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power requires the connection of two wires

between the source and the load. At low

frequencies, power is considered to be delivered

to the load through the wire.

In the microwave frequency region, power

is considered to be in electric and magnetic

fields that are guided from lace to place by some

physical structure. Any physical structure that

will guide an electromagnetic wave place to

place is called a Transmission Line.

1

Types of Transmission Lines

1. Two wire line

2. Coaxial cable

3. Waveguide

Rectangular

Circular

1. Planar Transmission Lines

Strip line

Microstrip line

Slot line

Fin line

Coplanar Waveguide

Coplanar slot line

2

Analysis of differences between Low and High

Frequency

At low frequencies, the circuit elements are lumped since

voltage and current waves affect the entire circuit at the same

time.

At microwave frequencies, such treatment of circuit elements

is not possible since voltag and current waves do not affect

the entire circuit at the same time.

The circuit must be broken down into unit sections within

which the circuit elements are considered to be lumped.

This is because the dimensions of the circuit are comparable

to the wavelength of the waves according to the formula:

c/f

where,

c = velocity of light

f = frequency of voltage/current

3

Metallic Cable

Transmission Media

4

Metallic Cable Transmission Media

• Metallic transmission lines

• Balanced and Unbalanced Transmission Lines

• Metallic Transmission Line Equivalent Circuit

• Wave Propagation on a Metallic Transmission Line

• Transmission Line Losses

• Phasor Current and Voltages

• Single section of transmission line

• Characteristic Impedance and Propagation

Constant

• Standing waves, reflection

5

Types of Transmission Lines

Coaxial

Twisted-Pair

Open-Wire

Twin-Lead

6

Metallic transmission lines

7

Metallic transmission lines

Unshielded twisted-pair

8

Metallic transmission lines

Coaxial cable

9

Coaxial components

Connectors: Microwave coaxial connectors required to connect two

coaxial lines are als called connector pairs (male and female). They must

match the characteristic impedance of the attached lines and be

designed to have minimum reflection coefficients and not radiate power

through the connector. E.g. APC-3.5, BNC, SMA, SMC

Coaxial sections: Coaxial line sections slip inside each other while

still making electrical contact. These sections are useful for matching

loads and making slotted line measurements. Double and triple stub

tuning configurations are available as coaxial stub tuning sections.

Attenuators: The function of an attenuator is to reduce the power of

the signal through it by a fixed or adjustable amount. The different types

of attenuators are:

1. Fixed attenuators

2. Step attenuators

3. Variable attenuators

10

Coaxial components (contd.)

Coaxial cavities: Coaxial cavities are concentric

lines or coaxial lines with an air dielectric and

closed ends. Propagation of EM waves is in TEM

mode.

Coaxial wave meters: Wave meters use a cavity

to allow the transmission or absorption of a

wave at a frequency equal to the resonant

frequency of the cavity. Coaxial cavities are

used as wave meters.

11

Attenuators

Attenuators are components that reduce the amount of power a fixed

amount, a variable amount or in a series of fixed steps from the input

to the output of the device. They operate on the principle of interfering

with the electric field or magnetic field or both.

Slide vane attenuators: They work on the principle that a resistive

material placed in parallel with the E-lines of a field current will induce

a current in the material that will result in I2R power loss.

Flap attenuator: A flap attenuator has a vane that is dropped into the

waveguide through a slot in the top of the guide. The further the vane

is inserted into the waveguide, the greater the attenuation.

Rotary vane attenuator: It is a precision waveguide attenuator in which

attenuation follows a mathematical law. In this device, attenuation is

independent on frequency.

12

Isolators

Mismatch or discontinuities cause energy to be reflected back down the

line. Reflected energy is undesirable. Thus, to prevent reflected energy

from reaching the source, isolators are used.

Faraday Rotational Isolator: It combines ferrite material to shift the

phase of an electromagnetic wave in its vicinity and attenuation vanes

to attenuate an electric field that is parallel to the resistive plane.

Resonant absorption isolator: A device that can be used for higher

powers. It consists of a section of rectangular waveguide with ferrite

material placed half way to the center of the waveguide, along the axis

of the guide.

