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OFDM

based Systems and related Multiple Access Schemes


Antalya, July 2005
Hermann Rohlin
!echnical "ni#ersity o$ Hambur %Harbur Department o$ !elecommunications &i'endor$er Stra'e (0 D%2)0*+ Hambur

Department for Telecommunications

Ultrasound 0roadband Mobile ,ommunications Ultrasound Sel$%Or ani1in 2ireless -et.or/s


1 10 01 11 1 01 01 01 01

Ultrasound ,ellular -et.or/s Cellular Networks

10

11

Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg

TUHH
Automoti#e Radar

Department of Telecommunications Prof. Dr. rer. nat. H. Rohling


Ultrasound Multi Sensor Systems

"ltrasound

O#er#ie.
Re3uirements o$ (4 Systems !he 0roadband Radio ,hannel OFDM 0asics OFDM System 0uildin 0loc/s Modulation5 ,oherent, 6ncoherent, Adapti#e ,hannel &stimation5 7ilot%based, 0lind ,hannel ,odin Synchronisation OFDM $or Multi%"ser ,ommunications OFDM System Desi n and 7er$ormance Ad#anced OFDM !echni3ues Joint 8ayer Optimi1ation M6MO ,ellular &n#ironment5 Synchronisation, Radio Resource Mana ement

Department for Telecommunications

&#olution o$ Mobile ,ommunications

(4 +4 24
Research

!oday

);;) );@2 Deployment );@) );;0

2002

)4

);=;

);*0

);@0

);;0 Data Rate 9 +00 bps ;<=/ > =(/bps =(/bps % 2Mbps 2M % 20Mbps

2000

20)0 Systems

!echni3u e )4 24 +4 (4 Analo ue Di ital ,DMA ???

AM7S, -M!, : 4SM, 7D,, 6S%;5, : 2%,DMA, !D%,DMA, : ?


5

Department for Telecommunications

Re3uirements $or Future Systems

Mobility

vehicular

4th
pedestrian

eneration

3rd eneration !"#T$2%%%&

'ireless ()*
stationary 0<) ) )0 )00

Data rate AMbpsB

Department for Telecommunications

7ac/et%based Data Streams


circuit data pac/et data

Department for Telecommunications

4eneral Re3uirements on Future Systems

Hi h spectral e$$iciency Support o$ hi h user mobility Hi h $leCibility to deal .ith a broad ran e o$ user and tra$$ic scenarios React to chan in transmission en#ironments by a hi h adapti#ity

Department for Telecommunications

!he 0roadband Radio ,hannel

Department for Telecommunications

Multipath 7ropa ation D7o.er Delay 7ro$ileE

7ropa ation paths


+ , + 2 , 2

), )

Recei/er

h!t& 0d12

ma3

Transmitter

Department for Telecommunications

.%

!he 8inear !ime%6n#ariant D8!6E Radio ,hannel


0eha#iour o$ multipath propa ation .ith no mo#ement is characteri1ed by a 8!6%system in the e3ui#alent lo.pass domain5

sT (t )

Radio 4hannel

hT ( )

rT (t ) rT (t ) = sT ( ) hT ( t ) d

!he channel impulse response is i#en by

hT ( ) = hT ,l ( l )
l =1
L

H T ( f ) = hT ,l e j 2f l
l =1

HT(f) denotes the channel trans$er $unction


..

Department for Telecommunications

-arro.band ,hannel
Symbol duration !S is much lar er than the maCimum channel tap delay5
hT ( t )

TS >> max
H T ( f ) const

t %

max

for

B 5ith B 1 TS 2
HT ( f )

,hannel trans$er $unction is assumed to be constant o#er the si nal band.idth 0

-o $re3uency%selecti#e $adin F -o 6nter Symbol 6nter$erence D6S6EF

Department for Telecommunications

.2

0roadband ,hannel
Symbol duration !S is much smaller than the maCimum channel tap delay

TS << max
,hannel trans$er $unction HT(f) $luctuates o#er si nal band.idth 0
B

HT ( f )

Fre3uency%selecti#e $adin , 6S6 occursF

Guasi time%in#ariance durin a small time inter#al D H coherence time TCE

Department for Telecommunications

.3

Fre3uency Selecti#ity 6S6

10

6re7uenc8 9electi/it8
max = TS = 1s

"nter 98m:ol "nterference


h ( ) 0dB

|H(f)| / dB

-10 -20 -30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

30dB

TS

2TS 3TS 4TS 5TS

10

max = 5 TS = 5s

f / MHz

h ( ) 0dB

|H(f)| / dB

-10 -20 -30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

30dB

TS

2TS 3TS 4TS 5TS

f / MHz

Department for Telecommunications

.4

"ser Mobility DDoppler 7ro$ileE


8ine%o$%si ht path 6ndependent propa ation paths

# An le o$ incident

Mobile .ith omni% directional antenna

Doppler pro$ile

JJa/es Doppler 7ro$ileK


%$D,maC I$D,maC

Fre3uency

Department for Telecommunications

.5

!he !ime%Lariant Radio ,hannel


0eha#iour o$ multipath propa ation .ith mo#ement is characteri1ed by a linear time%#ariant system in the e3ui#alent lo.pass domain5

sT (t )

Radio 4hannel

hT ( , t )

rT (t ) rT (t ) =

s ( t ) h ( , t ) d
T T

!he time%#ariant channel impulse response is i#en by

hT ( , t ) = hT ,l ( t ) ( l )
l =1
L

H T ( f , t ) = hT ,l ( t ) e j 2 f l
l =1

HT(f,t) denotes the time%#ariant channel trans$er $unction


.6

Department for Telecommunications

!ime%Lariant !rans$er Function

,hannel 7arameters 0 M 20 MH1 -on 8ine%o$%Si ht D-8OSE &Cp< 7o.er Delay 7ro$ile maC M 0<@ ms Ja/es Doppler 7ro$ile $D,maC M )5 H1 + /mNh O 5<5 4H1

Department for Telecommunications

.+

Ho. 0road is 0roadband ?


PHD$EP

%0N2

Fre3uency

0N 2

!he samplin time o$ a broadband system T=1/B is much smaller than the maCimum multipath delay o$ the channel max

1/B << max


!he channel trans$er $unction |H(f | $luctuates o#er the system band.idth B Fre3uency selecti#e $adin 6nter symbol inter$erences D6S6E
Department for Telecommunications .,

OFDM 0asics

Department for Telecommunications

.-

Sin le%,arrier !ransmission .ith increasin Data Rates


&Cample )5 Data Rate M ;0 /bps 07SQ, 0and.idth M ;0 /H1
Data .

ma3 ; .% s h!t&

Data 2

Data 3

Data 4 98m:ol Duration

6S6 e$$ects ;0R o$ a sin le Symbol &asy to e3uali1eF h!t&

ma3

&Cample 25 Data Rate M ) Mbps 07SQ, 0and.idth M ) MH1


D. D2 D3 D4

ma3

6S6 e$$ects )0 adSacent SymbolsF &3uali1ation becomes #ery compleCF


2%

Department for Telecommunications

Multi%,arrier !ransmission5 0asic 6dea


0and.idth is splitted in N narro.band subchannels
&Cample5 Splittin o$ a broadband channel into NM+2 subchannels

H( f )
+ 10dB
0dB

=narro5:and> su:channel

10dB 20dB
30dB

<ach su:carrier is $lat $aded. 4hannel influence can :e descri:ed :8 a compleC #alued $actor for each su:carrier
2.

