.9, 2.9, 3.4, 3.5};


java.util.Arrays.sort(numbers);

char[] chars = {'a', 'A', '4', 'F', 'D', 'P'};


java.util.Arrays.sort(chars);

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Exercise 6.14 Bubble Sort
Optional

int[] myList = {2, 9, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6}; // Unsorted

The bubble-sort algorithm makes Iteration 1: 2, 5, 4, 8, 1, 6, 9


several iterations through the array. On
each iteration, successive neighboring Iteration 2: 2, 4, 5, 1, 6, 8, 9
pairs are compared. If a pair is in Iteration 3: 2, 4, 1, 5, 6, 8, 9
decreasing order, its values are Iteration 4: 2, 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9
swapped; otherwise, the values remain
unchanged. The technique is called a Iteration 5: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9
bubble sort or sinking sort because the Iteration 6: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9
smaller values gradually "bubble" their
way to the top and the larger values sink
to the bottom.

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Two-dimensional Arrays
// Declare array ref var
dataType[][] refVar;

// Create array and assign its reference to variable


refVar = new dataType[10][10];

// Combine declaration and creation in one statement


dataType[][] refVar = new dataType[10][10];

// Alternative syntax
dataType refVar[][] = new dataType[10][10];

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Declaring Variables of Two-
dimensional Arrays and Creating
Two-dimensional Arrays
int[][] matrix = new int[10][10];
or
int matrix[][] = new int[10][10];
matrix[0][0] = 3;

for (int i = 0; i < matrix.length; i++)


for (int j = 0; j < matrix[i].length; j++)
matrix[i][j] = (int)(Math.random() * 1000);

double[][] x;
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Two-dimensional Array Illustration
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2
0 0 0 1 2 3

1 1 1 4 5 6

2 2 7 2 7 8 9

3 3 3 10 11 12

4 4 int[][] array = {
{1, 2, 3},
matrix = new int[5][5]; matrix[2][1] = 7; {4, 5, 6 },
{7, 8, 9},
{10, 11, 12}
};

matrix.length? 5 array.length? 4
matrix[0].length? 5 array[0].length? 3

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Declaring, Creating, and Initializing Using
Shorthand Notations
You can also use an array initializer to declare, create and
initialize a two-dimensional array. For example,

int[][] array = { int[][] array = new int[4][3];


{1, 2, 3}, array[0][0] = 1; array[0][1] = 2; array[0][2] = 3;
{4, 5, 6}, Same as array[1][0] = 4; array[1][1] = 5; array[1][2] = 6;
{7, 8, 9}, array[2][0] = 7; array[2][1] = 8; array[2][2] = 9;
{10, 11, 12} array[3][0] = 10; array[3][1] = 11; array[3][2] = 12;
};

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Lengths of Two-dimensional
Arrays
int[][] x = new int[3][4];
x
x[0][0] x[0][1] x[0][2] x[0][3] x[0].length is 4
x[0]
x[1] x[1][0] x[1][1] x[1][2] x[1][3] x[1].length is 4

x[2]
x[2][0] x[2][1] x[2][2] x[2][3] x[2].length is 4
x.length is 3

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Lengths of Two-dimensional
Arrays, cont.
int[][] array = { array.length
{1, 2, 3},
array[0].length
{4, 5, 6},
{7, 8, 9}, array[1].length
{10, 11, 12} array[2].length
}; array[3].length

array[4].length ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException

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Ragged Arrays
Each row in a two-dimensional array is itself an array. So,
the rows can have different lengths. Such an array is
known as a ragged array. For example,
int[][] matrix = {
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, matrix.length is 5
{2, 3, 4, 5}, matrix[0].length is 5
matrix[1].length is 4
{3, 4, 5}, matrix[2].length is 3
{4, 5}, matrix[3].length is 2
{5} matrix[4].length is 1

};
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Ragged Arrays, cont.

int[][] triangleArray = { 1 2 3 4 5
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5},
{2, 3, 4, 5}, 1 2 3 4
{3, 4, 5},
{4, 5}, 1 2 3
{5}
}; 1 2

1 2

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Example: Grading Multiple-
Choice Test
✦ Objective: write a
Students’ Answers to the Questions:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
program that grades
Student 0 A B A C C D E E A D multiple-choice test.
Student 1 D B A B C A E E A D
Student 2 E D D A C B E E A D
Student 3 C B A E D C E E A D Key to the Questions:
Student 4 A B D C C D E E A D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Student 5 B B E C C D E E A D
Student 6 B B A C C D E E A D Key D B D C C D A E A D
Student 7 E B E C C D E E A D

GradeExam
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Example: Computing Taxes
Using Arrays
Liting 5.4, “Computing Taxes with Methods,” simplified
Listing 3.4, “Computing Taxes.” Listing 5.4 can be
further improved using arrays. Rewrite Listing 3.1 using
arrays to store tax rates and brackets.

ComputeTax

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Refine the table

10% 6000 12000 6000 10000


15% 27950 46700 23350 37450
27% 67700 112850 56425 96745
30% 141250 171950 85975 156600
35% 307050 307050 153525 307050
38.6%
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Reorganize the table
6000 12000 6000 10000
27950 46700 23350 37450
67700 112850 56425 96745
141250 171950 85975 156600
307050 307050 153525 307050

Rotate

6000 27950 67700 141250 307050 Single filer


12000 46700 112850 171950 307050 Married jointly
6000 23350 56425 85975 153525 Married separately
10000 37450 96745 156600 307050 Head of household

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Declare Two Arrays
6000 27950 67700 141250 307050 Single filer
12000 46700 112850 171950 307050 Married jointly
6000 23350 56425 85975 153525 Married separately
10000 37450 96745 156600 307050 Head of household

10% int[][] brackets = {


15% {6000, 27950, 67700, 141250, 307050}, // Single filer
{12000, 46700, 112850, 171950, 307050}, // Married jointly
27% {6000, 23350, 56425, 85975, 153525}, // Married separately
30% {10000, 37450, 96700, 156600, 307050} // Head of
household
35%
};
38.6%
double[] rates = {0.10, 0.15, 0.27, 0.30, 0.35, 0.386};

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Multidimensional Arrays
Occasionally, you will need to represent n-dimensional
data structures. In Java, you can create n-dimensional
arrays for any integer n.

The way to declare two-dimensional array variables and


create two-dimensional arrays can be generalized to
declare n-dimensional array variables and create n-
dimensional arrays for n >= 3. For example, the following
syntax declares a three-dimensional array variable scores,
creates an array, and assigns its reference to scores.

double[][][] scores = new double[10][5][2];

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Example: Calculating Total Scores

✦ Objective: write a program that calculates the total score for


students in a class. Suppose the scores are stored in a three-
dimensional array named scores. The first index in scores refers to
a student, the second refers to an exam, and the third refers to the
part of the exam. Suppose there are 7 students, 5 exams, and each
exam has two parts--the multiple-choice part and the programming
part. So, scores[i][j][0] represents the score on the multiple-choice
part for the i’s student on the j’s exam. Your program displays the
total score for each student.

TotalScore

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