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Transmission Line Theory

In an electronic system, the delivery of


power requires the connection of two wires
between the source and the load. At low
frequencies, power is considered to be delivered
to the load through the wire.
In the microwave frequency region, power
is considered to be in electric and magnetic
fields that are guided from lace to place by some
physical structure. Any physical structure that
will guide an electromagnetic wave place to
place is called a Transmission Line.
1
Types of Transmission Lines
1. Two wire line
2. Coaxial cable
3. Waveguide
 Rectangular
 Circular
1. Planar Transmission Lines
 Strip line
 Microstrip line
 Slot line
 Fin line
 Coplanar Waveguide
 Coplanar slot line

2
Analysis of differences between Low and High
Frequency
 At low frequencies, the circuit elements are lumped since
voltage and current waves affect the entire circuit at the same
time.
 At microwave frequencies, such treatment of circuit elements
is not possible since voltag and current waves do not affect
the entire circuit at the same time.
 The circuit must be broken down into unit sections within
which the circuit elements are considered to be lumped.
 This is because the dimensions of the circuit are comparable
to the wavelength of the waves according to the formula:
    c/f
where,
c = velocity of light
f = frequency of voltage/current

3
Metallic Cable
Transmission Media

4
Metallic Cable Transmission Media
• Metallic transmission lines
• Balanced and Unbalanced Transmission Lines
• Metallic Transmission Line Equivalent Circuit
• Wave Propagation on a Metallic Transmission Line
• Transmission Line Losses
• Phasor Current and Voltages
• Single section of transmission line
• Characteristic Impedance and Propagation
Constant
• Standing waves, reflection
5
Types of Transmission Lines
Coaxial
Twisted-Pair
Open-Wire
Twin-Lead

6
Metallic transmission lines

Open-wire Twin lead

7
Metallic transmission lines
Unshielded twisted-pair

8
Metallic transmission lines
Coaxial cable

9
Coaxial components
 Connectors: Microwave coaxial connectors required to connect two
coaxial lines are als called connector pairs (male and female). They must
match the characteristic impedance of the attached lines and be
designed to have minimum reflection coefficients and not radiate power
through the connector. E.g. APC-3.5, BNC, SMA, SMC
 Coaxial sections: Coaxial line sections slip inside each other while
still making electrical contact. These sections are useful for matching
loads and making slotted line measurements. Double and triple stub
tuning configurations are available as coaxial stub tuning sections.
 Attenuators: The function of an attenuator is to reduce the power of
the signal through it by a fixed or adjustable amount. The different types
of attenuators are:
1. Fixed attenuators
2. Step attenuators
3. Variable attenuators

10
Coaxial components (contd.)
 Coaxial cavities: Coaxial cavities are concentric
lines or coaxial lines with an air dielectric and
closed ends. Propagation of EM waves is in TEM
mode.
 Coaxial wave meters: Wave meters use a cavity
to allow the transmission or absorption of a
wave at a frequency equal to the resonant
frequency of the cavity. Coaxial cavities are
used as wave meters.

11
Attenuators
Attenuators are components that reduce the amount of power a fixed
amount, a variable amount or in a series of fixed steps from the input
to the output of the device. They operate on the principle of interfering
with the electric field or magnetic field or both.
 Slide vane attenuators: They work on the principle that a resistive
material placed in parallel with the E-lines of a field current will induce
a current in the material that will result in I2R power loss.
 Flap attenuator: A flap attenuator has a vane that is dropped into the
waveguide through a slot in the top of the guide. The further the vane
is inserted into the waveguide, the greater the attenuation.
 Rotary vane attenuator: It is a precision waveguide attenuator in which
attenuation follows a mathematical law. In this device, attenuation is
independent on frequency.

12
Isolators
Mismatch or discontinuities cause energy to be reflected back down the
line. Reflected energy is undesirable. Thus, to prevent reflected energy
from reaching the source, isolators are used.
 Faraday Rotational Isolator: It combines ferrite material to shift the
phase of an electromagnetic wave in its vicinity and attenuation vanes
to attenuate an electric field that is parallel to the resistive plane.
 Resonant absorption isolator: A device that can be used for higher
powers. It consists of a section of rectangular waveguide with ferrite
material placed half way to the center of the waveguide, along the axis
of the guide.

