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ECE 663

MOSFETs
ECE 663
A little bit of history..
Substrate
Channel
Drain
Insulator
Gate
Operation of a transistor
V
SG
> 0
n type operation
Positive gate bias attracts electrons into channel
Channel now becomes more conductive
More
electrons
Source
V
SD
V
SG
Substrate
Channel
Drain
Insulator
Gate
Operation of a transistor
Transistor turns on at high gate voltage
Transistor current saturates at high drain bias
Source
V
SD
V
SG
Substrate
Channel
Drain
Insulator
Gate
Source
V
SD
V
SG
Start with a MOS capacitor
ECE 663
MIS Diode (MOS capacitor) Ideal
W
Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

ECE 663
E
C
E
F
E
V
E
i
Ideal MIS Diode n-type, V
appl
=0
Assume Flat-band
at equilibrium
q|
S
ECE 663
0
2
= |
.
|

\
|
+ _ | |
B
g
m ms
q
E
Ideal MIS Diode n-type, V
appl
=0
ECE 663
Ideal MIS Diode p-type, V
appl
=0
ECE 663
Ideal MIS Diode p-type, V
appl
=0
0
2
= |
.
|

\
|
+ + _ | |
B
g
m ms
q
E
ECE 663
Accumulation
Pulling in majority carriers at surface
ECE 663
But this increases the barrier for
current flow !!
n
+
p n
+
ECE 663
Depletion
ECE 663
Need CB to dip below E
F
.
Once below by
B
, minority carrier density trumps the intrinsic density.
Once below by 2
B
, it trumps the major carrier density (doping) !
Inversion

B
ECE 663
Sometimes maths can help
ECE 663
P-type semiconductor V
appl
=0
Convention for p-type: positive if bands bend down
ECE 663
Ideal MIS diode p-type
|
= = = = e n e n e n e n n
p
kT q
p
kT E q E
i
kT E E
i p
F i F i
0
/
0
/ ) ( / ) (
'
|
= = e p e p p
p
kT q
p p 0
/
0
kT
q
|
CB moves towards E
F
if > 0 n increases
VB moves away from E
F
if > 0 p decreases
ECE 663
Ideal MIS diode p-type
At the semiconductor surface, =
s
s
e n n
p s
|
=
0
s
e p p
p s
|
=
0

s
< 0 - accumulation of holes


s
=0 - flat band


B
>

s
>0 depletion of holes


s
=
B
- intrinsic concentration n
s
=p
s
=n
i


s
>
B
Inversion (more electrons than holes)


ECE 663
Surface carrier concentration
s
e n n
p s
|
=
0
s
e p p
p s
|
=
0
E
C
E
F
ECE 663
Want to find , E-field, Capacitance
Solve Poissons equation to get E field, potential based on
charge density distribution(one dimension)
s
s
dx
d
dx
d
D
dx
d
k
c =

= E

E
= c = c = E V
/
1 / /
2
2
0
) ( ) (
p p A D
n p N N q x + =
+
E
E
E
ECE 663
Away from the surface, = 0



and
0 0p p A D
p n N N =
+
| |
= e n e p n p
p p p p 0 0
( ) ) 1 ( ) 1 (
0 0
2
2

c
=

| |
e n e p
q
dx
d
p p
s
ECE 663
Solve Poissons equation:
( ) ) 1 ( ) 1 (
0 0
2
2

c
=

| |
e n e p
q
dx
d
p p
s
E = -d/dx

d
2
/dx
2
= -dE/dx
= (dE/d).(-d/dx)
= EdE/d
( ) ) 1 ( ) 1 (
0 0
2
2

c
=

| |
e n e p
q
dx
d
p p
s
EdE/d
ECE 663
Do the integral:
LHS:


RHS:



Get expression for E field (d/dx):
dx
d
x
x
xdx
x

=
}
=
0
2
2
} }
|
x x
x
dx dx e
0 0
,
( )( )
(

| + | + |
.
|

\
|
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
| |
1 1
2
0
0 0
2
2
e
p
n
e
qp
q
kT
E
p
p
s
p
field
Solve Poissons equation:
ECE 663
( ) ( )
2
1
0
0
0
0
1 1 ,
(

| + | + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
| |
e
p
n
e
p
n
F
p
p
p
p
Define:
|
c

0
2
0 p
s
p
s
D
qp q p
kT
L
Debye Length
Then:
|
|
.
|

\
|
| =
0
0
,
2
p
p
D
field
p
n
F
qL
kT
E
+ for > 0 and for < 0
> 0
E > 0
< 0
E < 0
ECE 663
|
|
.
|

\
|
| = c =
0
0
,
2
p
p
s
D
S s s
p
n
F
qL
kT
E Q
Use Gauss Law to find
surface charge per unit
area
( )( )
2
1
0
0
1 1
2
(

| + | + =
| |
s
p
p
s
D
s
s S
e
p
n
e
qL
kT
Q
ECE 663
Accumulation to depletion to strong Inversion
For negative , first term in F dominates exponential
For small positive , second term in F dominates - \