Department for Telecommunications

Multi%,arrier !ransmission5 Ad#anta e


s!t& T h!t&

t ma3 Serial !ransmission DSin le ,arrierE5 MaCimum multipath delay max TT Symbol duration TSC 6nter%Symbol 6nter$erences D6S6E ,ompleC time domain e3uali1er 7arallel !ransmission DMulti%,arrierE5 MaCimum multipath delay max 99 Symbol duration T!"#$ -o 6nter%Symbol 6nter$erences D6S6E Simple $re3uency domain e3uali1er
Department for Telecommunications 22

Multi%,arrier !ransmission5 ,omparison


Data Rate5 )0 M0itNs 07SQ transmission 0and.idth 0M)0 MH1 Multipath channel .ith maCimum delay maC M )0 s Sin le%,arrier Symbol duration depends directly on system band.idth5 TS, M 0<) s M maC N)00 6S6 eCtends o#er )00 symbolsF OFDM 8ar e -umber o$ Subcarriers5 N M )000 OFDM symbol duration5 TOFDM = TS, N = )0 maC Re3uired uard inter#al5 T4uard maC = 0<) TOFDM 6S6 $ree transmissionF

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23

OFDM
Ortho onal Fre3uency Di#ision MultipleCin
Department for Telecommunications 24

OFDM !ransmission !echni3ue


S n (f)

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25

OFDM !ransmission !echni3ue % !ransmitter


!ime%continuous si nal o$ the ith OFDM bloc/

1 si ( t ) = N

S
k =0

N 1

i ,k

j 2 k ft

t iTs ,mc rect T s , mc

!ime%discrete si nal o$ the ith OFDM bloc/

1 si ,n = si ( n t ) = N

S
k =0

N 1

i ,k

j 2 nk f t

5ith f t =

1 Ts ,mc 1 = Ts ,mc N N

si ,n

1 = N

S
k =0

N 1

i ,k

j 2

nk N

!"D6T&

Department for Telecommunications

26

OFDM !ransmission !echni3ue % ,hannel


6n$luence o$ the linear time%DinE#ariant radio channel !ransmitted si nal5

si ,n =

1 N

S
k =0

N 1

i ,k

j 2

nk N

8inear ,hannel ortho onal subcarriers ortho onal subcarriers


P HD$ EP Fre3uency

Recei#ed si nal5
linear operations <igenfunctions of the channel 9u:carrier$5ise 4hannel Transfer 6actors

1 ri ,n = N

S
k =0

N 1

i ,k

H i ,k e

j 2

nk N

Department for Telecommunications

2+

OFDM !ransmission !echni3ue % Recei#er


Recei#ed time%continuous si nal o$ the ith OFDM bloc/ !ime%Domain5 Fre3uency%Domain5

ri ( t ) = si (t ) hi (t ) + ni (t ) Ri ( f ) = Si ( f ) H i ( f ) + N i ( f )
ri ( t )

Demodulator

Ri ( f )
66T

98nchronisation

Recei#ed time%discrete si nal o$ the ith OFDM bloc/ !ime%Domain5 Fre3uency%Domain5

ri ,n = si ,n hi ,n + ni ,n
Ri ,n = Si ,n H i ,n + N i ,n
2,

Department for Telecommunications

2hy 4uard 6nter#al?


!ime Data ) Data 2 Data 2 Data 2 FF! .indo. Data ) Data 2 Data + 7ath P Data + Data + Data + 7ath 1 7ath 2 7ath 3

2ithout 4uard 6nter#al

Data ) Data )

%
!ime 46 Data ) 46 46 Data ) Data ) FF! .indo. 46 Data ) 46 Data 2 46 7ath P 46 46 46 Data 2 Data 2 Data 2 46 46 46 7ath 1 7ath 2 7ath 3

2ith 4uard 6nter#al

%
2-

Department for Telecommunications

OFDM Spectrum
Subcarrier spacin $

OFDM Spectrum

Fre3uency

?$2 ?$.

?@. ?@2

sin[T ( f kf ) ] Gk ( f ) = T [T ( f kf ) ]
Department for Telecommunications 3%

OFDM Spectrum

.% Spectral 7o.er Density Ad0B %

$.% $2%

$3%

$4% $.%%

$5%

5% .%% $ N $

.5%

2%%

Department for Telecommunications

3.

Sin le%,arrier #s< Multi%,arrier Systems

Di ital Radio Mondial

#a3. #ulti$Path Dela8

CDS8

#ulti$4arrier
DL0%! (4 28A-

9ingle$4arrier

Data Rate !98stem 1and5idth&

Department for Telecommunications

32

OFDM 0ased Systems 2ireless


1roadcastA Digital )udio 1roadcasting !D)1& Digital Bideo 1roadcasting !DB1$T& Digital Radio #ondial !DR#& Terrestrial repeaters for U.9. satellite Digital )udio Radio 9er/ice !9D)R9& C 4ommunicationsA H"P<R()*D2 "<<< ,%2...a "<<< ,%2..6 Home R6 :

2ireline

4ommunicationsA Digital 9u:scri:er (ine !3D9(& Po5er (ine 4ommunications !P(4& 4a:le TB *et5or? !4)TB D ##D9& :

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33

OFDM System Structure

Department for Telecommunications

34

OFDM System Structure


Transmitter
1itstream 4hannel 4oding Puncturing "nterlea/ing #odulation #apping Sn.0 P in/erse 66T 9 Sn.K-1 Pilot s8m:ols 4hannel sn,m uardint. D ) en(t)

Receiver

4hannel <stim ation <7ualisation

Rn.0 De$ mapping Demodu$ lation Rn.K-1 66T 9 P rn,m 'indo5

)' *

@ rn(t)

1itstream Biter:i decoding

Depunct. Deinterl.

98nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

35

Di ital Modulation Schemes


Transmitter
1itstream 4hannel 4oding Puncturing "nterlea/ing #odulation #apping Sn.0 P in/erse 66T 9 Sn.K-1 Pilot s8m:ols 4hannel sn,m uardint. D ) en(t)

Receiver

4hannel <stimation <7ualisation

Rn.0 De$ mapping Demodu$ lation Rn.K-1 66T 9 P rn,m 'indo5

)' *

@ rn(t)

1itstream Biter:i decoding

Depunct. Deinterl.

98nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

36

Representation in Si nal Space

,onstellation dia ram

Im{ sT }
.%.. .%.% %%.% %%.. .%%. .%%% %%%% %%%. ..%. ..%% %.%% %.%. .... ...% %..% %...

Real part DUinphase componentJE and ima inary part DU3uadrature componentJE o$ the baseband si nal can be depicted in one t.o%dimensional dia ram

Re{ sT }

,onstellation dia ram

Modulation symbols usually plotted as $iCed points in dia ram ,onstellation dia ram is #ery con#enient $or representation o$ linear modulation schemes

Department for Telecommunications

3+

Amplitude Shi$t Qeyin DASQE


s( t )
0 TS

0andpass si nal
.% .. %. %% ..

&Cample5 (%ASQ

sT ( t ) =
n

p( t nTS )

t 1 p( t ) = re t T 2 S

0aseband si nal sTr ( t )


0

,onstellation dia ram

sTi
t
%% %. .. .% Tr

sTi ( t )
0

Department for Telecommunications

3,

7hase Shi$t Qeyin D7SQE


s( t )
0 TS

0andpass si nal
.% .. %. %% ..

&Cample5 G7SQ

sT ( t ) =
n

p( t nTS )

t 1 p( t ) = re t T 2 S

0aseband si nal sTr ( t )


1 0 -1

,onstellation dia ram

sTi
.%

t
t

%% %.