13
Metallic transmission lines
Differential, or balanced, transmission system
Balanced lines have equal impedances from the two
conductors to ground

Twisted-pair and parallel lines are usually balanced

14
Metallic transmission lines
Differential, or balanced, transmission system

signal voltages noise voltages

15
Metallic transmission lines
Single-ended, or unbalanced, transmission system

Unbalanced lines usually have one conductor grounded


Coaxial lines usually have outer conductor grounded

16
Ideal Transmission Line
 No losses
 conductors have zero resistance
 dielectric has zero conductance
 possible only with superconductors
 approximated by a short line
 No capacitance or inductance
 possible with a real line only at dc
 with low frequencies and short lines this
can be approximated

17
Two-wire parallel transmission line
electrical equivalent circuit

18
Traveling wave

The input voltage can be described as


v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t )
ω is the angular frequency (rad/sec)

19
Traveling wave
The input voltage can be described as

v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t )
ω is the angular frequency (rad/sec)
The traveling wave can be described as

v ( z , t ) = Vc cos ( ω t − β z )
β is the propagation constant (rad/m)
i ( z , t ) = I c cos ( ω t − β z )
current and voltage are in phase?!?!?
20
Phase velocity and wavelength
v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t − β z )
βλ = 2π

β=
λ

ω = 2π f

distance λ ω
vp = = = fλ =
time 1 β
f


vg =
The energy travels with the group velocity dβ
21
Attenuation

v ( z , t ) = Vc e −α z
cos ( ωt − β z )

α is the attenuation coefficient


(nepers/meter)
What is the attenuation in dB per
meter?

22
Attenuation ( )
log a x g = g log a ( x )

v ( z , t ) = Vc e −α z
cos ( ωt − β z )

α is the attenuation coefficient (nepers/meter)

What is the attenuation in dB per meter?

( )
AttdB = 20 log eα = 20α log ( e ) = 8.686α
m

(One neper is 8.686 dB)


23
Phasor currents and voltages
A phasor can be used to represent the amplitude of a
sinusoidal voltage or current and is phase difference from
a reference sinusoid of the same frequency. A phasor
does not include any representation of the frequency.

v ( t ) = Ve −α z
cos ( ωt − β z ) = Re ( Ve −α z − j β z
e e jωt
)
has a phasor V which can be represented in
amplitude-angle form as V∠ φ , or in component
form a+jb where a=Vcosφ and b=Vsinφ or in
complex-exponential φ
Ve jform
24
Phasor currents and voltages

The phasor of the driving voltage is V0


The phasor of the voltage at distance x
from the driving point is
−α x − jβ x − ( α + jβ ) x −γ x
Vx = V0 e e = V0e = V0e
where γ is the propagation constant
γ = α + jβ

25
Phasor currents and voltages
−γ z γ = α + jβ
Vx = V0 e
I x = I 0 e −γ z

Remember, I0 and V0 are themselves phasors,


and their angles are not necessarily the same.

26
Transmission Line Model

 At low frequencies only resistance has to


be considered
 At higher frequencies capacitance and
inductance must be included
 All of these are distributed along the line

27
Vz = V0 e −γ z
Single section of transmission line
Iz δ V I z +δ I
I z = I 0 e −γ z
1
ZC =
jω C
Vz Cδ z Gδ δ I Vz + δ V
z Z L = jω L
Iz
Total series resistance Rδ z Iz+δ I

Total series inductance Lδ z


δ V = − Rδ zI z − jω Lδ zI z
dVz
= − ( R + jω L ) I z γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z
dz
δ I = −Gδ zVz − jω Cδ zVz
dI z
= − ( G + jωC ) Vz γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz
dz
28
Characteristic Impedance
 Ratio between voltage and current on line
 Depends only on line geometry and
dielectric
 Not a function of length
 Has units of ohms but not the same as the
resistance of the wire in the line

Vz
Z0 =
Iz
29
Characteristic Impedance
γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz

Vz R + jω L I z Vz R + jω L
= Z0 = =
I z G + jωC Vz Iz G + jω C
Z0 is the characteristic impedance
R = conductor resistance in Ω /unit length
L = inductance in H/unit length
G = dielectric conductance in S/unit length
C = capacitance in F/unit length

For an RF line R and G are zero (valid for high RF frequencies)


Vz L
Z0 = = Current and voltage are in phase
Iz C
30
Velocity Factor

 Step moves down line at a finite speed


 Velocity cannot be greater than speed
of light and is usually lower
 Velocity factor is ratio between actual
propagation velocity and speed of light
 Velocity factor depends only on line
dielectric