As gets larger, second exponential gets big
1
0
0

|
p
p
p
e n

B
= (kT/q)ln(N
A
/n
i
) = (1/|)ln(p
p0
/p
p0
n
p0
)

(n
p0
/p
p0
) = e
-2|
B

S
> 2
B

Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

ECE 663
Charges, fields, and potentials
Charge on metal = induced surface charge in semiconductor
No charge/current in insulator (ideal)
metal insul semiconductor
depletion
inversion
S A n M
Q W qN Q Q = + =
ECE 663
Electric Field
Electrostatic Potential
Charges, fields, and potentials
ECE 663
Electric Field
Electrostatic Potential
Depletion Region
( )( )
(

| + | + |
.
|

\
|
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
| |
1 1
2
0
0 0
2
2
e
p
n
e
qp
q
kT
E
p
p
s
p
field
ECE 663
Electric Field
Electrostatic Potential
=
s
(1-x/W)
2
W
max
= \2c
s
(2
B
)/qN
A

B
= (kT/q)ln(N
A
/n
i
)
Depletion Region
Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

Couldnt we just solve
this exactly?
U = |
U
S
= |
S
U
B
= |
B
Exact Solution
d/dx = -(\2kT/qL
D
)F(
B
,n
p0
/p
p0
)
dU/F(U) = x/L
D
(
]
U
U
S
F(U) = [e
U
B
(e
-U
-1+U)-e
-U
B
(e
U
-1-U)]
1/2
Exact Solution
dU/F(U,U
B
) = x/L
D
(
]
U
U
S
F(U,U
B
) = [e
U
B
(e
-U
-1+U) + e
-U
B
(e
U
-1-U)]
1/2
= qn
i
[e
U
B
(e
-U
-1) e
-U
B
(e
U
-1)]
Exact Solution
N
A
= 1.67 x 10
15
Q
inv
~ 1/(x+x
0
)
o
x
0
~ L
D
. factor
Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

ECE 663
Threshold Voltage for Strong Inversion
Total voltage across MOS structure= voltage across
dielectric plus
s
B
i
S
S i T
C
Q
V inversion strong V + = + = 2 ) _ (
) 2 ( 2
) ( 2
) (
max B A s
A
s s
A A S
qN
qN
inv
qN W qN SI Q c =
c
= =
B
i
B A s
T
C
qN
V +
c
= 2
) 2 ( 2
c
ox
V
i
/t
ox
= c
s

s
/(W/2) Before Inversion

After inversion there is a discontinuity in D due to surface Q
inv

V
ox
(at threshold) = c
s
(2
B
)/(W
max
/2)C
i
=
ECE 663
Notice Boundary Condition !!
B
i
B A s
T
C
qN
V +
c
= 2
) 2 ( 2
Local Potential vs Gate voltage
V
G
= V
fb
+
s
+ (k
s
t
ox
/k
ox
) (2kTN
A
/c
0
k
s
)[|
s
+ e
|(
s
-2
B
)
]
1/2
Initially, all voltage drops across channel (blue curve). Above threshold,
channel potential stays pinned to 2
B
, varying only logarithmically, so that
most of the gate voltage drops across the oxide (red curve).

ox

s
Look at Effective charge width
Initially, a fast increasing channel potential drops across
increasing depletion width
Eventually, a constant potential drops across a decreasing
inversion layer width, so field keeps increasing and thus
matches increasing field in oxide
~W
dm
/2
~t
inv
Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

Charge vs Local Potential
Q
s
(2c
0
k
s
kTN
A
)[|
s
+ e
|(
s
-2
B
)
]
1/2
Beyond threshold, all charge goes to inversion layer
How do we get the curvatures?
EXACT
Add other terms and keep
Leading term
Inversion Charge vs Gate voltage
Q ~ e
|(
s
-2
B)
,
s
-
2
B
~ log(V
G
-V
T
)
Exponent of a logarithm gives a linear variation of Q
inv
with V
G

Q
inv
= -C
ox
(V
G
-V
T
)
Why C
ox
?
Questions
What is the MOS capacitance? Q
S
(
S
)

What are the local conditions during inversion?
S,cr

How does the potential vary with position? (x)

How much inversion charge is generated at the surface? Q
inv
(x,
S
)

Add in the oxide: how does the voltage divide?
S
(V
G
),
ox
(V
G
)

How much gate voltage do you need to invert the channel? V
TH

How much inversion charge is generated by the gate? Q
inv
(V
G
)

Whats the overall C-V of the MOSFET? Q
S
(V
G
)