..

sTr

sTi ( t )

1 0 -1

-1

Department for Telecommunications

3-

Amplitude and 7hase Shi$t Qeyin DA7SQE


s( t )
0

0andpass si nal
.%. %.. ... %%. .%%

&Cample5 @%A7SQ

sT ( t ) =
t
n

p( t nTS )

t 1 p( t ) = re t T 2 S

TS
0aseband si nal sTr ( t )
0

,onstellation dia ram

sTi
..% %.% .%% %%% %.. ... Tr %%.

sTi ( t )
0

t
t

.%.

Department for Telecommunications

4%

,oherent Modulation
Recei#ed symbol on subcarrier k 5

Rn ,k = H n ,k Sn ,k + N n ,k

!he e3uali1ation re3uires only a simple compleC multiplication .ith the in#erse channel trans$er $actor5

c n ,k

Rn ,k N n ,k = = S n ,k + ! ! n ,k H n ,k H

! = dec{! c } S n ,k n ,k

,hannel trans$er $actors ha#e to be estimated F

Department for Telecommunications

4.

Di$$erential Modulation

Di$$erential modulation in time direction5

S n , k = S n 1 , k # n , k

M%D7SQ si nal constellation5

Bn,k = $e j 2i % " # i = 0, , " 1"


Rn ,k S B H n ,k + N n ,k = n 1,k n ,k Rn 1,k S n 1,k H n 1,k + N n 1,k

nc 6ncoherent demodulation5 !n ,k =

! = &e { ! nc } B n ,k n ,k

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42

Di$$erential Modulation5 &Cample @%D7SQ

Department for Telecommunications

43

Di$$erential Modulation in OFDM Systems


!ime direction Fre3uency direction

Fre3uency

Fre3uency

!ime

!ime

!ime and $re3uency direction

Fre3uency

!ime
Department for Telecommunications 44

Di$$erential Modulation in OFDM Systems


7er$ormance o$ di$$erential modulation depends on the correlation o$ symbols
0&R
..%.

4orrelation 6unction

. %.--

0<5 0<(

!6M&

f max

%.-, %.-+ %.-6 6re7uenc8 correlation function Time correlation function %.-5 $%.. $%.%, $%.%6 $%.%4 $%.%2 % %.%2 %.%4 %.%6 %.%, %..

0<+ 0<2 0<) 0<0 0<0 0<2 0<( 0<= 0<@ )<0 )<2

FR&G

fD14F tDT4

'S f(,max

2hen is di$$erential modulation in $re3uency direction better ?

T$%!" f ! ,max > 2 f max


Department for Telecommunications 45

Hi her Order Di$$erential Modulation M%DA7SQ


DA7SQ si nal constellation5
= {& ' e j P # ' { 0, N & 1}, P {0, N p 1}}

Amplitude Bits M 9 )= M M )= ) 2 2 ( (

hase Bits M @ )=

Amplitude !actor a % 2<0 )<= )<( )<+

(b1, ... , b m a )n (b m a+1 , ... , b ) m a+m p n

Amplitude Mapping Phase Mapping

Qn

M M +2 M Differential M =( Encoding M M )2@

Sn

)= +2

-1 z (b1, ... , b m a )n (b m a+1 , ... , b ) ma +m p n


Department for Telecommunications

Modified Amplitude Mapping Phase Mapping

Bn

Sn

46

7er$ormance o$ Di$$erential Modulation


10
0

=(%DA7SQ, 3uasi%coherent =(%DA7SQ, non%coherent =(%GAM, coherent

10 1it <rror Rate

-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

12

14

16

18

20 22 9D* 0d12

24

26

28

30

Department for Telecommunications

4+

Adapti#e Modulation
OFDM i#es the opportunity to use5
10

PHD/EP

di$$erent modulation schemes $or each subchannel di$$erent po.er $or each subchannel

0.1

bD/E
6 4

2 0

Adapti#e Modulation

10

30

50

70

90

110

130

150

170

190

Adaptation to the channel trans$er $unction usin subchannel speci$ic modulation schemes and po.er
4,

Department for Telecommunications

Adapti#e Modulation
256H)# 64H)# .6H)# HP9G 1P9G *ot used due to lo5 9*R 9u:carriers

)lgorithmsA 4ho5F 4ioffi and 1inghamA capacit8 ma3imiEation 6ischerA <rror pro:a:ilit8 minimiEation rInheidA simple :loc?5ise loading algorithm Hughes$HartogsA sets target rate RF intensi/e searching

)/erage 9*R

Department for Telecommunications

4-

Adapti#e Modulation
Adapti#e modulation Da#era e 2 bits per subcarrierE
.%
%

adapt modulation fi3ed modulation


.%
$.

.%

$2

1<R
.%

$3

..5 d1
$4

.%

.%

$5

$6

$4

$2

.%

9*R !d1&

1it loading :8 6ischer )lgorithm


Department for Telecommunications 5%

,hannel &stimation
Transmitter
1itstream 4hannel 4oding Puncturing "nterlea/ing #odulation #apping Sn.0 P in/erse 66T 9 Sn.K-1 Pilot s8m:ols 4hannel sn,m uardint. D ) en(t)

Receiver

4hannel <stimation <7ualisation

Rn.0 De$ mapping Demodu$ lation Rn.K-1 66T 9 P rn,m 'indo5

)' *

@ rn(t)

1itstream Biter:i decoding

Depunct. Deinterl.

98nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

5.

7ilot%0ased ,hannel &stimation


Nt 8east%S3uares &stimation5

H n,k =
6re7uenc8 "nterpolation

Rn , k S n ,k

9u:carriers

T5o$Dimensional "nterpolation

Nf
Time "nterpolation

J6D# s8m:ols
Pilots Birtual pilots :8 time interpolation Desired transfer factor

Department for Telecommunications

52

6nterpolation Methods

8inear interpolation Second order interpolation 8o. pass interpolation Spline cubic interpolation !ime domain interpolation

Department for Telecommunications

53

7ilot%0ased N 0lind ,hannel &stimation


4urrent J6D# s8m:ol nfT9

6re7uenc8

6re7uenc8

ntf

Time =Decision Directed> =Pilot 1ased>

Time

R?Fi ;9?Fi H?Fi @*?Fi


66T

RlFK
Remo/e #odulation "nterpolation D <stimation

9oftDHard$ Decision

Decoding

9?Fi

) priori ?no5n pilot s8m:ols

H?Fi

Department for Telecommunications

54

Decision%Directed ,hannel &stimation


&ubcarrier'ise channel estimation 5ith F filtering

% = (1 )( H % % ! H n ,k n 1, k + n 1, k ) + H n , k
% = (1 ) % ! % n ,k n 1, k + ( H n ,k H n 1,k )

Rn ,k ! )e(n ,k = % H n 1, k

Rn , k ! H n,k = )e(n , k

66T

Di/

)e(n ,k

Decoder Demod

) H n ,k

, $ilter
! H n ,k

Hard Decision

) H1,k
Department for Telecommunications

Rn,k

Di/

)e(n ,k

#od

55

Decision%Directed ,hannel &stimation


&ubcarrier'ise channel estimation 5ith F filtering 6$ recei#ed symbols are inside the reliable area5

1+0

0+1 *1+0 *0+1 0+1 *0+1 1+0

% = (1 )( H % % ! H n ,k n 1, k + n 1, k ) + H n , k
% = (1 ) % ! % n ,k n 1, k + ( H n , k H n 1,k )

*1+0

6$ recei#ed symbols are outside the reliable area5 D;%F ;%E (ocating a relia:ilit8 area in the constellation diagramm !HP9G
Optimal #alues ;%..F ;%.%%,

% =H % % H n ,k n 1, k + n 1, k % = % n ,k n 1, k
56

Department for Telecommunications

,hannel ,odin

Transmitter
1itstream 4hannel 4oding Puncturing "nterlea/ing #odulation #apping

Sn.0 P in/erse 66T 9 Sn.K-1 Pilot s8m:ols 4hannel sn,m uardint. D ) en(t)

Receiver

4hannel <stimation <7ualisation

Rn.0 De$ mapping Demodu$ lation Rn.K-1 66T 9 P rn,m 'indo5

)' *

@ rn(t)

1itstream Biter:i decoding

Depunct. Deinterl.

98nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

5+

,hannel ,odin
Flat bit error rate cur#e in the Raylei h channel 1 e -0 due to $aded subcarriers
1 e -1 1 e -2

B P S K , Raylei R a y l e i ghh channel -K a n a l 07SQ,


07SQ, B P S K , A24A W G N channel -K a n a l

BER

,hannel ,odin

1 e -3 1 e -4 1 e -5

Guestions5 0 5 10 15 20 25 S /N choice o$ appropriate codes Dspreadin codes, bloc/ codes, con#olutional codes, turbo codesE optimal modulation schemes Dcoded modulationE metrics $or so$t%decision decodin decodin techni3ues
Department for Telecommunications

30

5,

So$t%Output Demodulation o$ ,oherent Si nals


Recei#ed modulation symbol5

Rn ,k = H n ,k S n ,k + N n ,k
p Rn , k S n , k

7osteriori 7DF is 4aussian5

1 = e 2 2

Rn , k H n , k Sn , k 2 2

MaCimum 8i/elihood Se3uence &stimation DM8S&E5

! S n ,k = ar, max P Rn ,k

S n ,k

( )

= ar, max p Rn ,k S n ,k ( )

= ar, min Rn ,k H n ,k S n ,k ( )
Metri/ in$ormation $ed to the Literbi decoder5
n ,k = Rn ,k H n ,k S n ,k
2

Department for Telecommunications

5-

So$t%Output Demodulation o$ 6ncoherent Si nals


Di$$erential phase modulation DD7SQE5
p n ,k n ,k

Di$$erential amplitude modulation DDASQE5


,n ,k = ln p ,n ,k +n ,k
2 *

1 2
2

n , k n , k
2 2

Rn ,k S , +n ,k = ln n ,k Rn 1,k S n 1,k 1 e
,n , k +n , k
2 2 * 2

2 2 n ,k = ar, min H n ,k n ,k n ,k ( )

2 2 * 2

= =

2
H n , k S n ,k
2

2
H n 1,k S n 1,k
2

2 ! B n , k = ar, min d n , k ( ) R

DA7SQ5

2 n,k 2

d n ,k ( ) = (,n ,k +n ,k ( ) ) + ( n ,k n ,k ( ) ) , R
2

2 n ,k

1 1 Rn ,k + 1 Rn 1,k
2 2

Metri/ in$ormation $or DA7SQ $ed to the Literbi decoder5


n ,k = ( d n ,k ) R
2 2 n ,k
6%

Department for Telecommunications

,oncatenation o$ ,odin and Di$$erential Modulation

4on/olutional 4oding

"nterlea/er

Differential #odulation

,on#olutional ,odin

6nterlea#er

Di$$erential ,odin

-on%Di$$< Modulation

,oncatenated ,ode !urbo%Decodin

Department for Telecommunications

6.

Di$$erential Modulation .ith !urbo Decodin

A24- channel @%D7SQ Db1.< @%7SQE ,on#olutional code5 A)*)B@ A)++B@ 0loc/%6nterlea#er5 +0== 0its OFDM5 )02( subcarrier

Department for Telecommunications

62

Synchroni1ation

Transmitter
1itstream 4hannel 4oding Puncturing "nterlea/ing #odulation #apping

Sn.0 P in/erse 66T 9 Sn.K-1 Pilot s8m:ols 4hannel sn,m uardint. D ) en(t)

Receiver

4hannel <stimation <7ualisation

Rn.0 De$ mapping Demodu$ lation Rn.K-1 66T 9 P rn,m 'indo5

)' *

@ rn(t)

1itstream Biter:i decoding

Depunct. Deinterl.

98nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

63

Synchroni1ation

.%.%%%..

coding D modulation

"66T

PD9

c8clic e3tension

DD)

channel

.%.%%%..

demodulationD decoding

66T

9DP

5indo5ing

)DD

frame s8nchroniEation cloc? s8nchroniEation fre7uenc8 s8nchroniEation

Department for Telecommunications

64

4uard 6nter#al based !echni3ue


&Cploit the correlation introduced by the uard inter#al5

OFDM symbol

46

DA!A

46 46

DEV
Slidin .indo.
Mo#in sum 7hase

Fractional $re3uency o$$set

PP

ar maC

!ime o$$set

MaCimum li/elihood estimator F


Department for Telecommunications 65

OFDM $or Multi%"ser ,ommunications

Department for Telecommunications

66

OFDM $or Multi%"se ,ommunications


For a i#en OFDM system $ind a suitable multiple access scheme that maps the user data to a modulation bloc/ F L
User .
,odin I6nterl< SN7 Mappin

NC !k-l

User 2
,odin I6nterl< SN7

Mappin

Sn-i

Add 4uard

6FF!

User G
,odin I6nterl< SN7

Mappin 6+

Department for Telecommunications

OFDM Multiple Access Schemes


OFDM%FDMA OFDM%!DMA

t f

OFDM%,DMA

User / Code t

Department for Telecommunications

6,

OFDM%!DMA
7rinciple5 &#ery user allocates all subcarriers in a certain number o$ time slots DOFDM symbolsE in each OFDM modulation bloc/ Ad#anta es5 -o multiple access inter$erences DMA6E 6ncoherent or coherent modulation Adaptation to channel characteristics Hi h codin ain due to di#ersity Robust a ainst estimation errors -o MA6 in case o$ synchronisation errors &asy implementation Disad#anta es5 7er$ormance o$ UnormalJ OFDM system

User 1 NS NC User Data 1 J6D# 98m:ols

9u:carriers

Department for Telecommunications

6-

OFDM%FDMA
7rinciple5 &#ery user transmits on a certain number o$ OFDM subcarriers durin all time slots o$ the OFDM modulation bloc/ Ad#anta es5 -o multiple access inter$erence 6ncoherent or coherent modulation Adaptation to channel characteristics Select ood subcarriers 0itloadin on selected subcarriers Robust a ainst estimation errors Disad#anta es5 Stron er re3uirements on carrier $re3uency synchronisation bet.een users in the uplin/
+%

User Data 1 NS NC

9u:carriers

1 J6D# 98m:ols

Department for Telecommunications

User

FDMA !ransmitter
User .
,odin I6nterl< SN7 Fre3uency 6nterlea#er

Mappin

!i-k

User 2
,odin I6nterl< SN7

Fre3uency 6nterlea#er

Ho. shall the subcarrier o$ each user be selected ?

Mappin

6FF!

!i-k

Si-k

6D#) #ultiple )ccess

Department for Telecommunications

+.

!ime%Fre3uency 0loc/
!o allo. the utili1ation o$ subcarrier by di$$erent users de$ine a time% $re3uency modulation bloc/ consistin o$ . subcarriers in & OFDM symbols5

b$ a!

