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Department of Computer and Information Science, School of Science, IUPUI

CSCI 230

Arrays

Dale Roberts, Lecturer IUPUI droberts@cs.iupui.edu

Dale Roberts

Arrays
Array
Group of consecutive memory locations Same name and type, ex: an array of integers
Name of array (Note that all elements of this array have the same name, my_array)

To refer to an element, specify


Array name Position number of particular element in the array

My_array[0]
My_array[1] My_array[2] My_array[3] My_array[4] My_array[5] My_array[6] My_array[7] My_array[8] My_array[9]

-45
6 0 72 1543

Format:
array_name[ position number ]

First element at position 0 n element array named c:


c[ 0 ], c[ 1 ]...c[ n 1 ] Example: int my_array[12] my_array[0]= -45 value stored

-89
0 62 -3 1 6453 78

Position number must be an integer number or an My_array[10] integer expression


Example: my_array[1.5] ERROR!! my_array[i+j] valid if i and j are integers
My_array[11]

Position number of the element within array my_array

Dale Roberts

Arrays (cont.)
Array elements are like normal variables
my_array[8] = -3; printf( "%d", my_array[8]); Perform operations in subscript. If x equals 3: my_array[ 5 - 2 ] == my_array[ 3 ] == my_array[ x ]

Declaring Arrays
When declaring arrays, specify
Name Type of array Number of elements: arrayType arrayName[ numberOfElements ];
Examples:

int c[ 100 ]; /* reserve memory sufficient enough to store


100 elements of type integer */

float myArray[ 3284 ];

Dale Roberts

Arrays (cont.)
Declaring multiple arrays of same type: format similar to regular variables
Example: int b[ 100 ], x[ 27 ];

Arrays may be declared to contain other data types


Example: int a[ 100 ]; float b[ 100 ]; char c[ 100 ]; /* Strings are stored by using character arrays */ Example: #include <stdio.h> /* a simple program that uses arrays */ main( { int i, array_int[100]; for (i=0; i<100; i++) array_int[i]=0; for (i=0; i<100; i++) printf(element %d: %d\n, i, array_int[i]); }

Dale Roberts

Arrays (cont.)
Initializers
int n[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
Example: main() { int i, a[10]={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}; for (i=0; i<10; i++) printf(Element: %d\n, a[i]); }

If there are fewer initializations than elements in the array, then the remaining elements are automatically initialized to 0.
int n[5] = {0} /* All elements 0 */ int a[10] = {1, 2} /* a[2] to a[9] are initialized to zeros */ int b[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} /* syntax error */

C arrays have no bounds checking If size omitted, initializers determine it


int n[ ] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }; /* 5 initializers, therefore 5 element array */

Scalable Arrays: a better programming style


#define SIZE 10 int c[SIZE]; /* defines a symbolic constant size with value 10 */

Dale Roberts

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/* Fig. 6.8: fig06_08.c Histogram printing program */ #include <stdio.h> #define SIZE 10 int main() { int n[ SIZE ] = { 19, 3, 15, 7, 11, 9, 13, 5, 17, 1 }; int i, j; printf( "%s%13s%17s\n", "Element", "Value", "Histogram" ); for ( i = 0; i <= SIZE - 1; i++ ) { printf( "%7d%13d ", i, n[ i ]) ; for ( j = 1; j <= n[ i ]; j++ ) printf( "%c", '*' ); printf( "\n" ); } return 0; } /* print one bar */

1. Initialize array

2. Loop

3. Print
Program output
Element 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Value 19 3 15 7 11 9 13 5 17 1 Histogram ******************* *** *************** ******* *********** ********* ************* ***** ***************** *

Dale Roberts

Arrays (cont.)
Example: #include <stdio.h> #define SIZE 100 main() { int i, a[SIZE]; int sum = 0; for (i=0; i< size; i++) sum = sum + a[i]; printf(sum: %d\n, sum); }

Dale Roberts

Character Arrays
Character arrays
String is really a static array of characters, ex: first Character arrays can be initialized using string literals
char string1[] = "first";

Null character '\0' terminates strings

\0

string1 actually has 6 elements Null character (indicates string termination) It is equivalent to char string1[] = { 'f', 'i', 'r', 's', 't',
'\0' };

Can access individual characters


string1[ 3 ] is character s

Array name is address of array, so & not needed for scanf char string2[20]; & is NOT used, why?
scanf( "%s", string2 );
19 and a null character */

/* can read a string with max of size

Reads characters until whitespace (space, tab, carriage-return, newline, vertical tab) encountered Can write beyond end of array, be careful

Dale Roberts

Passing Arrays to Functions


Passing arrays
To pass an array argument to a function, specify the name of the array without any brackets
int myArray[ 24 ]; ... myFunction( myArray, 24 ); ...
Pass array name Size is also often sent as an argument

Array size usually passed to function

Arrays passed call-by-reference


the called functions can modify the element values in the callers original array Name of array is the address of first element of the array Function knows where the array is stored. Therefore, when the called function modifies array elements in its function body, it is modifying the actual elements of array in the original memory locations
main() myFunction() myArray

Dale Roberts

Passing Arrays to Functions (cont.)


