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Motor starters

Necessity of a starter
At starting ,the speed of the motor is zero so that the EMF in the armature is zero. Armature resistance is low; if it is connected to the power supply directly a huge current will pass through the armature. The huge current may damage the machine, produce major heat and very high speed in case of DC motors. Ia = V/R

Function of starter
Start and stop the motor. Limit starting current when necessary. Permit automatic control when required Protect motor and other connected equipments from over voltage, no voltage, under voltage, single phasing, shortcircuit, thermal overload etc.

Motor Starter Features.


Rated by current (A) or power (W) Remote ON/OFF control Motor overload protection Starting and stopping Plugging and jogging (rapid making and breaking current)

Type of starter
for DC Motor Two point starter for DC series motor Three point starter for shunt motor Four point starter for compound motor For AC Motor DOL Starter Star-Delta Auto-transformer Variable Frequency drive

Wiring Diagram of a TeSys DOL Starter:


L1 L2 L3 C/B

1 K1.2 K1.3 K1.4

1 K1.1

Start
2

TOL Stop 3 TOL 4 K1/4

M
3~

Motor Starting Characteristics on DOL Starter:

Available starting current: 100%. Peak starting current: 6 to 8 Full Load Current. Peak starting torque: 100%

Advantages of DOL Starter:


Most economical and cheapest starter Simple to establish, operate and maintain Simple Control Circuitry Easy to understand and troubleshoot. It provides 100% torque at the time of starting. Only one set of cable is required from starter to motor. Motor is connected in delta at motor terminals.

Disadvantages of DOL Starter:


It does not reduce the starting current of the motor. High Starting Current: Very High Starting Current (Typically 6 to 8 times the full load current of the motor). Mechanically Harsh: Thermal Stress on the motor, thereby reducing its life. Voltage Dip: There is a big voltage dip in the electrical installation High starting Torque: Unnecessary high starting torque, even when not required by the load.

Suitability
DOL is Suitable for: Small water pumps, compressors, fans and conveyor belts. Motor rating up to 5.5KW DOL is not suitable for: The peak starting current would result in a serious voltage drop on the supply system Motor rating above 5.5KW

Star delta starter


Most induction motors are started directly on line, but when very large motors are started that way, they cause a disturbance of voltage on the supply lines due to large starting current surges. To limit the starting current surge, large induction motors are started at reduced voltage and then have full supply voltage reconnected when they run up to near rotated speed.

Star-Delta Connection in a motor

L1

L2 L3

Star delta power circuit

C/B

K2.1 K2.3

K2.4

S1

K2.1

TOL

S2

K3.1

A1

B1

C1 K4.1 K4.2 K4.3


B2

K3.1 K1/3

TOL K2/4 K3/2 K4/3

M M 3~ 3~
C2 A2

Start K1.1 K1.2 K1.3

Line

Timer

Delta

Star delta control circuit

Motor Starting Characteristics of Star-Delta Starter:

Available starting current: 33% Full Load Current. Peak starting current: 1.3 to 2.6 Full Load Current. Peak starting torque: 33% Full Load Torque.

Current/torque star-delta characteristics

Star-delta starting should be used for motors starting on no-load or having a low load torque and gradual build-up; The starting torque in star connection is reduced to one third of the direct starting torque, i.e. about 50% of the rated torque;

Advantages of Star-Delta starter:


The operation of the star-delta method is simple and rugged It is relatively cheap compared to other reduced voltage methods. Good Torque/Current Performance. It draws approximately 2 times the starting current of the full load current of the motor connected

Disadvantages of Star-Delta starter:


Low Starting Torque, only 33% starting torque Break In Supply Possible Transients Six Terminal Motor Required (Delta Connected). It requires 2 set of cables from starter to motor. The star of motor is formed in starter and not on motor terminals. Applications with a load torque higher than 50 % of the motor rated torque will not be able to start using the startdelta starter. Low Starting Torque: reduction of the line voltage by a factor of 1/3 (57.7%) to the motor and the current is reduced to 1/3 of the current at full voltage, but the starting torque is also reduced 1/3 to 1/5 of the DOL starting torque .

Difference between DOL/Star delta


Sr. 1 2 DOL Starter Used up to 5.5 KW Does not decrease the starting current Star delta starter Used up to 15 KW Decreases the starting current by 1/3 times

3 4

It is cheap It connects directly the motor with supply for starting as well as for running

It is costly It connects the motor in star at the time of starting and in delta for running

TeSys model U standard

TeSys model U advanced

TeSys model U multifunction

Integral Self-protected Motor Controllers

THANK YOU For your attention!!!