$ ! t

Department for Telecommunications

+2

OFDM%FDMA Resource Allocation


6ndependent multi%path channels
LHL 0d12

"ser )

9u:carrier

Fre3uency

"ser 2

?
!ime

LHL 0d12

9u:carrier

LHL 0d12

"ser Q

9u:carrier

Department for Telecommunications

+3

OFDM%DFH%EFDMA
6$ no channel in$ormation is a#ailable the !DMANFDMA concept can be used to implement a $re3uency hoppin scheme< f

LH!f&L

Department for Telecommunications

+4

OFDM%!DMANFDMA
2ith a OFDM%!DMANFDMA multiple access scheme $re3uency bands can be assi ned to users .ith hi hest S-R in that band
$ a! b $

PS-R )D$EP

P S-R 2D$EP

Multi%"ser di#ersity
Department for Telecommunications +5

OFDM%,DMA
7rinciple5 &#ery user transmits on all OFDM subcarriers durin all OFDM symbols o$ an OFDM modulation bloc/ usin an ortho onal code De< < 2alsh%HadamardE<
User Data 1 NS NC

9u:carriers

Ad#anta es5 7rocessin ain due to $re3uency di#ersity Robust a ainst inter$erences
User

1 J6D# 98m:ols

Disad#anta es5 Multiple access inter$erences Only coherent modulation possible -o adaptation to channel characteristics

Department for Telecommunications

+6

7er$ormance Results $or the Do.nlin/


0&R per$ormance comparison bet.een OFDM multiple access techni3ues DG7SQ, RM)N2E
.%
%

.%

$.

OFDM%,DMA

.%

$2

1<R

OFDM%!DMA
$3

.%

.%

$4

5d0 OFDM%FDMA

2<5d0

.%

$5

$6

$4

$2

.%

9*R !d1&
Department for Telecommunications ++

OFDM System Desi n and 7er$ormance

Department for Telecommunications

+,

OFDM System Desi n


!he o#erhead o$ the uard inter#al sets the lo.er limit on the OFDM symbol duration5

max < 0+2 TS

!he maCimum Doppler $re3uency sets the upper limit $or the OFDM symbol duration5

f ! ,max =

/f C&rrier < 0+03 f c

Re3uirements $or OFDM symbol duration5

5 max TS 0+03

1 f ! ,max

&Cample5 HiperlanN2 &!S6%& channel model and 250 /mNhO5<54H1

-+5s TS 23+5s
Department for Telecommunications +-

OFDM System 7arameters


Parameter System 0and.idth B M 20 MH1 max M 5 s Bc M 200 /H1 fC M 5<5 4H1 vmax M 200 /mNh fDmax M ) /H1 TS M 25<= s TG M =<( s TOFDM M +2 s NC M 5)2 D)02(E NG M )2@ M NC /4 (NC /8 f M +;0=+ /H1 D);5+) /H1E )=%GAM, )=%DA7SQ RM)N2 +2 M0itNs
,%

Balue

,hannel 7roperties

MaCimum Delay ,oherence 0and.idth ,arrier Fre3uency MaCimum Speed MaCimum Doppler Fre3uency

OFDM System 7arameters

OFDM Symbol Duration 4uard 6nter#all Duration !otal OFDM Symbol Duration FF! 8en th 4uard 6nter#all 8en th Subcarrier Spacin Modulation !echni3ue ,ode Rate "ser Data Rate

Department for Telecommunications

7er$ormance Results $or the Do.nlin/


1 TDMA TDMA (Ada t. mod.) CDMA (MM!" !UD) Ada t. #DMA Ada t. #DMA (Ada t. Mod.) Ada t. #DMA/CDMA

1e*01

1e*02

./R
1e*03 1e*04 1e*05 0

10

15

20

SNR 0&.1

Department for Telecommunications

,.

Ad#anced OFDM !echni3ues

Department for Telecommunications

,2

OFDM%FDMA Scheme $or the "plin/ o$ a Mobile ,ommunication System

Department for Telecommunications

,3

System O#er#ie.
OFDM%based "plin/ Scheme
User User

M
User

" 1 0S

User

M! Multiple "sers

"plin/ $rom Mobile !erminal DM!E to 0ase Station D0SE Sin le ,ell &n#ironment Sharin o$ 0and.idth by a speci$ic OFDM%FDMA%Scheme

Department for Telecommunications

,4

Mobile !erminal
!.o parts o$ the M!Ws OFDM%Structure are considered5
Spreadin matriC &3uidistant subcarrier allocation Mobile !erminal

!i ,n
&ncoder I Modulation Spreadin

S i ,k
Subcarrier Allocation

si ,n
6DF! 46

!i ,n 5 S i ,k 5 si ,n 5

Modulation Symbols !ransmit Symbols DFre3< DomainE !ransmit Symbols D!ime DomainE
,5

Department for Telecommunications

Subcarrier Allocation
6DF!%7rocessin in an OFDM%system D!th OFDM%0loc/E5

1 si ,n = N
4eneral Obser#ation5

j 2 nk % N S e i ,k k =0

N 1

Discrete Spectrum .ith e3uidistantly spaced non%1ero #alues

6DF!

7eriodic !ime Si nal

!his e$$ect is used in the considered subcarrier allocation scheme5 !i ,n Si , k


Subcarrier Allocation

si ,n
6DF!

Department for Telecommunications

,6

Subcarrier Allocation
!he subcarriers are allocated e3uidistantly5

!i ,n

Si ,k
Subcarrier Allocation

si ,n
6DF!

Si ,0
Ma n<

Si ,1

Si , L 1
"ser )

"

Subcarriers

si ,n = I(2' ( Si ,k ) si ,0 si ,1 L si ,L1 si ,0 si ,1 L si ,L1


)st period

si ,0 si ,1 L si ,L1
Mth period

H !his leads to a periodic transmit time si nal

Department for Telecommunications

,+

Spreadin
Second desi n element5 Spreadin is applied to the userWs subcarriers
!i ,n
Spread

S i ,k

si ,n

Multiplication o$ modulation symbols !i ,n .ith an ortho onal,


unitary matriC 2ell /no.n eCamples5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2alsh%Hadamard

1 1 j % 2 1 e 1 e j 1 e j 3 2

1 e j e j 2 e j 3

1 j 3 e 2 e j 3 j3 e 2

Discrete Fourier

Department for Telecommunications

,,

Spreadin MatriC
6n the considered OFDM%FDMA system, only DF!%matrices are applied $or spreadin 5
!i ,n
Spread

S i ,k

si ,n

Si ,0 S i ,1 = M S i , L 1

[ !%T ]

!i ,0 ! i ,1 M ! i , L 1

Joint application o$ DF!%spreadin and e3uidistant subcarrier allocation leads to a reatly simpli$ied system
Department for Telecommunications ,-

,ombination o$ Spreadin and Subcarrier Allocation


6n e$$ect, the DF! o$ the spreadin matriC and the 6DF!%processin in the OFDM%transmitter cancel out each other5

si ,0 Si ,0 !i ,0 !i ,0 si ,1 = I(2' Si ,1 = I(2' (2' !i ,1 = !i ,1 M M M M s S ! ! i , L 1 i , L 1 i , L 1 i , L 1


,onse3uence5 !he DF!%spreaded OFDM%FDMA system is e3ui#alent to a sin le%carrier%system .ith uard inter#all

Department for Telecommunications

-%

,ombination o$ Spreadin and Subcarrier Allocation


!o ether .ith e3uidistant subcarrier allocation5

si ,n is an M%times repetition o$ modulation r symbol #ector !i5


!ransmit si nal
)st period Mth period

!i ,0 !i ,1 L !i ,L1 !i ,0 !i ,1 L !i ,L1
identical

!i ,0 !i ,1 L !i ,L1

si ,0

si ,1

L si ,L1 si ,0

si ,1

L si ,L1

si ,0

si ,1

L si ,L1

Department for Telecommunications

-.

