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Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting, heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and energy management systems, the security and safety systems...and you are left with a cold, dark, uninhabitable shell. Everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortable to be in comes under the title of 'Building Services'. A building must do what it was designed to do -not just provide shelter but also be an environment where people can live, work and achieve.

WHAT IS BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERS? Responsible for the design, installation, operation and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. Work closely with other construction professionals such as architects, structural engineers and quantity surveyors.

ELECTRICAL DESIGN SYSTEM Specialising in the design and development of electrical systems required for safe and energy sustaining operation of buildings. The electrical services installation shall comprise Electrical Supply, Electricity Centre and Main Distribution, Power Distribution Services, Lighting Services, Communication Services, Transport Services and Protective Services. The design of the Electrical Services must take into account the building form, the characteristics of the building, the occupancy trends and orientation of spaces.

The following issues shall be included in a selection matrix format for appropriate electrical systems; i. capital cost ii. running costs iii. replacement cost iv. plant space v. Controls vi. Maintenance vii. Efficiency viii. Noise ix. Appearance x. interference with user events xi. Response xii. impact on build and compatibility with natural


In every country in the world, there is a standard system known as The National Grid system used to transmit electricity to all over the country. The national grid system is the network of cables which transport electricity from the power stations to homes, factories and other places that require it.

Power Generation

Transmission Network

Transmission Main Intake Distribution Substation Consumers


Electrical power Normal, standby, and emergency power supply and distribution Lighting Interior, exterior, and emergency lighting Auxiliary Telephone, data, audio/video, sound, security systems, etc. Special systems




4. 5.

What is Building Services Engineering? Brief some Electrical Services Engineers task. What is issues to take for appropriate electrical system? Draw a electricity network block diagram. What is classification of electrical system?

Types of lamps Incandescent lamps Fluorescent lamps High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps Luminaires & lighting system Ceiling domes Close-to-ceiling Wall scones Wall scones Recessed Tracks light Emergency lighting Outdoor lighting


Types of lamps

Incandescent lamps

Uses- indoor/outdoor Energy consumption- high

Fluorescent lamps

Uses- indoor Energy consumption- low

High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps

Uses- HID lamps are the most commonly used for street lighting Energy consumption- high

Luminaires & lighting system

Ceiling domes

: bedrooms, living room Close-to-ceiling domes Install : bedrooms, living room

Wall scones -install : stair

Luminaires & lighting system

Recessed/downlight -install : bedroom, living room Tracks light

Emergency lighting - door entrance

Luminaires & lighting system

Outdoor flood light

Lightning Protection

Facts about Lightning

A strike can average 100 million volts of electricity Current of up to 100,000 amperes Can generate 54,000 oF Lightning strikes somewhere on the Earth every second

Lightning protection systems

Lightning protection systems are designed to mitigate the effects of lightning The large area is required to dissipate the high current of a lightning strike without damaging the system conductors by excess heat. lightning strikes are pulses of energy with very high frequency components, grounding systems for lighting protection tend to use short straight runs of conductors to reduce the self-inductance and skin effect.

Four Main Features of Lightning Protection

1) Air terminal 2) Conductors 3) Ground termination

4) Surge protection

Air Terminal and Conductors

Grounding Rod

Surge Protection Is A Must

DEFINITION Earthing is a connection system which connecting metal in electrical devices with the earth ground Why earthing is important? Earthing is to give protection to the user electrical shock hazard and flames when earth leakage current flow to the metal part which can conduct current.

Earthing system
Types of grounding system TN TN-S TN-C TN-C-S TT IT (generator or transformer): "T" Direct connection of a point with earth "I" No point is connected with earth (isolation), except perhaps via a high impedance. connection between earth and the electrical device being supplied: "T" Direct connection of a point with earth "N" Direct connection to neutral at the origin of installation, which is connected to the earth

TN network

one of the points in the generator or transformer is connected with earth

TN-S network

PE and N are separate conductors that are connected together only near the power source. This arrangement is the current standard for most residential and industrial electric systems particularly in Europe

TN-C network

A combined PEN conductor fulfills the functions of both a PE and an N conductor. Rarely used.

TN-C-S Network

Part of the system uses a combined PEN conductor

TT network

the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth independent of any earth connection at the generator

IT network

the electrical distribution system has no connection to earth at all, or it has only a high impedance connection. In such systems, an insulation monitoring device is used to monitor the impedance



What the differences between lightning protection system and earthing system? What is the best lighting system during daylight? Which types of earthing system used for residential in malaysia?