Example: #include <stdio.h> main() { int a[10]; printf(a = %p \n &a[0] = %p\n, a, &a[0]); } a = FFEE &a[0] = FFEE

output:

Passing array elements


Individual elements of an array are passed by call-by-value Pass subscripted name (i.e., myArray[ 3 ]) to function
Example: compare(a[0], a[1]); will be passed by value

An array is a vector while individual elements are scalars.

Function prototype
void modifyArray( int b[], int arraySize );

Parameter names optional in prototype


int b[] could be written int [] int arraySize could be simply int

Dale Roberts

1 2 */ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ); 29 30 31 32

/* Fig. 6.13: fig06_13.c Passing arrays and individual array elements to functions #include <stdio.h> #define SIZE 5 void modifyArray( int [], int ); void modifyElement( int ); /* appears strange */

int main() { int a[ SIZE ] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }, i; printf( "Effects of passing entire array call " "by reference:\n\nThe values of the " "original array are:\n" ); for ( i = 0; i <= SIZE - 1; i++ ) printf( "%3d", a[ i ] );

Function definitions

printf( "\n" ); modifyArray( a, SIZE ); /* passed call by reference */ printf( "The values of the modified array are:\n" );

Entire arrays passed call-byreference, and can be modified

for ( i = 0; i <= SIZE - 1; i++ ) Array elements passed call-byprintf( "%3d", a[ i ] ); value, and cannot be modified printf( "\n\n\nEffects of passing array element call " "by value:\n\nThe value of a[3] is %d\n", a[ 3 ] modifyElement( a[ 3 ] ); printf( "The value of a[ 3 ] is %d\n", a[ 3 ] ); return 0; }

Pass array to a function

Pass array element to a function

Print

Dale Roberts

33 34 void modifyArray( int b[], int size ) 35 { 36 37 38 39 40 } 41 42 void modifyElement( int e ) 43 { 44 45 } printf( "Value in modifyElement is %d\n", e *= 2 ); for ( j = 0; j <= size - 1; j++ ) b[ j ] *= 2; int j;

Function definitions

Program Output

Effects of passing entire array call by reference: The values of 0 1 2 3 The values of 0 2 4 6 the original array are: 4 the modified array are: 8

Effects of passing array element call by value:

The value of a[3] is 6 Value in modifyElement is 12 The value of a[3] is 6

Dale Roberts

Multiple subscripted arrays

Multiple-Dimensional Arrays

Arrays require at least two subscripts to identify a particular element ANSI C standard allows at least 12 array subscripts
A: scalar

2D Arrays

A[0]: 1D array 1-Dimensional vector

A[0][0]: (2 subscripts) 2D array (matrix) 2-dimensional vector

Tables with rows and columns (m by n array) Like matrices: specify row, then column
Column 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Row 0 Row 1 Row 2

a[ 0 ][ 0 ] a[ 0 ][ 1 ] a[ 0 ][ 2 ] a[ 0 ][ 3 ] a[ 1 ][ 0 ] a[ 1 ][ 1 ] a[ 1 ][ 2 ] a[ 1 ][ 3 ] a[ 2 ][ 0 ] a[ 2 ][ 1 ] a[ 2 ][ 2 ] a[ 2 ][ 3 ] Column subscript Array name Row subscript

A common error is to use math matrix notation a(1,2)

Dale Roberts

Multiple-Subscripted Arrays
Initialization
1 2 4

int b[2][2] = {{ 1, 2 }, { 3, 4 } }; 3 int c[3][2] = {{ 1, 2 }, { 3, 4 }, { 5, 6 }};


1 3 5 2 4 6

Actual storage in the memory rows by rows -row-major

Initializers grouped by row in braces If not enough, unspecified elements set to zero
int b[ 2 ][ 2 ] = { { 1 }, { 3, 4 } };

Referencing elements
Specify row, then column
printf( "%d", b[ 0 ][ 1 ] );

Dale Roberts

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/* Fig. 6.22: fig06_22.c Double-subscripted array example */ #include <stdio.h> #define STUDENTS 3 #define EXAMS 4

const forces pass-by-value even though the parameter is a pointer


Initialize variables Define functions to take double scripted arrays

int minimum( const int [][ EXAMS ], int, int ); int maximum( const int [][ EXAMS ], int, int ); double average( const int [], int ); void printArray( const int [][ EXAMS ], int, int );