,ombination o$ Spreadin and Subcarrier Allocation


As a result o$ combined spreadin and subcarrier allocation, three components in the transmitter cancel out each other5

!i ,n
Spread

Si , k
Subcarrier Allocation 6DF!

si ,n

!i ,0 !i ,1 M !i ,L1

[ !%T ]

Si ,0 Si ,1

Si , L 1
M

!%T ] M

!i ,0 !i ,1 M !i ,L1 !i ,0 !i ,L1 !i ,0 !i ,1 M !i ,L1

)st period

Mth period

Department for Telecommunications

-2

Multiple "sers
Other users allocate a shi$ted, but also e3uidistant subset o$ subcarriers5
) Si(,m L 1 "ser m

Ma nitude

m) Si(,0

m) Si(,1

"ser )

Subcarriers

!he $re3uency shi$t leads to a phase rotation o$ the transmit symbols in the time domain5
) Si(,m ( k m) k ) si(,m ex4( j 2 nm % N ) n

Department for Telecommunications

-3

Resultin Multi%"ser System


All this results in a #ery simple si nal processin in the transmitter in a multi%user uplin/ system
8 Modulation symbols
m) m) !i(,0 !i(,1 ) L !i(,m L 1

M%times repetition
m) m) !i(,0 !i(,1 ) L !i(,m L 1

m) m) !i(,0 !i(,1

) (m) (m) (m) ! ! ! L L !i(,m L 1 i ,0 i , L 1 i ,1

)st period

e
j 2 nm % N

Mth period

e j 0+++ e j1+++

L e j+++ e j+++

7hase Rotation

m) m) si(,0 si(,1 (m) ) s L L si(,m i,L L 1 (m) (m) (m) ) s s s L si(,m i ,0 i ,1 N 2 i , N 1

!ransmit si nal in time domain


Department for Telecommunications

46

-4

Recei#er Structure
Recei#er is e3ui#alent to con#entional OFDM%FDMA recei#er .ith additional despreadin
r(0) Rn
One%!ap &G Despread

M
ri ,n

[ !%T ]

M
M M
r( " 1) Rn

G 0 0

(0) n ,0

0 O 0

0 0 (0) Gn , L 1

% (0) S n ,0 (0) % Sn ,1 M % (0) S n , L 1

!%T ]

(0) %n ! ,0 (0) % !n,1 M (0) %n ! , L 1

"ser 0

M Detection $or M users M


G 0 0
( " 1) n ,0

0 O 0

0 ( " 1) Gn , L 1 0

% ( " 1) S n ,0 % ( " 1) S n ,1 M % ( " 1) S n , L 1

!%T ]

( " 1) %n ! ,0 ( " 1) % !n ,1 M ( 1) % n" ! , L 1

"ser M%)
-5

Department for Telecommunications

&3uali1ation
!he cyclic pre$iC in the transmit si nal pre#ents 6S6 H Fre3uency domain e3uali1ation can be done by means o$ a one%tap e3uali1er
(m) (m) %n S G 0 ,0 n ,0 M = 0 O (m) S %n 0 , L 1 0 (m) 0 Rn ,0 0 M ( m ) ( m ) Gn , L 1 Rn , L 1

6n order to a#oid hi h noise ampli$ication in deep spectral $ades,


(m) the coe$$icients Gn ,k are calculated $rom the MMS&%criterion5 ( m )5 Hn ,k

(m) n ,k

= H

(m) 2 n,k

1 SNR

(m) Hn , k are the channel coe$$icients o$ the k th subcarrier at time n

Department for Telecommunications

-6

0it &rror 7er$ormance


!he recei#er structure is e3ui#alent to a spreaded OFDM%FDMA system and there$ore, the same 0&R%7er$ormance .ill be obser#ed As an eCample, the per$ormance o$ an uncoded system is e#aluated
System parameters5 25= subcarriers 20 MH1 band.idth )= users ,hannel parameters5 D2SS"SE &Cponentially decreasin po.er delay D0 % +<2XsE +0 uncorrelated paths Raylei h $adin -o Doppler%shi$t
Department for Telecommunications -+

)= GAM Modulation =( samples uard inter#al

0it &rror 7er$ormance


!he per$ormance $i ure i#es a result $or the introduced system in comparison .ith Yero%Forcin e3uali1aton<
.% .% .% 1<R .% .% .%
%

$.

M6 ##9<

$2

$3

$4

$5

.% .5 9*R 0d12

2%

25

An arbitrary user is considered, because in eneral all users eCperience the same a#era e per$ormance
Department for Telecommunications -,

7AR%Reduction
Due to the duality to a sin le%carrier system, the 7ea/%to%A#era e ratio D7ARE is smaller compared to con#entional OFDM%systems5
2 . "mag % $. $2 $2 $. % Real . 2 "mag

DaE

2 . % $. $2

DbE

$2

$.

% Real

For comparison5 ,ompleC en#elope o$ t.o DF!%spreaded transmission systems .ith Dboth G7SQE aE random subcarrier allocation bE e3uidistant subcarrier allocation
Department for Telecommunications --

0ene$its o$ this "plin/ Scheme

!he OFDM%FDMA scheme reduces to a sin le%carrier system .ith uard inter#al Reduction o$ transmitter compleCity 8o. 7AR due to sin le%carrier e3ui#alence Same 0&R%7er$ormance as con#entionally spread OFDM%FDMA

Department for Telecommunications

.%%

,hannel 7rediction Re3uirements

Multiple Access Scheme OFDM%!DMA OFDM%FDMA .ith Adapti#e Modulation OFDM%FDMA .ith Spreadin OFDM%,DMA

,hannel 7rediction Re3uired -o Zes -o -o

Department for Telecommunications

.%.

Joint Optimi1ation o$ 8ayers

Department for Telecommunications

.%2

Joint Optimi1ation o$ 7HZ and D8,


Hi her 7rotocol 8ayers Hi her 7rotocol 8ayers

D8,
Hi her 7rotocol 8ayers

Statistical 7&R Data 7HZ Mode Selection

D8,
7HZ Mode Selection 7&R N 4oodput 7rediction

7HZ

7HZ
S-R Measurement

7HZ

S-R
!rans$er Function

So$t 0its

,hannel

,hannel

,hannel

-o 8in/ Adaptation

,on#entional 8in/ Adaptation by D8,

Joint 8in/ Adaptation by D8,N7HZ

Department for Telecommunications

.%3

S-R !hresholds $or H8N2 7HZ Mode Selection


) 07SQ, RM)N2 07SQ, RM+N( G7SQ, RM)N2 G7SQ, RM+N( )=%GAM, RM;N)= )=%GAM, RM+N( =(%GAM, RM+N(

0<)

8,H%7&R

7&R threshold )0%2


0<0)

0<00)

%(

%2

)0

)2 )( S-R Ad0B

)=

)@

20

22

2(

2=

2@

+0

%G )= N) = M; ,R AM

N( M+ ,R AM %G )=

%G =(

N( M+ ,R SQ 07 N( M+ ,R SQ G7 N2 M) ,R SQ 07

N( M+ ,R AM

&!S6 A ,hannel Model

Department for Telecommunications

.%4

)=%GAM, RM+N( 7&Rs $or an &!S6 A ,hannel


7&R $or indi#idual &!S6 A channel reali1ations #s< a#era e 7&R
) A24&!S6[A, a# < &!S6[A, samples

0<)

8,H%7&R

0<0)

0<00)

)0

))

)2

)+

14

)5

)=

)* S-R Ad0B

)@

);

20

2)

22

2+

2(

25

"se 7HZ layer in$ormation about channel to optimi1e lin/ adaptation F

Department for Telecommunications

.%5

OFDM%!DMA % Do.nlin/

Department for Telecommunications

.%6

Delay Oriented !hrou hput


5 con#entional scheme optimised scheme =(%GAM RM+N(

A# < !hrou hput AbitsNmodsymB

+ )=%GAM RM2N( 2 )=%GAM RM;N)=

) 07SQ RM)N2 %( %2 0 2 ( = @ )0

G7SQ RM)N2 )2 )( S-R Ad0B )= )@ 20 22 2( 2= 2@ +0

Department for Telecommunications

.%+

M6MO Multiple 6nput % Multiple Output

Department for Telecommunications

.%,

Hi her Data Rates needed


Mobility\ Ran e
High 9peed Behicular

24

2<54

+4

Data rates greater than .%% #1itDs

Behicular Pedestrian "ndoor 6i3ed %.%. %.. . .% .%% .%%%

(!M UMT! ()*! "D(" $%A&/ '%2

??

