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Orientation and Employee Training

HRM 301 Sec: 1 & 2 Kamrul Hassan

Orientation : The introduction of new employees to the organization, work unit and job. Organizational Orientation: General orientation that presents topics of relevance and interest to all employees.

Departmental and Job Orientation: Specific orientation that describes topics unique to the new employees specific department and job. Orientation Kit: A supplemental packet of written information for new employees.

Training Employees
Training: A learning process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules or attitudes to enhance employee performance.
Need Assessment: A systematic analysis of the specific training activities the organization requires to achieve its objectives.

Need Assessment
In general, five methods can be used to gather information for need assessment: interviews, surveys / questionnaires, observations, focus groups and document examination. Basic questions that should usually be asked are as follows: 1. What problems are the employee having in his or her job? 2. What additional skills and/or knowledge does the employee need to better perform the job? 3. What training does the employee believe is needed?

Methods of Training
On-the-Job Training: Training that shows the employee how to perform the job and allows him or her to do it under the trainers supervision. Job Rotation: Training that requires an individual to learn several different jobs in a work unit or department and perform each job for a specified time period.

Methods of Training
Apprenticeship Training: Giving instruction, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work required in a highly skilled occupation. Classroom training: The most familiar training method; useful for quickly imparting information to large groups with little or no knowledge of the subject.

Evaluating Training
When the results of a training program are evaluated, a number of benefits accrue. Less effective programs can be withdrawn to save time and effort. Evaluation of training can be broken down into 4 areas: 1. Reaction: How much did the trainees like the program? 2. Learning: What principles, facts and concepts were learned in the training program?

Evaluating Training
3. Behavior: Did the job behavior of the trainees change because of the program? 4. Results: What were the results of the program in terms of factor such as reduced costs or reduction in turnover? Even when great care is taken in designing evaluation procedures, it is difficult to determine the exact effects of training on learning, behavior and results. Because of this, evaluation of training is still limited and often superficial.

Evaluating Training
Reaction Evaluation : Reaction evaluation should consider a wide range of topics, including program content, program structure and format, instructional techniques, instructor abilities and style, the quality of learning environment, the extent to which training objectives were achieved and recommendations for improvement.

Evaluating Training
Learning Evaluation : Learning evaluation concerns how well the trainees understood and absorbed the principles, facts and skills taught. In the teaching of skills, classroom demonstrations by trainees are a fairly objective way to determine how much learning is occurring. Where principles and facts are being taught, paper and pencil tests can be used.

Evaluating Training
Behavior Evaluation: Behavior Evaluation deals with the nature of the change in job behavior of the trainee and is much more difficult than reaction or learning evaluation. The following guidelines are offered for evaluating behavioral change: 1. A systematic appraisal should be made of o-thejob performance on a before and after basis.

Evaluating Training
2. The appraisal of performance should be made by one of the following groups (the more the better): a) The trainee. b) The trainees superior/s. c) The trainees subordinates. d) The trainees peers and other people thoroughly familiar with his or her performance.

Evaluating Training
3. A statistical analysis should be made to compare performance before and after training and to relate changes to the training program. 4. The post training appraisal should be made several months after the training so that trainees have an opportunity to put what they have learned into practice. 5. A control group (one not receiving the training) should be used.

Evaluating Training
Results Evaluation: Results evaluation attempts to measure changes in variables such as reduced turnover, reduced costs, improved efficiency, reduction in grievances and increases in quantity and quality of production. As with behavior evaluation, pretests, posttests, and control groups are required in performing an accurate results evaluation.