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What is Network Cabling?

 Cable is the medium through which
information usually moves from one network
device to another. There are several types of
cable which are commonly used with LANs.
 In the networks will use a variety of cable
types. The type of cable chosen for a network
is related to the network's topology, protocol,
and size.
The following sections discuss the
types of cables used in networks


Coaxial Cable Twisted pair cabling Fiber optic cabling

Coaxial Cable
 Coaxial cabling has a
single copper conductor
at its center. A plastic
layer provides insulation
between the center
conductor and a braided
metal shield
The two type of Coaxial cable are:-

Coaxial cable

Thin coaxial Thick coaxial

Thin coaxial
 Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as
thinnet. 10Base2 refers to the specifications
for thin coaxial cable carrying Ethernet
signals. The 2 refers to the approximate
maximum segment length being 200 meters.
In actual fact the maximum segment length is
185 meters. Thin coaxial cable is popular in
school networks, especially linear bus
Thick coaxial
 Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as
thicknet. 10Base5 refers to the specifications
for thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet
signals. The 5 refers to the maximum
segment length being 500 meters.
 Thick coaxial cable has an extra protective
plastic cover that helps keep moisture away
from the center conductor. This makes thick
coaxial a great choice when running longer
lengths in a linear bus network.

 One disadvantage of thick coaxial is that it

does not bend easily and is difficult to install.
Coaxial Cable Connectors

 The most common type of connector used

with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-
Concelman or British Novell connector (BNC)
connector . Different types of adapters are
available for BNC connectors, including a T-
connector, barrel connector, and terminator.
Twisted pair cable

 Twisted Pair Cable uses copper wire as

Telecommunication Cable.
 Twisting the copper wire reduces crosstalk
and signal emissions.
The two type of twisted Pair Cable are;-

Twisted Pair Cable

UTP Cable STP cable

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
 UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to
extremely high-speed cable. The cable has
four pairs of wires inside the jacket .
 The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry
Association/Telecommunication Industry
Association) has established standards of
UTP and rated five categories of wire. But
now six or more categories of cables are
 Length of UTP Cable are 100 meters.
Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair

 Category 1
 Category 2
 Category 3
 Category 4
 Category 5
 Category 6
Category 1
 speed - up to 1 mbps
 No. of wire – 2 pair
 Connector – RJ 11
 Carry – only voice
 Used in – telephone industry
Category 2
 speed - up to 4 mbps
 No. of wire – 4 pair
 Connector – RJ 45
 Carry – only voice & Data
 Used in – Computer
Category 3
 speed - up to 16 mbps
 No. of wire – 4 pair
 Connector – RJ 45
 Carry – only voice & Data
 Used in – Computer
Category 4
 speed - up to 20 mbps
 No. of wire – 4 pair
 Connector – RJ 45
 Carry – only voice & Data
 Used in – Computer
Category 5
 speed - up to 100 mbps
 No. of wire – 4 pair
 Connector – RJ 45
 Carry – only voice & Data
 Used in – Computer
Category 6
 speed - up to 1 gbps
 No. of wire – 4 pair
 Connector – RJ 45
 Carry – only voice , Data & multimedia
 Used in – Computer
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

 Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for

environments with electrical interference.
Shielded twisted pair is often used on
networks using Token Ring topology.
 Length of STP Cable are 220 meters.
Fiber Optic Cable
 Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core
surrounded by several layers of protective materials.
It transmits light rather than electronic signals
eliminating the problem of electrical interference.
 Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals
over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted
pair. It also has the capability to carry information at
vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens
communication possibilities to include services such
as video conferencing and interactive services.
 10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic
cable carrying Ethernet signals.
Fiber Optic Connector

• The most common

connector used with fiber
optic cable is an Straight
Tip (ST) connector. It is
barrel shaped, similar to a
BNC connector. A newer
connector, the Subscriber
Connector (SC), is
becoming more popular. It
has a squared face and is
easier to connect in a
confined space.
The two type of Fiber optic cable are:-
Ethernet media connector Requirement:-

10 base2 10 base 5 10 base T 100baseTX 100 base FX

50 ohm 50 ohm EIA / TIA EIA / TIA 62.5 / 125

Media Coaxial Coaxial Category Category Multimode
thinnet Thicknet 3.4.5.UTP, 5 UTP, Two fiber
Two pair pair

Maximum 185 m 500 m

Segment (606.94 (1640.4 feet) 100 m(328 ft) 100 m(328 ft) 400m
Length feet) (1812.3)

topology Bus Bus Star Star Star

Connentor BNC Attachment RJ 45 RJ 45 Duplex media

Unit interface Interface
Three type of cable are connect in the
networks are:-

 Straight Cable –It use to connect two different

devices. E.g.- Pc to switch , Pc to Hub, switch to
Hub etc.

 Cross Cable - it use to connect two same devices.

E.g.- Pc to Pc, Switch to switch, Hub to Hub Etc.
 (Note- pc to router are two male terminals . So it is cross cable.)

 Rollover Cable - it use to configure terminal like

Switch,Router .