31
1
c=
Velocity Factor µ 0ε 0

vp
vf =
c
 vp = propagation velocity on the line
 c = speed of light in vacuum
= 300 × 106 m/s

32
Propagation Constant
γ = α + jβ
γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z ω
vp =
β
γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz
γ 2 Vz I z = ( R + jω L ) ( G + jω C ) Vz Iz

γ= ( R + jω L ) ( G + jω C )
For an ideal line R and G are zero

γ = jω LC purely imaginary and no attenuation


α =0
1
β = ω LC vp =
LC
33
Metallic transmission lines
Two-wire parallel transmission line
ε = ε rε 0
1
D c=
Z 0 = 276 log µ oε 0
r
1
vp =
µ oε

Z0 = the characteristic impedance (ohms)


D = the distance between the centers
r = the radius of the conductor
ε 0 = the permittivity of free space (F/m)
ε r = the relative permittivity or dielectric constant
of the medium (unitless)
µ 0 = the permeability of free space (H/m)
34
Metallic transmission lines
Coaxial cable
ε = ε rε 0
1
c=
138 D µ oε 0
Z0 = log
εr d
1
vp =
µ oε

Z0 = the characteristic impedance (ohms)


D = the diameter of the outer conductor
d = the diameter of the inner conductor
ε = the permittivity of the material
ε r = the relative permittivity or dielectric
constant of the medium
µ 0 = the permeability of free space
35
Transmission Lines Losses
• Conductor Losses
•Increases with frequency
due to skin effect
• Dielectric Heating Losses
•Also increases with
frequency
• Radiation Losses
• Not significant with good
quality coax properly
installed
• Can be a problem with
open-wire cable
• Coupling Losses
• Corona Skin effect
36
Transmission Lines Losses

37
38
Step Applied to Infinite Line
 Voltage step will propagate down line
 Energy is stored in line capacitance and
inductance
 Energy from source appears to be dissipated
by line but is really stored
 If line is infinitely long the step never reaches
the end
 Voltage and current have definite, finite values

39
Reflection of Voltage Step
 Infinite line: no reflection
 Finite line with load impedance ZL = Z0
 no reflection
 the load looks to the source like an extension of
the line
 Voltage and currents are compatible
 Z = √(L/C)
 Finite line with load impedance ZL ≠ Z0
 Some or all of the step will reflect from the load
end of the line

40
Reflection of Pulses
Transmission Line

R0
Short circuit

Reflection
hyperlink

41
Shorted Line

 Total voltage at shorted end = 0


 Incident and reflected voltages must be
equal and opposite
 Incident and reflected currents are equal
with same polarity
 Time for surge to reach end of line is

T = L/vp

42
Reflection of Pulses
Transmission Line
R0
Open Line

Reflection
hyperlink

43
Open-Circuited Line

 Total current at open end = 0


 Incident and reflected currents must be
equal and opposite
 Incident and reflected voltages are equal
with same polarity
 Time for surge to reach end of line is
T = L/vp

44
Reflection Coefficient
 More complex situation: Load has an arbitrary
impedance
 not equal to Z0

 not shorted or open


 impedance may be complex (either capacitive or
inductive as well as resistive)
 When the ZL ≠ Z0, part of the power is reflected back
and the remainder is absorbed by the load.

45
Reflection Coefficient
The amount of voltage reflected back is
called voltage reflection coefficient.
Vr Ir
Γ = or
Vi Ii

Γ = reflection coefficient
Vi = incident voltage
Vr = reflected voltage
Ii = incident current
Ir = reflected current
46
Reflection of Pulses
Transmission Line

Z0 ZL

Vi Vr total voltage = Vi + Vr
= = Z0
Ii I r
total current = I i − I r
Vi + Vr
= ZL
Ii − I r

Vr Ir ZL − Z0
Γ @ or Γ=
Vi Ii Z L + Z0
47
Wave Propagation on Lines

 Start by assuming a matched line


 Waves move down the line at propagation
velocity
 Waves are the same at all points except
for phase
 Phase changes 360 degrees in the
distance a wave travels in one period
 This distance is called the wavelength

48
Standing Waves
 When an incident wave reflects from a mismatched
load, an interference pattern develops
 Both incident and reflected waves move at the
propagation velocity, but the interference pattern is
stationary
 The interference pattern is called a set of standing
waves
 It is formed by the addition of incident and reflected
waves and has nodal points that remain stationary
with time