13

Metallic transmission lines

Differential, or balanced, transmission system

Balanced lines have equal impedances from the two

conductors to ground

14

Metallic transmission lines

Differential, or balanced, transmission system

15

Metallic transmission lines

Single-ended, or unbalanced, transmission system

Coaxial lines usually have outer conductor grounded

16

Ideal Transmission Line

No losses

conductors have zero resistance

dielectric has zero conductance

possible only with superconductors

approximated by a short line

No capacitance or inductance

possible with a real line only at dc

with low frequencies and short lines this

can be approximated

17

Two-wire parallel transmission line

electrical equivalent circuit

18

Traveling wave

v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t )

ω is the angular frequency (rad/sec)

19

Traveling wave

The input voltage can be described as

v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t )

ω is the angular frequency (rad/sec)

The traveling wave can be described as

v ( z , t ) = Vc cos ( ω t − β z )

β is the propagation constant (rad/m)

i ( z , t ) = I c cos ( ω t − β z )

current and voltage are in phase?!?!?

20

Phase velocity and wavelength

v ( t ) = Vc cos ( ω t − β z )

βλ = 2π

2π

β=

λ

ω = 2π f

distance λ ω

vp = = = fλ =

time 1 β

f

dω

vg =

The energy travels with the group velocity dβ

21

Attenuation

v ( z , t ) = Vc e −α z

cos ( ωt − β z )

(nepers/meter)

What is the attenuation in dB per

meter?

22

Attenuation ( )

log a x g = g log a ( x )

v ( z , t ) = Vc e −α z

cos ( ωt − β z )

( )

AttdB = 20 log eα = 20α log ( e ) = 8.686α

m

23

Phasor currents and voltages

A phasor can be used to represent the amplitude of a

sinusoidal voltage or current and is phase difference from

a reference sinusoid of the same frequency. A phasor

does not include any representation of the frequency.

v ( t ) = Ve −α z

cos ( ωt − β z ) = Re ( Ve −α z − j β z

e e jωt

)

has a phasor V which can be represented in

amplitude-angle form as V∠ φ , or in component

form a+jb where a=Vcosφ and b=Vsinφ or in

complex-exponential φ

Ve jform

24

Phasor currents and voltages

The phasor of the voltage at distance x

from the driving point is

−α x − jβ x − ( α + jβ ) x −γ x

Vx = V0 e e = V0e = V0e

where γ is the propagation constant

γ = α + jβ

25

Phasor currents and voltages

−γ z γ = α + jβ

Vx = V0 e

I x = I 0 e −γ z

and their angles are not necessarily the same.

26

Transmission Line Model

be considered

At higher frequencies capacitance and

inductance must be included

All of these are distributed along the line

27

Vz = V0 e −γ z

Single section of transmission line

Iz δ V I z +δ I

I z = I 0 e −γ z

1

ZC =

jω C

Vz Cδ z Gδ δ I Vz + δ V

z Z L = jω L

Iz

Total series resistance Rδ z Iz+δ I

δ V = − Rδ zI z − jω Lδ zI z

dVz

= − ( R + jω L ) I z γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z

dz

δ I = −Gδ zVz − jω Cδ zVz

dI z

= − ( G + jωC ) Vz γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz

dz

28

Characteristic Impedance

Ratio between voltage and current on line

Depends only on line geometry and

dielectric

Not a function of length

Has units of ohms but not the same as the

resistance of the wire in the line

Vz

Z0 =

Iz

29

Characteristic Impedance

γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz

Vz R + jω L I z Vz R + jω L

= Z0 = =

I z G + jωC Vz Iz G + jω C

Z0 is the characteristic impedance

R = conductor resistance in Ω /unit length

L = inductance in H/unit length

G = dielectric conductance in S/unit length

C = capacitance in F/unit length

Vz L

Z0 = = Current and voltage are in phase

Iz C

30

Velocity Factor

Velocity cannot be greater than speed

of light and is usually lower

Velocity factor is ratio between actual

propagation velocity and speed of light

Velocity factor depends only on line

dielectric

31

1

c=

Velocity Factor µ 0ε 0

vp

vf =

c

vp = propagation velocity on the line

c = speed of light in vacuum

= 300 × 106 m/s

32

Propagation Constant

γ = α + jβ

γ Vz = − ( R + jω L ) I z ω

vp =

β

γ I z = − ( G + jω C ) Vz

γ 2 Vz I z = ( R + jω L ) ( G + jω C ) Vz Iz

γ= ( R + jω L ) ( G + jω C )