Each row is a particular student, each column is the int main() grades on the exam. Proper naming of the #defined { constants is important to convey meaning. int student; const int studentGrades[ STUDENTS ][ EXAMS ] = { { 77, 68, 86, 73 }, Initialize studentgrades[][] { 96, 87, 89, 78 }, { 70, 90, 86, 81 } }; printf( "The array is:\n" ); printArray( studentGrades, STUDENTS, EXAMS ); printf( "\n\nLowest grade: %d\nHighest grade: %d\n", minimum( studentGrades, STUDENTS, EXAMS ), maximum( studentGrades, STUDENTS, EXAMS ) );

Call functions minimum, maximum, and average

for ( student = 0; student <= STUDENTS - 1; student++ ) printf( "The average grade for student %d is %.2f\n", student, average( studentGrades[ student ], EXAMS ) ); return 0; }

Dale Roberts

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/* Find the minimum grade */ int minimum( const int grades[][ EXAMS ], int pupils, int tests ) { int i, j, lowGrade = 100; for ( i = 0; i <= pupils - 1; i++ ) for ( j = 0; j <= tests - 1; j++ ) if ( grades[ i ][ j ] < lowGrade ) lowGrade = grades[ i ][ j ]; return lowGrade; } /* Find the maximum grade */ int maximum( const int grades[][ EXAMS ], int pupils, int tests ) { int i, j, highGrade = 0; for ( i = 0; i <= pupils - 1; i++ ) for ( j = 0; j <= tests - 1; j++ ) if ( grades[ i ][ j ] > highGrade ) highGrade = grades[ i ][ j ]; return highGrade; }

Why is it important to initialize lowGrade to the highest possible grade, and highGrade to the lowest possible grade?

/* Determine the average grade for a particular exam */ double average( const int setOfGrades[], int tests ) {

Dale Roberts

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

int i, total = 0; for ( i = 0; i <= tests - 1; i++ ) total += setOfGrades[ i ]; return ( double ) total / tests; } /* Print the array */ void printArray( const int grades[][ EXAMS ], int pupils, int tests ) { int i, j; printf( " [0] [1] [2] [3]" );

Define function

for ( i = 0; i <= pupils - 1; i++ ) { printf( "\nstudentGrades[%d] ", i ); for ( j = 0; j <= tests - 1; j++ ) printf( "%-5d", grades[ i ][ j ] ); } } The array is:

Program Output

[0] studentGrades[0] 77 studentGrades[1] 96 studentGrades[2] 70

[1] 68 87 90

[2] 86 89 86

[3] 73 78 81

Lowest grade: 68 Highest grade: 96 The average grade for student 0 is 76.00 The average grade for student 1 is 87.50 The average grade for student 2 is 81.75

Dale Roberts

Sorting Arrays
Sorting data
Important computing application Virtually every organization must sort some data

Bubble sort (sinking sort)


Several passes through the array Successive pairs of elements are compared
If increasing order (or identical ), no change If decreasing order, elements exchanged

Repeat
Example: original: 3 4 2 6 7 pass 1: 3 2 4 6 7 pass 2: 2 3 4 6 7 Small elements "bubble" to the top

Dale Roberts

Case Study: Computing Mean, Median and Mode Using Arrays


Mean average Median number in middle of sorted list
Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 3 is the median 1 is the mode

Mode number that occurs most often


Example: 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 /* Fig. 6.16: fig06_16.c This program introduces the topic of survey data analysis. It computes the mean, median, and mode of the data */ #include <stdio.h> #define SIZE 99 void void void void void mean( const int [] ); median( int [] ); mode( int [], const int [] ) ; bubbleSort( int [] ); printArray( const int [] );

Function prototypes

int main() { int frequency[ 10 ] = { 0 };

Dale Roberts

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

int response[ { 6, 7, 8, 7, 8, 9, 6, 7, 8, 7, 8, 9, 6, 7, 8, 7, 8, 9, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 4, 4, 4, 5, 6,

SIZE ] = 9, 8, 7, 5, 9, 8, 9, 3, 9, 8, 9, 8, 7, 8, 7, 8, 9, 8, 2, 5, 3, 6, 8, 7, 2, 5, 3, 1, 6, 5,

8, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 8, 8, 7,

9, 8, 7, 7, 8, 7, 4, 9, 7, 8,

8, 9, 7, 8, 8, 7, 8, 9, 9, 2, 5, 3, 6, 4, 7, 8, 5, 6, 7 };

Initialize array

mean( response ); median( response ); mode( frequency, response ); return 0; } void mean( const int answer[] ) { int j, total = 0; printf( "%s\n%s\n%s\n", "********", " for ( j = 0; j <= SIZE - 1; j++ ) total += answer[ j ];