49
Incident and Reflected Waves

50
Standing Waves

51
Standing-Wave Ratio
 When line is mismatched but neither
open nor shorted, voltage varies along
line without ever falling to zero
 Greater mismatch leads to greater
variation
 Voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR or
SWR) is defined:
Vmax
SWR = ( ≥ 1)
Vmin
52
Z L − Z0
Standing waves Γ=
Z L + Z0
Vmax
SWR = ( ≥ 1)
Vmin

Vmax = Vi + Vr = Vi + Γ Vi

Vmin = Vi − Vr = Vi − Γ Vi

1+ Γ Z0 ZL SWR − 1
SWR = = or Γ=
1− Γ ZL Z0 SWR + 1

53
SWR and Reflection Coefficient
 SWR is a positive real number
Γ may be positive, negative or complex
 SWR ≥ 1
 Magnitude of Γ ≤ 1

54
Standing waves on an Open Line

This is only the amplitude!!!

55
Standing waves on an Shorted Line

This is only the amplitude!!!

56
Effects of High SWR

 High SWR causes voltage peaks on


the line that can damage the line or
connected equipment such as a
transmitter
 Current peaks due to high SWR cause
losses to increase

57
Reflected Power

 When a signal travels down a mismatched line, some of the


power reflects from the load
 This power is dissipated in the source, if the source
matches the line
 A high SWR causes the load power to be reduced

58
SWR − 1
Γ=
Reflected Power SWR + 1

Pr = Γ Pi
2

PL = Pi (1 − Γ )2

4 SWR
PL = Pi
(1 + SWR ) 2

Pr = reflected power
Pi = incident power
PL = power delivered to load
59
Time-Domain Reflectometry

Reflecto
meter transmission line

reflection

v ⋅t
d=
2
60
General Input Impedance Equation
 Input impedance of a transmissionline at a
distance L from the load impedance ZL with a
characteristic Zo is
Zinput = Zo [(ZL + j Zo BL)
(Zo + j ZL BL)]
where B is called phase constant or
wavelength constant and is defined by the
equation
B = 2
61
Half and Quarter wave transmission lines
 The relationship of the input impedance at the
input of the half-wave transmission line with its
terminating impedance is got by letting L =
    in the impedance equation.
Zinput = ZL 
 The relationship of the input impedance at the
input of the quarter-wave transmission line with
its terminating impedance is got by letting L =
    in the impedance equation.
Zinput = √(Zinput Zoutput ) 

62
Effect of Lossy line on V and I waves
 The effect of resistance in a transmission line is to
continuously reduce the amplitude of both incident and
reflected voltage and current waves.
 Skin Effect: As frequency increases, depth of
penetration into adjacent conductive surfaces decreases
for boundary currents associated with electromagnetic
waves, that results in the confinement of the voltage and
current waves at the boundary of the transmission line,
thus making the transmission more lossy.
Skin depth (m) = 1  √ f
where f = frequency, Hz  = permeability, H/m
 = conductivity, S/m

63
Smith chart
 Forcomplex transmission line problems, the use of the
formulae becomes increasingly difficult and
inconvenient. An indispensable graphical method of
solution is the use of Smith Chart.

64
Components of a Smith Chart
 Horizontal line: The horizontal line running through
the center of the Smith chart represents either the
resistive or the conductive component. Zero
resistance is located on the left end and infinite
resistance is located on the right end of the line.
 Circles of constant resistance and conductance:
Circles of constant resistance are drawn on the Smith
chart tangent to the right-hand side of the chart and
its intersection with the centerline. These circles of
constant resistance are used to locate complex
impedances.
 Lines of constant reactance: Lines of constant
reactance are shown on the Smith chart with curves
that start from a given reactance value on the outer
circle and end at the right-hand side of the center line.
65
Type of Microwave problems that Smith
chart can be used
1. Plotting a complex impedance on a Smith chart
2. Finding VSWR for a given load
3. Finding the admittance for a given impedance
4. Finding the input impedance of a transmission line terminated in a
short or open.
5. Finding the input impedance at any distance from a load ZL.
6. Locating the first maximum and minimum from any load
7. Matching a transmission line to a load with a single series stub.
8. Matching a transmission line with a single parallel stub
9. Matching a transmission line to a load with two parallel stubs.