For an ideal line R and G are zero

α =0

1

β = ω LC vp =

LC

33

Metallic transmission lines

Two-wire parallel transmission line

ε = ε rε 0

1

D c=

Z 0 = 276 log µ oε 0

r

1

vp =

µ oε

D = the distance between the centers

r = the radius of the conductor

ε 0 = the permittivity of free space (F/m)

ε r = the relative permittivity or dielectric constant

of the medium (unitless)

µ 0 = the permeability of free space (H/m)

34

Metallic transmission lines

Coaxial cable

ε = ε rε 0

1

c=

138 D µ oε 0

Z0 = log

εr d

1

vp =

µ oε

D = the diameter of the outer conductor

d = the diameter of the inner conductor

ε = the permittivity of the material

ε r = the relative permittivity or dielectric

constant of the medium

µ 0 = the permeability of free space

35

Transmission Lines Losses

• Conductor Losses

•Increases with frequency

due to skin effect

• Dielectric Heating Losses

•Also increases with

frequency

• Radiation Losses

• Not significant with good

quality coax properly

installed

• Can be a problem with

open-wire cable

• Coupling Losses

• Corona Skin effect

36

Transmission Lines Losses

37

38

Step Applied to Infinite Line

Voltage step will propagate down line

Energy is stored in line capacitance and

inductance

Energy from source appears to be dissipated

by line but is really stored

If line is infinitely long the step never reaches

the end

Voltage and current have definite, finite values

39

Reflection of Voltage Step

Infinite line: no reflection

Finite line with load impedance ZL = Z0

no reflection

the load looks to the source like an extension of

the line

Voltage and currents are compatible

Z = √(L/C)

Finite line with load impedance ZL ≠ Z0

Some or all of the step will reflect from the load

end of the line

40

Reflection of Pulses

Transmission Line

R0

Short circuit

Reflection

hyperlink

41

Shorted Line

Incident and reflected voltages must be

equal and opposite

Incident and reflected currents are equal

with same polarity

Time for surge to reach end of line is

T = L/vp

42

Reflection of Pulses

Transmission Line

R0

Open Line

Reflection

hyperlink

43

Open-Circuited Line

Incident and reflected currents must be

equal and opposite

Incident and reflected voltages are equal

with same polarity

Time for surge to reach end of line is

T = L/vp

44

Reflection Coefficient

More complex situation: Load has an arbitrary

impedance

not equal to Z0

impedance may be complex (either capacitive or

inductive as well as resistive)

When the ZL ≠ Z0, part of the power is reflected back

and the remainder is absorbed by the load.

45

Reflection Coefficient

The amount of voltage reflected back is

called voltage reflection coefficient.

Vr Ir

Γ = or

Vi Ii

Γ = reflection coefficient

Vi = incident voltage

Vr = reflected voltage

Ii = incident current

Ir = reflected current

46

Reflection of Pulses

Transmission Line

Z0 ZL

Vi Vr total voltage = Vi + Vr

= = Z0

Ii I r

total current = I i − I r

Vi + Vr

= ZL

Ii − I r

Vr Ir ZL − Z0

Γ @ or Γ=

Vi Ii Z L + Z0

47

Wave Propagation on Lines

Waves move down the line at propagation

velocity

Waves are the same at all points except

for phase

Phase changes 360 degrees in the

distance a wave travels in one period

This distance is called the wavelength

48

Standing Waves

When an incident wave reflects from a mismatched

load, an interference pattern develops

Both incident and reflected waves move at the

propagation velocity, but the interference pattern is

stationary

The interference pattern is called a set of standing

waves

It is formed by the addition of incident and reflected

waves and has nodal points that remain stationary

with time

49

Incident and Reflected Waves

50

Standing Waves

51

Standing-Wave Ratio

When line is mismatched but neither

open nor shorted, voltage varies along

line without ever falling to zero

Greater mismatch leads to greater

variation

Voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR or

SWR) is defined:

Vmax

SWR = ( ≥ 1)

Vmin

52

Z L − Z0

Standing waves Γ=

Z L + Z0

Vmax

SWR = ( ≥ 1)

Vmin

Vmax = Vi + Vr = Vi + Γ Vi

Vmin = Vi − Vr = Vi − Γ Vi

1+ Γ Z0 ZL SWR − 1

SWR = = or Γ=

1− Γ ZL Z0 SWR + 1

53

SWR and Reflection Coefficient

SWR is a positive real number

Γ may be positive, negative or complex

SWR ≥ 1

Magnitude of Γ ≤ 1

54

Standing waves on an Open Line

55

Standing waves on an Shorted Line

56

Effects of High SWR

the line that can damage the line or

connected equipment such as a

transmitter

Current peaks due to high SWR cause

losses to increase

57

Reflected Power

power reflects from the load

This power is dissipated in the source, if the source

matches the line

A high SWR causes the load power to be reduced

58

SWR − 1

Γ=

Reflected Power SWR + 1

Pr = Γ Pi

2

PL = Pi (1 − Γ )2

4 SWR

PL = Pi

(1 + SWR ) 2

Pr = reflected power

Pi = incident power

PL = power delivered to load

59

Time-Domain Reflectometry

Reflecto

meter transmission line

reflection

v ⋅t

d=

2

60

General Input Impedance Equation

Input impedance of a transmissionline at a

distance L from the load impedance ZL with a

characteristic Zo is

Zinput = Zo [(ZL + j Zo BL)

(Zo + j ZL BL)]

where B is called phase constant or

wavelength constant and is defined by the

equation

B = 2

61

Half and Quarter wave transmission lines

The relationship of the input impedance at the

input of the half-wave transmission line with its

terminating impedance is got by letting L =

in the impedance equation.

Zinput = ZL

The relationship of the input impedance at the

input of the quarter-wave transmission line with

its terminating impedance is got by letting L =

in the impedance equation.

Zinput = √(Zinput Zoutput )

62

Effect of Lossy line on V and I waves

The effect of resistance in a transmission line is to

continuously reduce the amplitude of both incident and

reflected voltage and current waves.

Skin Effect: As frequency increases, depth of

penetration into adjacent conductive surfaces decreases

for boundary currents associated with electromagnetic

waves, that results in the confinement of the voltage and

current waves at the boundary of the transmission line,

thus making the transmission more lossy.

Skin depth (m) = 1 √ f

where f = frequency, Hz = permeability, H/m

= conductivity, S/m

63

Smith chart

Forcomplex transmission line problems, the use of the

formulae becomes increasingly difficult and

inconvenient. An indispensable graphical method of

solution is the use of Smith Chart.

64

Components of a Smith Chart

Horizontal line: The horizontal line running through

the center of the Smith chart represents either the

resistive or the conductive component. Zero

resistance is located on the left end and infinite

resistance is located on the right end of the line.

Circles of constant resistance and conductance:

Circles of constant resistance are drawn on the Smith

chart tangent to the right-hand side of the chart and

its intersection with the centerline. These circles of

constant resistance are used to locate complex

impedances.

Lines of constant reactance: Lines of constant

reactance are shown on the Smith chart with curves

that start from a given reactance value on the outer

circle and end at the right-hand side of the center line.

65

Type of Microwave problems that Smith

chart can be used

1. Plotting a complex impedance on a Smith chart

2. Finding VSWR for a given load

3. Finding the admittance for a given impedance

4. Finding the input impedance of a transmission line terminated in a

short or open.

5. Finding the input impedance at any distance from a load ZL.

6. Locating the first maximum and minimum from any load

7. Matching a transmission line to a load with a single series stub.

8. Matching a transmission line with a single parallel stub

9. Matching a transmission line to a load with two parallel stubs.

66

Plotting a Complex Impedance on a

Smith Chart

To locate a complex impedance, Z = R+-jX or

admittance Y = G +- jB on a Smith chart,

normalize the real and imaginary part of the

complex impedance. Locating the value of the

normalized real term on the horizontal line scale

locates the resistance circle. Locating the

normalized value of the imaginary term on the

outer circle locates the curve of constant

reactance. The intersection of the circle and the

curve locates the complex impedance on the

Smith chart.