Data Rate DMbitNsE

Department for Telecommunications

.%-

Ho. to increase the Data Rate?

More 0and.idth ?

April 20005 "M!S license auction in the "Q5 5 licenses ] )0MH1 pairs are auctioned o$$ $or (0<)0; &uro Au ust 20005 "M!S license auction in 4ermany5 = licenses ] )0MH1 pairs are auctioned o$$ $or 50<)0; &uro, almost ;00 million &uro per MH1 pair

0and.idth is limited and eCpensi#e

Department for Telecommunications

..%

Ho. to increase the Data Rate?


Hi her band.idth e$$iciency by usin hi her%order constellation dia rams 0ut capacity cannot be lar er than Shannon 8imit
20

0and.idth e$$iciency RN0 ADbitNsE N H1B

Shannon limit $or A24- capacity


)0 =(%GAM 5 )=%GAM )=%7SQ 2 ) 0<5 Dp b M )0 %5 E 5 )0 )5 20 25 +0 & bN -0 in d0 @%7SQ G7SQ +2%7SQ

Department for Telecommunications

...

M6MO % Multiple 6nput Multiple Output s1 Transmitter s2 r1 r2 Recei/er

sn

rm

n !ransmit antennas, m Recei#e antennas

Department for Telecommunications

..2

M6MO % Multiple 6nput Multiple Output s1 Transmitter s2 r1 r2 Recei/er

sn

rm

n !ransmit antennas, m Recei#e antennas 6n $lat $adin channels5

Department for Telecommunications

..3

M6MO % Multiple 6nput Multiple Output s1 Transmitter s2 r1 r2 Recei/er

sn

rm

For $lat $adin channels, the M6MO radio channel is .ritten as the ,hannel matriC

!he transmission is .ritten as a matriC multiplication5

Department for Telecommunications

..4

,ellular &n#ironment

Department for Telecommunications

..5

OFDM Application Systems

OFDM%based Systems

Sin le ,ell DA0 DL0%! DRM Hiper8A-N2 6&&& @02<))a

,ellular -et.or/s Multi%Fre3uency -et.or/ DMF-E Sin le Fre3uency -et.or/ DSF-E MF-5 Hiper8A-N2

0roadcastin

6nteracti#e ,ommunication

!"HH

!"HH has $irstly proposed such a systemF

Department for Telecommunications

..6

,on#entional ,ellular OFDMA -et.or/


Modulation bloc/ D8 0S Fre3uency "8 0and $ilter

0S !ime

0S

M!

Different cells use different resources 4ells ha/e to :e separated :8 filters "ndependent operation of cells

Department for Telecommunications

..+

,on#entional #s< Sel$%Or ani1ed Mana ement


4on/entional Resources 9J$RR#

Resource are clustered 5ith reuse factor +

Resource are shared 5ith reuse factor .

7 2 6 3 2 5 7 4

6 3 1 6 4

5 7 2 5 3 High fle3i:ilit8 9uita:le for an8 user distri:ution 4

(o5 fle3i:ilit8 Jptimal for uniform user distri:ution

Department for Telecommunications

..,

OFDM%based ,ellular Sin le Fre3uency -et.or/


0and $ilter D8 0S "8

0S

Fre3uency

!ime

0S

M!

Different cells can access all resources 4ells need not to :e separated Terminals ha/e to :e s8nchroniEed Propagation dela8 is compensated :8 J6D#

Department for Telecommunications

..-

Synchronisation ,oncept $or a Sel$or anised SFMain !as/5 Decentralised, sel$%or anised synchronisation o$ the cellular net.or/
Do5nlin? #T 9N*4 Resources Uplin?

!.o dedicated Sync si nals % preamble in do.nlin/ $or Mobile !erminal synchroni1ation % postamble in uplin/ $or 0ase Station synchroni1ation

19 9N*4

D( Data

U( Data

Time

)ll #Ts s8nchroniEe to the 19 in >theirO cell

)ll 19 s8nchroniEe to #Ts in >adKacentO cells

Department for Telecommunications

.2%

Sync Si nal Structure

One pair o$ pilot subcarriers used by all M!s o$ sin le 0S

J0K

J0K

J0K

J0K Fre3uency

Separate subsets o$ pilot subcarriers by uard bands

Distinct pairs o$ pilot subcarriers used by M!s o$ di$$erent 0S

Department for Telecommunications

.2.

Sync Si nal 7roperties


Sync si nals are transmitted .ith maCimum transmit po.er Sync si nals ha#e much hi her S-R compared to the data transmission

N C = 204- G&in = 30dB


Department for Telecommunications .22

&stimation 7rocedure
</aluate each detected pair ofsu:carriers separatel8 to o:tain a time and fre7uenc8 offset estimate for each cell RP P5r RP P5r

66T Q.
9u:carriers

66T Q2
9u:carriers

!ime o$$set estimate


"m

Fre3uency o$$set estimate

R1 (l )
" Re

"m

Phase difference :et5een same su:carrier of consecuti/e s8m:ols ; $re3uency o$$set Re

R1 (l 1)
l =

Phase difference :et5een adKacent su:carriers of same s8m:ol ; time o$$set

R2 (l )
fl = f tan 1$R1 (l )5 +R2 (l )" 2

TS tan 1$R1 (l 1)+R1 (l )5" 2

$ J6D# s8m:ol duration

$ J6D# su:carrierspacing

Department for Telecommunications

.23

System O#er#ie.
All 0Ss and M!s share the .hole resources and can access them at any time -o 0S controller > instead5 radio resource mana ement DRRME usin a sel$%or ani1ed dynamic channel allocation DSO%D,AE &ach 0S can obser#e M!s located in its o.n cell and in adSacent cells ,hallen es5 6nter$erence $rom adSacent cells

Department for Telecommunications

.24

Short Ran e Scenario


,ell si1e5 +0m Do$$iceE or )00m DoutdoorE 8o. mobility Dless than )0/mNhE 7roposal 5 OFDM%FDMA based Synchroni1ation in time and $re3uency

0S

Fre3uency
D8 "8

0S

0S

!ime

M!

Department for Telecommunications

.25

2ide Area Scenario


,ell si1e5 (00m till 2/m Hi h mobility Dtill 250/mNhE 7roposal 5 OFDM%!DMA based Synchroni1ation only in time

0S

Fre3uency
D8 "8

0S

!ime
0S

M!