66
Plotting a Complex Impedance on a
Smith Chart
 To locate a complex impedance, Z = R+-jX or
admittance Y = G +- jB on a Smith chart,
normalize the real and imaginary part of the
complex impedance. Locating the value of the
normalized real term on the horizontal line scale
locates the resistance circle. Locating the
normalized value of the imaginary term on the
outer circle locates the curve of constant
reactance. The intersection of the circle and the
curve locates the complex impedance on the
Smith chart.
67
Finding the VSWR for a given
load
 Normalize the load and plot its location on
the Smith chart.
 Draw a circle with a radius equal to the
distance between the 1.0 point and the
location of the normalized load and the
center of the Smith chart as the center.
 The intersection of the right-hand side of
the circle with the horizontal resistance
line locates the value of the VSWR.
68
Finding the Input Impedance at any
Distance from the Load
 The load impedance is first normalized and is
located on the Smith chart.
 The VSWR circle is drawn for the load.
 A line is drawn from the 1.0 point through the
load to the outer wavelength scale.
 To locate the input impedance on a Smith
chart of the transmission line at any given
distance from the load, advance in clockwise
direction from the located point, a distance in
wavelength equal to the distance to the new
location on the transmission line.
69
Power Loss
 Return Power Loss: When an electromagnetic
wave travels down a transmission line and
encounters a mismatched load or a discontinuity
in the line, part of the incident power is reflected
back down the line. The return loss is defined as:
Preturn = 10 log10 Pi/Pr
Preturn = 20 log10 1/
 Mismatch Power Loss: The term mismatch loss
is used to describe the loss caused by the
reflection due to a mismatched line. It is defined
as
Pmismatch = 10 log10 Pi/(Pi - Pr)

70
Notes:
 Metallic circuit current – currents that flow in
opposite directions in a balanced wire pair
 Longitudinal current – currents that flow in the
same direction
 Common Mode Rejection (CMR) – cancellation
of common mode signals or noise interference
induced equally on both wires producing
longitudinal currents that cancel in the load
CMRR = 40 to 70 dB

71
Notes:
 Primary electrical constants – R, L, C, G
 Secondary constants – Zo, Propagation
Constant
 For maximum power transfer, Z = Zo, thus no
L
reflection
 Characteristic impedance = Surge impedance
 Transmission line stores energy in its
distributed inductance and capacitance

72
Notes:
 Transmission lines:
 The input impedance of an infinitely long line at radio
frequencies is resistive and equal to Zo
 Nonresonant – when electromagnetic waves travel
the line without reflections
 Ratio of voltage to current at any point is equal to Zo
 Incident voltage and current at any point are in phase
 Line losses on a non-resonant line are minimum per
unit length
 Any transmission line that is terminated in a load
equals to Zo acts as if it were an infinite line.
 Prop. Cons. = attenuation coeff. + phase shift coeff.
γ = α + jβ
73
Notes:
Material Velocity Factor
air 0.95 – 0.975
rubber 0.56 – 0.65
polyethylene 0.66
teflon 0.70
teflon foam 0.82
teflon pins 0.81
teflon spiral 0.81

74
Notes:
Material Dielectric Constant
Vacuum 1
Air 1.0006
Teflon 2.1
polyethylene 2.27
polystyrene 2.5
paper, paraffined 2.5
rubber 3.0
PVC 3.3
Mica 5.0
Glass 7.5

75
Notes:
 Velocity factor (Velocity constant) = actual vel. Of prop.
vel. In free space
Vf = Vp / c
 Electrical length of transmission line
 Long – length exceeds λ/16

 Short – length less than or equal λ/16

 Delay lines – transmission lines designed to intentionally


introduce a time delay in the path of an electromagnetic
wave
td = LC (seconds)
td = 1.016 Є

76
Notes:
 The disadvantages of not having a matched line:
 100 percent of the source incident power does not
reach the load
 The dielectric separating the two conductors can
break down and cause corona due to high VSWR
 Reflections and rereflections cause more power loss

 Reflections cause ghost images

 Mismatches cause noise interference

77
Notes:
 Characteristics of transmission line terminated at open
 voltage incident wave is reflected back (no phase
reversal)
 current incident wave is reflected back 180 degrees
from how it would have continued
 sum of the incident and reflected current waveforms
is minimum
 sum of the incident and reflected voltage waveforms
is maximum

78
Notes:
 Characteristics of transmission line terminated at short
 voltage standing wave is reflected back 180 degrees
reversed from how it would have continued
 current standing wave is reflected back the same as
if it had continued
 sum of the incident and reflected current waveforms
is maximum
 sum of the incident and reflected voltage waveforms
is zero at the short