67

Finding the VSWR for a given

load

Normalize the load and plot its location on

the Smith chart.

Draw a circle with a radius equal to the

distance between the 1.0 point and the

location of the normalized load and the

center of the Smith chart as the center.

The intersection of the right-hand side of

the circle with the horizontal resistance

line locates the value of the VSWR.

68

Finding the Input Impedance at any

Distance from the Load

The load impedance is first normalized and is

located on the Smith chart.

The VSWR circle is drawn for the load.

A line is drawn from the 1.0 point through the

load to the outer wavelength scale.

To locate the input impedance on a Smith

chart of the transmission line at any given

distance from the load, advance in clockwise

direction from the located point, a distance in

wavelength equal to the distance to the new

location on the transmission line.

69

Power Loss

Return Power Loss: When an electromagnetic

wave travels down a transmission line and

encounters a mismatched load or a discontinuity

in the line, part of the incident power is reflected

back down the line. The return loss is defined as:

Preturn = 10 log10 Pi/Pr

Preturn = 20 log10 1/

Mismatch Power Loss: The term mismatch loss

is used to describe the loss caused by the

reflection due to a mismatched line. It is defined

as

Pmismatch = 10 log10 Pi/(Pi - Pr)

70

Notes:

Metallic circuit current – currents that flow in

opposite directions in a balanced wire pair

Longitudinal current – currents that flow in the

same direction

Common Mode Rejection (CMR) – cancellation

of common mode signals or noise interference

induced equally on both wires producing

longitudinal currents that cancel in the load

CMRR = 40 to 70 dB

71

Notes:

Primary electrical constants – R, L, C, G

Secondary constants – Zo, Propagation

Constant

For maximum power transfer, Z = Zo, thus no

L

reflection

Characteristic impedance = Surge impedance

Transmission line stores energy in its

distributed inductance and capacitance

72

Notes:

Transmission lines:

The input impedance of an infinitely long line at radio

frequencies is resistive and equal to Zo

Nonresonant – when electromagnetic waves travel

the line without reflections

Ratio of voltage to current at any point is equal to Zo

Incident voltage and current at any point are in phase

Line losses on a non-resonant line are minimum per

unit length

Any transmission line that is terminated in a load

equals to Zo acts as if it were an infinite line.

Prop. Cons. = attenuation coeff. + phase shift coeff.

γ = α + jβ

73

Notes:

Material Velocity Factor

air 0.95 – 0.975

rubber 0.56 – 0.65

polyethylene 0.66

teflon 0.70

teflon foam 0.82

teflon pins 0.81

teflon spiral 0.81

74

Notes:

Material Dielectric Constant

Vacuum 1

Air 1.0006

Teflon 2.1

polyethylene 2.27

polystyrene 2.5

paper, paraffined 2.5

rubber 3.0

PVC 3.3

Mica 5.0

Glass 7.5

75

Notes:

Velocity factor (Velocity constant) = actual vel. Of prop.

vel. In free space

Vf = Vp / c

Electrical length of transmission line

Long – length exceeds λ/16

introduce a time delay in the path of an electromagnetic

wave

td = LC (seconds)

td = 1.016 Є

76

Notes:

The disadvantages of not having a matched line:

100 percent of the source incident power does not

reach the load

The dielectric separating the two conductors can

break down and cause corona due to high VSWR

Reflections and rereflections cause more power loss

77

Notes:

Characteristics of transmission line terminated at open

voltage incident wave is reflected back (no phase

reversal)

current incident wave is reflected back 180 degrees

from how it would have continued

sum of the incident and reflected current waveforms

is minimum

sum of the incident and reflected voltage waveforms

is maximum

78

Notes:

Characteristics of transmission line terminated at short

voltage standing wave is reflected back 180 degrees

reversed from how it would have continued

current standing wave is reflected back the same as

if it had continued

sum of the incident and reflected current waveforms

is maximum

sum of the incident and reflected voltage waveforms

is zero at the short

79

Input Impedance

resistive and maximum

Series LC circuit,

Zin = resistive, min open resistive and minimum

short

λ/4

Input Output

end end

80

Notes:

The impedance transformation for a quarter wavelength

transmission line is:

R = Zo: quarter λ line acts 1:1 turns ratio transformer

L

RL < Zo: quarter λ line acts as a step up transformer

Characteristic Impedance of quarter wavelength X’former

Zo’ = √(ZoZL)

When a load is purely inductive oir purely capacitive, no

energy is absorbed, thus, Г = 1 and SWR = inf.