Coordinate With Mechanical Services

1) 2) 3)

The mechanical services installation shall comprise heating, water, gas, soils and wastes, and fire protection services. The design of the Mechanical Services must take into account the site microclimate, the building form and orientation of spaces, the thermal performance characteristics of the building, the occupancy trends and restrictions on pollutant emissions. Type of Mechanical Services Heating Cooling & air conditioning Ventilation


There are many different types of heating systems. Central heating is often used in cool climates to heat houses and public buildings. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to warm water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home or a mechanical room in a large building. The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known as hydronics. These systems also contain either duct work for forced air systems or piping to distribute a heated fluid to radiators to transfer this heat to the air. The term radiator in this context is misleading since most heat transfer from the heat exchanger is by convection, not radiation. The radiators may be mounted on walls or installed within the floor to give floor heat.

Cooling & Air Conditioning

Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. Heat can be removed through radiation, convection, or conduction. Refrigeration conduction media such as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. A refrigerant is employed either in a heat pump system in which a compressor is used to drive Free cooling systems can have very high efficiencies, and are sometimes combined with seasonal thermal energy storage so the cold of winter can be used for summer air conditioning. The heat pump is added-in because the storage acts as a heat sink when the system is in cooling (as opposed to charging) mode, causing the temperature to gradually increase during the cooling season. An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a building.


Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove any combination of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon dioxide, and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. "Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is provided by an air handler and used to control indoor air quality. Excess humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.


What is the types of Mechanical Services and brief in details it functions?


Integrated design is distinguished from conventional design by its use of a highly collaborative and multidisciplinary project team. In an integrated process, the team works as a collective to understand and develop all aspects of the design.


1. Daylighting Effective daylighting depends on basic decisions, such as siting and orientation, and architectural elements, including the size, location, spacing of apertures, and, potentially, exterior shading systems.


2. Green roofs Vegetated roofs are relatively expensive roofing systems, but they may be costeffective if they help manage stormwater. Designing a cost-effective green roof system requires input from a structural engineer to account for increased loading on the roof and to exploit the stormwater benefits


3. Exposed thermal mass Exposed concrete or other massive, conductive materials in ceilings and walls can reduce peak cooling loads, especially if they are coupled with night-flushing of the building to cool the mass.


Thinking outside the box. Creating an effective collaborative process requires clear intention and skill, Working as a team from the beginning. Integrated design is about bringing together all members of the project team to work in disciplines. The collective knowledge is far greater than the individual knowledge.


Concept that focuses on the components or elements of a structure or system and unifies them into a functional whole, according to a particular approach in achieving the objectives under the given constraints or limitations.


Architectural engineers apply engineering principles to the construction, planning, and design of buildings and other structures. Architectural engineers focus several areas, including:

the structural integrity of buildings. the design and analysis of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems. efficiency and design of plumbing, fire protection and electrical systems. acoustic and lighting planning. energy conservation issues.


Structural design is the methodical investigation of the stability and strength of structures. A structural design project may be divided into three phases :
i. ii.


Planning Design Construction

1. Planning Consideration of the various requirements and factors affecting the general layout and dimensions of the structure and results in the choice of one or perhaps several alternative types of structure, which offer the best general solution.

2. Design Defined in the planning phase and results in the determination of the most suitable proportions, dimensions and details of the structural elements and connections for constructing each alternative structural arrangement being considered.

3. Construction

During this phase, some redesign may be required if unforeseen difficulties occur, such as unavailability of specified materials or foundation problems.


What is advantages of integrated design? Give definition architectural engineering? What is three phase that have in structural design?


Electrical Plan Selection

Wiring System

Back up Genset/not

Energy saving/ not

Back Up Genset

A standby generator is a back-up electrical system that operates automatically. Within seconds of a utility outage an automatic transfer switch senses the power loss, commands the generator to start and then transfers the electrical load to the generator. The standby generator begins supplying power to the circuits. After utility power returns, the automatic transfer switch transfers the electrical load back to the utility and signals the standby generator to shut off. It then returns to standby mode where it awaits the next outage. To ensure a proper response to an outage, a standby generator runs weekly self-tests. Most units run on diesel, natural, gas or liquid propane gas.

Automatic standby generator systems may be required by building codes for critical safety systems such as elevators in high-rise buildings, fire protection systems, standby lighting, or medical and life support equipment . Residential standby generators are increasingly common, providing backup electrical power to HVAC systems, security systems, and household applicances such as refrigerators, stoves, and water heaters.

