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SHRINKAGE CONTROL

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL
A reduction in the length or width of a fiber, yarn or fabric is known as shrinkage. Growth occurs when a fabric increases in dimension. If fabrics shrink after they have been made into garments or household items, they may decrease in size to such an extent that the item is no longer serviceable.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL
Some fibers like wool, cotton and rayon swell more in water than others. So their fabrics are less dimensional stable than others. Shrinkage occurs when tensions are released by moisture and heat, as in laundering or steam pressing. Predicting lengthwise and crosswise shrinkage is difficult.

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SHRINKAGE CONTROL
Many factors contribute to shrinkage: (1) Fiber type (2) Blend level (3) Yarn process (4) Fabrication type (5) Number and type of finishing processes

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SHRINKAGE CONTROL
There are two major type of shrinkages: (a)Relaxation shrinkage (b)Progressive shrinkage Relaxation shrinkage occurs because the fibers and yarns are under considerable tension when the fabrics are made. It occurs only once, the first time the fabric is laundered or dry cleaned.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur

4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL
Progressive shrinkage occurs each time a fabric is laundered. Unlike relaxation shrinkage, which occurs just once , progressive shrinkage continues and the fabric shrinks a bit more with each laundering. Of the major fibers, only wool (felting) and viscose rayon are subject to progressive shrinkage.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL
Woven fabrics generally shrink more in the warp than in the filling direction because the warp yarns are under greater tension during weaving. Knit goods tend to stretch more during manufacture and the loops are more easily distorted than woven fabrics. So the knitted fabrics are likely to shrink and change shape even more than woven fabrics.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE
Also called Sanforization. More complete shrinkage control can be obtained by a method called compressive shrinkage, in which the fabric is mechanically reduced to its correct warp dimensions. A sample of fabric is measured, laundered, then remeasured and the percentage of warp shrinkage calculated. This is done to estimate the amount of compression to be given.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE
The fabric is then dampened and placed on a machine equipped with a continuous thick woolen or rubber blanket. The blanket travels around a small roller and its outer surface is stretched, as it does so. The fabric is fed onto the surface of the blanket at this point and is held against the blanket surface.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE
As the blanket leaves the roller, its surface contracts, and the fabric on its surface is forced to contract with it. Heat is applied at this point for drying and maintaining the new dimensions. The amount of compression applied can be adjusted by the thickness of the blanket or the diameter of the roller.

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COMPRESSIVE SHRINKAGE
1. 2. 3. 4. Fabric Felt blanket Hot Metal roller Big cylinder

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SHRINKAGE CONTROL FOR KNITS


During knitting and finishing, knit fabrics are subject to tension and stretching, especially in lengthwise direction. The construction of most knits allows for greater stretch, so they have greater potential shrinkage. The shrinkage may be particularly pronounced in lengthwise direction, often accompanied by growth in the crosswise direction.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL FOR KNITS


Knitted fabrics are treated with resincontaining solutions, wetted, then dried to relax tensions applied during processing and compressive shrinkage processes are applied, similar to woven fabrics. Excellent results can be obtained by wetting fabrics to at least 40 % humidity and drying them.

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SHRINKAGE CONTROL FOR KNITS

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SHRINKAGE CONTROL FOR KNITS


Synthetic knits are stabilized by heat setting. Without this treatment, fabrics may shrink.

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SHRINKAGE CONTROL FOR WOOL


Shrinkage treatments for wool are of two types: (1)Simple mechanical treatments (2)Chemical treatments Mechanical treatments include: (a) Damp/Steam relaxing

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

DAMP RELAXING
Also called London shrinking or Sponging. Used for fine worsteds, but not for woolens. A wet wool or cotton blanket is placed on a long platform. A layer of fabric is spread on it and alternate layers of blanket and fabric are built up. Weight is placed on the top for about 12 hours to force the moisture from the blankets into the wool.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

DAMP RELAXING
The fabric is hung to dry naturally. When dry, the fabric is layered with special pressboards. Preheated metal plates are inserted at intervals and on the top and bottom of the stack. This setup of fabric , boards and plates is kept under 3000 pounds of pressure for 10 to 12 hours.

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DAMP RELAXING

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CHEMICAL TREATMENTS
To prevent felting shrinkage, a finish must alter the scale structure and reduce the differential-friction effect that prevents wool fibers from returning to their original position in the fabric. Chemical treatments include: (1) Surface coating (2) Halogenation

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

SURFACE COATING
A very thin, microscopic film of a polyamide solution is surface coated on the fibers. It enables the fibers to move back and forth without entangling. It also minimizes pilling and fuzzing, gives the fabric better wash and wear properties and increases resistance to abrasion.

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HALOGENATION
Also called Degradative process. Most common degradative processes use chlorine gas or liquid chlorine compound for wool fibers. Partially dissolve the edges of wool fiber scales. Decreases tendency to catch on each other and reduces felting.

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HALOGENATION
Weakens or seriously damage the cortex of the fiber. Texture becomes rough and harsh. Fibers subjected to chlorination, often blended with other manufactured fibers, lead to uneven dyeing.

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HEAT SETTING
Fabrics and garments made from thermoplastic fibers may be stabilized through heat setting. Synthetics can be permanently set into shape by subjecting them to heat near their glass transition temperature. The heat allows the molecules to relax so the fiber will not exhibit further shrinkage.

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HEAT SETTING
Polyester and nylon fabrics are heat-set at 350-4000F for 20-60 seconds. Not effective on cotton or rayon. Used to establish permanent dimensions for synthetics. Synthetic knits are relatively free from shrinkage problems during laundering if they are properly heat-set.

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DFT,NIFT-Kannur 4/7/2014

HEAT SETTING
They may undergo thermal shrinkage when subjected to high heat. Uneven heat setting causes the fabric to dry unevenly and therefore to be subjected to even heat setting. Differential dyeing, bow-bias and yellowing can result. May cause shade variation from side-to-side if done prior to dyeing. May cause variations in shrinkage.