Call functions mean, median, and mode Define function mean


Mean", "********" );

printf( "The mean is the average value of the data\n" "items. The mean is equal to the total of\n" "all the data items divided by the number\n" "of data items ( %d ). The mean value for\n" "this run is: %d / %d = %.4f\n\n", SIZE, total, SIZE, ( double ) total / SIZE ); }

Dale Roberts

50 51 void median( int answer[] ) 52 { 53 54 55 printf( "\n%s\n%s\n%s\n%s", "********", " Median", "********", "The unsorted array of responses is" ); printArray( answer ); bubbleSort( answer ); printf( "\n\nThe sorted array is" ); printArray( answer ); printf( "\n\nThe median is element %d of\n" "the sorted %d element array.\n" "For this run the median is %d\n\n", SIZE / 2, SIZE, answer[ SIZE / 2 ] );

Define function median

56 57
58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Sort Array

Print middle element


Is this computation of the median element correct? Notice that SIZE must be add for this to be correct. Is SIZE odd?

65 } 66 67 void mode( int freq[], const int answer[] ) 68 { 69 int rating, j, h, largest = 0, modeValue = 0; 70 71 printf( "\n%s\n%s\n%s\n", 72 "********", " Mode", "********" ); 73 74 for ( rating = 1; rating <= 9; rating++ ) 75 freq[ rating ] = 0; 76 77 for ( j = 0; j <= SIZE - 1; j++ ) 78 ++freq[ answer[ j ] ]; 79

Define function mode

Notice how the subscript in freq[] is the value of an element in response[] (answer[])

Increase frequency[] depending on response[]

Dale Roberts

80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 } 102

printf( "%s%11s%19s\n\n%54s\n%54s\n\n", "Response", "Frequency", "Histogram", "1 1 2 2", "5 0 5 0

5" );

for ( rating = 1; rating <= 9; rating++ ) { printf( "%8d%11d ", rating, freq[ rating ] ); if ( freq[ rating ] > largest ) { largest = freq[ rating ]; modeValue = rating; }

for ( h = 1; h <= freq[ rating ]; h++ ) printf( "*" );


printf( "\n" ); } Print stars depending on value of frequency[]

printf( "The mode is the most frequent value.\n" "For this run the mode is %d which occurred" " %d times.\n", modeValue, largest );

Dale Roberts

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128

void bubbleSort( int a[] ) { int pass, j, hold; for ( pass = 1; pass <= SIZE - 1; pass++ ) for ( j = 0; j <= SIZE - 2; j++ ) if ( a[ hold a[ j a[ j } } void printArray( const int a[] ) { int j; for ( j = 0; j <= SIZE - 1; j++ ) { j = ] +

Define bubbleSort
Bubble sort can make the smallest values sink by scanning top to bottom using < or make the largest values float by scanning bottom to top using >.

] > a[ j + 1 ] ) { a[ j ]; Bubble sort: if elements = a[ j + 1 ]; out of order, swap them. 1 ] = hold;

Define printArray

if ( j % 20 == 0 ) printf( "\n" );
printf( "%2d", a[ j ] ); }

129 }

Dale Roberts

Program Output

******** Mean ******** The mean is the average value of the data items. The mean is equal to the total of all the data items divided by the number of data items (99). The mean value for this run is: 681 / 99 = 6.8788 ******** Median ******** The unsorted array of responses is 7 8 9 8 7 8 9 8 9 7 8 9 5 9 8 7 8 7 8 6 7 8 9 3 9 8 7 8 7 7 8 9 8 9 8 9 7 8 9 6 7 8 7 8 7 9 8 9 2 7 8 9 8 9 8 9 7 5 3 5 6 7 2 5 3 9 4 6 4 7 8 9 6 8 7 8 9 7 8 7 4 4 2 5 3 8 7 5 6 4 5 6 1 6 5 7 8 7 The sorted 1 2 2 2 3 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 array 3 3 3 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 is 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 4 7 7 8 9 4 7 7 8 9 4 7 7 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8 9 5 7 8 8

The median is element 49 of the sorted 99 element array. For this run the median is 7 ******** Mode ******** Response Frequency Histogram 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5

1 1 * 2 3 *** 3 4 **** 4 5 ***** 5 8 ******** 6 9 ********* 7 23 *********************** 8 27 *************************** 9 19 ******************* The mode is the most frequent value. For this run the mode is 8 which occurred 27 times.

Dale Roberts

Searching Arrays: Linear Search vs Binary Search


Search an array for a key value Linear search
Simple Compare each element of array with key value Useful for small and unsorted arrays

Binary search
For sorted arrays Compares middle element with key
If equal, match found If key < middle, looks in first half of array If key > middle, looks in last half Repeat

Very fast; at most n steps, where 2n > number of elements


30 element array takes at most 5 steps
25 > 30 so at most 5 steps

Dale Roberts