Wiring System



State electricity board provide electric supply up to a point outside the consumer premises. From this point consumer take the connection to his main board. Insulated electrical wires will be taken out to various places in the premises to supply power to different type of loads like light, fans, heater, etc. Type of wiring system : Concealed Surface Cleat wiring Wood casting wiring Batten wiring Conduit wiring Casing and capping wiring

Energy Saving

Usually lighting consumes a lot of electrical energy every day all around the world. According to the statistics, 20 to 50 percent of total energy consumed in homes and offices are used for lighting. What is surprising to us is that over 90 percent of the lighting energy expense used for some of the buildings is unnecessary due to the over-illumination. The cost of lighting can be very realistic. There are several approaches we can use to minimize lighting energy usage: Specification of illumination requirements for each given use area. Analysis of lighting quality to ensure that adverse components of lighting (for example, glare or incorrect color spectrum) are not biasing the design.

1. 2.


Integration of space planning and interior architecture (including choice of interior surfaces and room geometries) to lighting design.


Design of time of day use that does not expend unnecessary energy. Selection of fixture and lamp types that reflect best available technology for energy conservation. Training of building occupants to use lighting equipment in most efficient manner. Maintenance of lighting systems to minimize energy wastage. Use of natural light - some big box stores are being built (ca 2006 on) with numerous plastic bubble skylights, in many cases completely obviating the need for interior artificial lighting for many hours of the day. Load shedding can help reduce the power requested by individuals to the main power supply. Load shedding can be done on an individual level, at a building level, or even at a regional level.



7. 8.





What is three electrical plan that must be selected before designing the electrical system? Give an examples of wiring system. How can we minimize the lighting energy usage?


Before planning the plant room :

The Project Architect - request from consultants the range of sizes for all items of mechanical and electrical plant. The Architect - ensure that the final selection equipment will not require additional space and plant room layout at the design stage provides.

Plant rooms shall be located convenient to the most direct point of vehicular access. Located at roof top or basement level. Provision shall be made in elevated plant rooms to facilitate conveyance of equipment to ground. Access ladders shall be provided between levels within the plant room.

Should be graded to floor outlets in order to permit hosing down of floor. Floor surfaces are to be sealed against spillages and flooding by bounding . All pipework penetrations to be bounded. Shall be designed to be washed down for maintenance and cleaning. Shall provided with water taps.

Plant Room Locations

Central Plant areas shall be located so as to provide for economic distribution of services. The building design in the vicinity of the heating centre plant room shall allow for appropriate distribution zones for the primary services to and from the heating centre. The location of the electrical switch room and any substations shall be taken into account when planning the distribution of services. Plant is not to be located on roof or positioned in such a way that requires access via a roof for servicing and maintenance purposes.

Object Model for Plant Room

The plant room object model holds 3 main classes of objects representing Plant room geometry Plant room equipment Plant room pipework

Plant room geometry

Can be an orthogonal polygon with known obstructions, openings and external walls. Includes 3 classes: - Space - Door - Column

Plant room geometrical representation


The equipment is described in 4 subclasses - Boiler - Pump - Pressurization unit - Control Panel

Geometrical representation of the plant room equipment


The pipe class is defined by a set of points and a radius, r. (see Figure) Each pair of successive points defines a segment of the pipe.

Geometrical representation of a pipe with a set of four points (P1, P2, P3, P4) corresponding to two bends

Plant Room design Rules

The plant room design rules are expressed by constraints. These constraints are applied implicitly by the system. Divided into 2 categories: - Dimensional constraints - Topological constraints.

Dimensional Constraints

Dimensional constraints assign a minimal or a maximal value to the object-constraints variables. This constraints is expressed by equality or inequality, i.e. l=532

Topological Constraints
Topological constraints comprise: Inclusion constraints, i.e. all the object inside the plant room. Non-overlapping constraint between the plant room components and pipework. Adjacency constraints

Main Plant Room Strategy

Electrical Supply All new substations will generally consist of an MV switchboard, transformer and LV switchboard as existing. This will facilitate full availability and flexibility of the MV or LV supplies in connecting future adjacent buildings into the electrical infrastructure.

Main LV switch room will be provided for each building accordingly. Each new building will incorporate a generator room for a low voltage generator system to provide a standby generation standby, if required.

Plant Room Replacement Strategy

All items of plants which may require replacement are of a size that can be transported, or broken down to be transported through the plant room doors. Any broken down items will need to be rebuilt once transported within the plant room.



What is 3 main classes of objects model for plant room? What are constraints for plant room design? Give an examples for each constraints.