81

Notes:

Stub Matching

Stubs are used to eliminate the reactive component

to match the transmission line to the load

It is just a piece of additional transmission line that is

placed across the primary line as close to the load as

possible

Susceptance of stub is used to tune out the

susceptance of the load

Shorted stubs are preferred because open stubs

have the tendency to radiate at higher frequencies

82

Notes:

Process of Stub Matching

locate a point as close to the load as possible where

the conductive component of the input admittance is

equal to the characteristic admittance of transmission

line Yin = G – jB, G = 1 / Zo

Attach the shorted stub to the point on the

transmission line

Depending whether the reactive component at the

point is inductive or capacitive, the stub length is

adjusted

Yin = Go – jB + jBstub

Yin = Go

83

Notes:

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)

technique used to locate an impairment in the

metallic cable

How much of the transmitted signal returns depends

on the type and magnitude of the impairment

Impairment represents a discontinuity in the signal

microstrip and stripline is constructed to interconnect

components on PC boards

When the distance between source and load ends is a

few inches or less, coaxial cable is impractical

Microstrip and Stripline use the tracks on the PC board.

84

Notes:

Microstrip and Stripline are used to construct transmission lines,

inductors, capacitors, tuned circuits, filters, phase shifters, and

impedance matching devices.

Microstrip – when the lines are etched in the middle layer of the

multilayer PC board

Zo = 87 ln 5.98h__ Є fiberglass = 4.5

√(Є + 1.41) 0.8w + t Є teflon = 3

w = width of Cu trace t = thickness of Cu trace

h = thickness of dielectric

Stripline – if the lines are etched onto the surface of the PC board

only

Zo = 60 ln 4d __ d = dielectric thick

Є 0.67πw(0.8 + t/h)

85

86

87

Problems:

1. Determine the characteristic impedance for an

air dielectric two-wire parallel transmission

line with a D/r ratio = 13.5 (311.97 ohms)

2. Determine the characteristic impedance for an

RG-59A coaxial cable with parameters:

L=0.121 μH/ft, C=30 pF/ft, d=0.042 in., D=0.22

in, and Є=2.15 (63.509 ohms, 67.685 ohms)

3. For a given length of RG8A/U coaxial cable

with parameters: C=98.4 pF/m, L=262.45 nH/m,

Єr=2.15. Find Vp and Vf (1.968x108 m/s, 0.656

or 0.682)

88

Problems:

4. For a transmission line with incident voltage of

5.2V and reflected voltage of 3.8V, find

reflection coefficient and SWR (0.731, 6.429)

5. Determine the physical length and Zo for a

quarter wavelength transformer that is used to

match a section of RG8A/U (Zo=50 ohms) to a

175 ohm resistive load. The frequency of

operation is 220 MHz and the velocity factor is

1 (0.341 m, 93.54 ohms)

89

Stub Matching

Use to remove the reactive component of the complex

impedance of the load to match the transmission line to the

load

It is a piece of additional transmission line that is placed

across the primary line as close to the load as possible

The susceptance of the stub is used to tune out the

susceptance of the load

Either a shorted or open stub is used with greater preference

on the shorted stub

A transmission line that is one-half wavelength or shorter is

used to tune out the reactive component of the load

90

Stub Matching Process

1. Locate a point as close as possible to the load

where the conductive component of the Zin = Zo

Yin = G – jB where G = 1 / Zo

2. Attach the shorted stub on the identified point

3. Depending on whether the reactive component at

that point is inductive or capacitive, the stub length

is adjusted accordingly

Yin = Go – jB + jBstub

~ Yin = Go

91

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