Department for Telecommunications

.26

Simulation 7arameters
)arameters S8stem 9an&wi&t: Num9er of su9 arriers Su9 arrier s4a in, S8m9ol &uration @uar& interAal len,t: @uar& interAal &uration Num9er of ells Cell ra&ius Bat:*loss oeffi ient S:a&owin, &eAiation SNR at 4ro4a,ation &istan e R CAera,e num9er of <'s 4er ell C:annel mo&el +a,-e . ; 100 <=> N ; 2042 ; .%N ; 4-+- ?=> 's ; 1%2 ; N%. ; 20+4- s N@ ; -0 0+- s NBS ; 13 R ; 100 m 2+5 4 &. 20 &. 6 -02+11n

Department for Telecommunications

.2+

-et.or/ Model
,ellular net.or/ .ith identical cell radius M!s are uni$ormly located Guantitati#e results is counted only in central cell

Department for Telecommunications

.2,

Fre3uency Sync in a ,ell


6nside a cell, a$ter 20 $rames, $re3uency synchroni1ation bet.een all M!s and their 0S is correctly achie#ed Fre3uency o$$set is about 0<5R o$ the subcarrier spacin
Relative freq. offset to BS [ f/Sub.spacing] 0.3 Convergence of MTs to their BS frequency 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2

0
Department for Telecommunications

20

40 Frame

60

80
.2-

!ime Sync in a ,ell


6nside a cell, a$ter )0 $rames, time synchroni1ation bet.een all M!s and 0S is achie#ed !ime o$$set is about @R o$ the uard inter#al
Relative time offset to BS [ t/Symbol Duration] 0.5 Convergence of MTs to their BS timing

-0.5

20

40 Frame

60

80
.3%

Department for Telecommunications

Fre3uency Sync in ,ellular -et.or/


Fre3uency o$ all 0Ss .ithin the net.or/ con#er e a$ter 20 $rames Fre3uency o$$set is about )R o$ the subcarrier spacin
Relative freq offset to sub. spacing [ f/ F] 0.3 Convergence of other BSs to ref. BS frequency 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2

20

40 Frame

60

80
.3.

Department for Telecommunications

!ime Sync in ,ellular -et.or/


!imin o$ all 0Ss .ithin the net.or/ con#er e a$ter 20 $rames !ime o$$set is about )0R o$ the uard inter#al
Relative time offset to symbol duration [ t/Ts] 0.5 Convergence of other BSs to ref. BS timing

-0.5

20

40 Frame

60

80
.32

Department for Telecommunications

Result Animation

Department for Telecommunications

.33

Result Animation

Department for Telecommunications

.34

Data !ransmission
.#DM /m *a0,e/12 3a4a,

3 &. D 0+5.it%s%=>

- &. D 1.it%s%=>

13 &. D 2 .it%s%=>

1- &. D 3 .it%s%=>

22 &. D 4 .it%s%=>

6$ the tar et 0&R M )0%5, the hi hest 7HZ mode ^ 25=%GAM can be used .ith S-R T 22d0
.35

Department for Telecommunications

Fre3uency O$$set Accuracy


Fre3uency o$$set accuracy o$ 5R is su$$icient $or a data transmission DS6-R T 22 d0 .ith $re3uency o$$set o$ 5RE

Department for Telecommunications

.36

Synchronisation ,oncept % ,onclusion


Synchroni1ation concept is proposed, usin Sync si nals in preamble and postamble< A Sync si nal is transmitted .ith the maCimum po.er by t.o o$ subcarriers and three OFDM symbols< !ime and $re3uency synchroni1ation can be carried out simultaneously at the recei#er< Simulation results sho.s synchroni1ation in OFDM%based cellular net.or/s is $easible

Department for Telecommunications

.3+

Sel$%or ani1ed Radio Resource Mana ement


,haracteristic system $eatures5 Resource allocation is done independently by each base station, .ithout any in$ormation eCchan e< S6-R is calculated $rom estimated si nal po.er and co%channel inter$erence< Resources .ith the hi hest S6-R #alues are allocated< 7HZ mode are selected based on the S6-R #alues<

Department for Telecommunications

.3,

6nter$erence Measurement $or Resource Allocation

Department for Telecommunications

.3-

6nter$erence Measurement $or Resource Allocation


6nter$erence are measured continuously and a#era ed o#er time< D8 inter$erence #alues are measured at M!< "8 inter$erence #alues are measured at 0S< ,o%channel inter$erence is ta/en as the maCimum #alue $rom "8ND8 measurements< k
NR

(E

FE
NR

3!L

34L

<' measurements

T"'C

.S measurements

%r&me 222
Department for Telecommunications

l11

l01

l02

222
.4%

Si nal 7o.er Measurements


Si nal po.er is measured eCclusi#ely in a reser#ed JSi nal Measurement SlotK< An JSM%slotK is only $or ne. users, containin all subcarriers in one OFDM symbol< !he estimated #alue is the a#era e recei#ed po.er o#er all subcarriers<

f (ownlink

<CC frame

F4link

Si,nal <easurement Slot t


Department for Telecommunications .4.

S6-R ,alculation and Resource Ran/in


)< 0alance bet.een "8 and D8 k

= max(

k ,4L

k , !L

2<

Si nal po.er estimation

1 S = N

S
k =0
k

N 1

+<

S6-R calculation

S NRk =

S +N

(<

Ran/in o$ resources based on their S6-R #alues

Department for Telecommunications

.42

,ellular Scenario
); cells, )00 users, uni$orm user distribution inside each cell OFDM%FDMA, )2@ subcarriers, synchroni1ed in time and $re3uency Hotspot $raction5 the probability that a user is located inside central cell

5 users in central cell 60 50 40 [dB] 30 20 10 0

Received power at the central AP


Signal Interference

Subcarrier

Department for Telecommunications

.43

Hotspot Snapshots
25 users in central cell 60 50 40 [dB] Signal Interference Received power at the central AP

Hotspot $raction5 +0R

30 20 10 0

Subcarrier
Received power at the central AP

63 users in central cell 60 50

Signal Interference

Hotspot $raction5
[dB]

40 30 20 10 0 Subcarrier

=0R

Department for Telecommunications

.44

Hotspot Demonstration
!.o processes are included5

"ser concentration to.ards the central cell "ser scatteration $rom the central cell

Department for Telecommunications

.45

Dynamic ,hannel Allocation

0S

<na:le d8namic channel allocation !D4)& techni7ue #easure co$channel interference :et5een adKacent cells )l5a8s assign resources 5ith minimum interference Reuse all resources d8namicall8 in adKacent cells

0S

0S

M!

Department for Telecommunications

.46

Di ital and Analo Hard.are Aspects in OFDM Systems

Department for Telecommunications

.4+

Di ital and Analo Hard.are Aspects in OFDM Systems "ntroduction )nalog D Digital )nalog Hard5are )spects Digital Hard5are )spects J6D# Demonstrator Performance <stimations

Department for Telecommunications

.4,

6ntroduction Analo N Di ital

)nalog
$ "H$#odulatorF $Demodulator $ )mplifiers $ )ntennas
Department for Telecommunications

Digital
$ 6P ) D )9"4 $ DD)$F )DD$4on/erter

.4-

Summary
&$$icient miti ation o$ multipath propa ation &Ccellent per$ormance in coded systems 8in/ adaptation techni3ues in OFDM ma/es the system #ery $leCible and po.er$ul ,hoice o$ multiple access scheme allo.s adaptation to channel and user re3uirements Ne# aspect$ cellular en#ironment

Department for Telecommunications

.5%

Aspects o$ Future Systems


Modulation !echni3ues5 ,hannel ,odin 5 -et.or/ Aspects5 Multiple Access5 Dynamic U0and.idthJ5 Di#ersity ,oherent #s< 6ncoherent Adapti#e Modulation ,oded Modulation !urbo ,odes Sin le Fre3uency -et.or/s Ad%Hoc -et.or/s !DMA, FDMA, ,DMA Dynamic ,hannel Dynamic 7ac/et Allocation

FleCibility
Department for Telecommunications .5.