79
Input Impedance

Zin = resistive, max short Parallel LC circuit,


resistive and maximum

Series LC circuit,
Zin = resistive, min open resistive and minimum

Zin = inductive inductor


short

Zin = capacitive open capacitor

Zin = capacitive short capacitor

Zin = inductive open inductor

λ/4
Input Output
end end
80
Notes:
 The impedance transformation for a quarter wavelength
transmission line is:
 R = Zo: quarter λ line acts 1:1 turns ratio transformer
L

 RL > Zo: quarter λ line acts as a step down transformer


 RL < Zo: quarter λ line acts as a step up transformer
 Characteristic Impedance of quarter wavelength X’former
Zo’ = √(ZoZL)
 When a load is purely inductive oir purely capacitive, no
energy is absorbed, thus, Г = 1 and SWR = inf.

81
Notes:
 Stub Matching
 Stubs are used to eliminate the reactive component
to match the transmission line to the load
 It is just a piece of additional transmission line that is
placed across the primary line as close to the load as
possible
 Susceptance of stub is used to tune out the
susceptance of the load
 Shorted stubs are preferred because open stubs
have the tendency to radiate at higher frequencies

82
Notes:
 Process of Stub Matching
 locate a point as close to the load as possible where
the conductive component of the input admittance is
equal to the characteristic admittance of transmission
line Yin = G – jB, G = 1 / Zo
 Attach the shorted stub to the point on the
transmission line
 Depending whether the reactive component at the
point is inductive or capacitive, the stub length is
adjusted
Yin = Go – jB + jBstub
Yin = Go

83
Notes:
 Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
 technique used to locate an impairment in the
metallic cable
 How much of the transmitted signal returns depends
on the type and magnitude of the impairment
 Impairment represents a discontinuity in the signal

 For higher frequency applications (300 MHz – 3000 MHz),


microstrip and stripline is constructed to interconnect
components on PC boards
 When the distance between source and load ends is a
few inches or less, coaxial cable is impractical
 Microstrip and Stripline use the tracks on the PC board.
84
Notes:
 Microstrip and Stripline are used to construct transmission lines,
inductors, capacitors, tuned circuits, filters, phase shifters, and
impedance matching devices.
 Microstrip – when the lines are etched in the middle layer of the
multilayer PC board
Zo = 87 ln 5.98h__ Є fiberglass = 4.5
√(Є + 1.41) 0.8w + t Є teflon = 3
w = width of Cu trace t = thickness of Cu trace
h = thickness of dielectric
 Stripline – if the lines are etched onto the surface of the PC board
only
Zo = 60 ln 4d __ d = dielectric thick
Є 0.67πw(0.8 + t/h)

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Problems:
1. Determine the characteristic impedance for an
air dielectric two-wire parallel transmission
line with a D/r ratio = 13.5 (311.97 ohms)
2. Determine the characteristic impedance for an
RG-59A coaxial cable with parameters:
L=0.121 μH/ft, C=30 pF/ft, d=0.042 in., D=0.22
in, and Є=2.15 (63.509 ohms, 67.685 ohms)
3. For a given length of RG8A/U coaxial cable
with parameters: C=98.4 pF/m, L=262.45 nH/m,
Єr=2.15. Find Vp and Vf (1.968x108 m/s, 0.656
or 0.682)

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Problems:
4. For a transmission line with incident voltage of
5.2V and reflected voltage of 3.8V, find
reflection coefficient and SWR (0.731, 6.429)
5. Determine the physical length and Zo for a
quarter wavelength transformer that is used to
match a section of RG8A/U (Zo=50 ohms) to a
175 ohm resistive load. The frequency of
operation is 220 MHz and the velocity factor is
1 (0.341 m, 93.54 ohms)

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Stub Matching
 Use to remove the reactive component of the complex
impedance of the load to match the transmission line to the
load
 It is a piece of additional transmission line that is placed
across the primary line as close to the load as possible
 The susceptance of the stub is used to tune out the
susceptance of the load
 Either a shorted or open stub is used with greater preference
on the shorted stub
 A transmission line that is one-half wavelength or shorter is
used to tune out the reactive component of the load

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Stub Matching Process
1. Locate a point as close as possible to the load
where the conductive component of the Zin = Zo
Yin = G – jB where G = 1 / Zo
2. Attach the shorted stub on the identified point
3. Depending on whether the reactive component at
that point is inductive or capacitive, the stub length
is adjusted accordingly
Yin = Go – jB + jBstub
~ Yin = Go

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