ECE 663
Capacitance
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
(


|
.
|

\
|
+
c
=
c
c
=
| |
0
0
0
0
,
1 1
2
p
p
S
p
p
D
S S
D
p
n
F
e
p
n
e
L
Q
C
s s
For
s
=0 (Flat Band):
D
S
D
L
band flat C
c
= ) _ (
Expand exponentials..
........
! 3 ! 2
1
3 2
+ + + + =
x x
x e
x
ECE 663
Capacitance of whole structure
Two capacitors in series:
C
i
- insulator
C
D
- Depletion
D i
C C C
1 1 1
+ = OR
D i
D i
C C
C C
C
+
=
d
C
i
i
c

ECE 663
Capacitance vs Voltage
ECE 663
Flat Band Capacitance
Negative voltage = accumulation C~C
i
Zero voltage Flat Band
i
D
s
i
s i
D i s
D
s i
D i FB
L d
L d
L d
C C C c
c
c
+
=
c c
c + c
=
c
+
c
= + =
1 1 1 1 1
FB
C C V = = =0 0
D
i
FB
L d
C
s
i
c
c
+
c
=
ECE 663
CV
As voltage is increased, C goes through minimum
(weak inversion) where d/dQ is fairly flat

C will increase with onset of strong inversion

Capacitance is an AC measurement

Only increases when AC period long wrt minority
carrier lifetime

At high frequency, carriers cant keep up dont
see increased capacitance with voltage

For Si MOS, high frequency = 10-100 Hz
ECE 663
CV Curves Ideal MOS Capacitor
max
'
min
W d
C
s
i
i
c
c
+
c
=
ECE 663
But how can we operate gate at
todays clock frequency (~ 2 GHz!)
if we cant generate minority
carriers fast enough (> 100 Hz) ?
ECE 663
MOScap vs MOSFET
ECE 663
Substrate
Drain
Insulator
Gate
Source Channel
Substrate
Insulator
Gate
Channel
Minority carriers generated by
RG, over minority carrier lifetime
~ 100s
So C
inv
can be << C
ox
if fast gate
switching (~ GHz)
Majority carriers pulled in
from contacts (fast !!)
C
inv
= C
ox
MOScap vs MOSFET
ECE 663
Example Metal-SiO
2
-Si
N
A
= 10
17
/cm
3
At room temp kT/q = 0.026V
n
i
= 9.65x10
9
/cm
3
c
s
= 11.9x1.85x10
-14
F/cm
( )
m cm W
X x
x X x x
N q
n
N
kT
W
A
i
A
s
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
=

1 . 0 10
10 10 6 . 1
10 65 . 9 10 ln 026 . 0 10 85 . 8 9 . 11
ln 4
5
max
17 19
9 17 14
2
max
ECE 663
Example Metal-SiO
2
-Si
d=50 nm thick oxide=10
-5
cm
c
i
=3.9x8.85x10
-14
F/cm
( )
Volts inv
x
x x x
C
W qN
V
C
C
cm F x
x
x x
W d
C
Volts
x
x x
n
N
q
kT
inv
cm F x
x x
d
C
s B
i
A
TH
i
i
i
A
B s
i
i
s
i
07 . 1 84 . 0 23 . 0 ) (
10 9 . 6
10 10 10 6 . 1
2
13 . 0
/ 10 1 . 9
10 9 . 11 9 . 3 10 5
10 85 . 8 9 . 3
84 . 0
10 65 . 9
10
ln 026 . 0 2 ln
2
2 ) (
/ 10 9 . 6
10
10 85 . 8 9 . 3
7
5 17 19
max
'
min
2 8
5 7
14
max
'
min
9
17
2 7
5
14
= + = + = + =
=
=
+
=
+
c
=
= |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
c
=

c
c

ECE 663
Real MIS Diode: Metal(poly)-Si-SiO
2
MOS
Work functions of gate and semiconductor are
NOT the same

Oxides are not perfect
Trapped, interface, mobile charges
Tunneling

All of these will effect the CV characteristic and
threshold voltage
ECE 663
Band bending due to work function difference
ms FB
V | =
ECE 663
Work Function Difference
q|
s
=semiconductor work function =
difference between vacuum and Fermi level
q|
m
=metal work function
q|
ms
=(q|
m
- q|
s
)
For Al, q|
m
=4.1 eV
n
+
polysilicon q|
s
=4.05 eV
p
+
polysilicon q|
s
=5.05 eV
q|
ms
varies over a wide range depending on
doping
ECE 663
ECE 663
SiO
2
-Si Interface Charges
ECE 663
Standard nomenclature for Oxide charges:

Q
M
=Mobile charges (Na+/K+) can cause
unstable threshold shifts cleanliness
has eliminated this issue

Q
OT
=Oxide trapped charge Can be anywhere
in the oxide layer. Caused by broken
Si-O bonds caused by radiation damage
e.g. alpha particles, plasma processes,
hot carriers, EPROM
ECE 663
Q
F
= Fixed oxide charge positive charge layer
near (~2mm) Caused by incomplete
oxidation of Si atoms(dangling bonds)
Does not change with applied voltage

Q
IT
=Interface trapped charge. Similar in origin
to Q
F
but at interface. Can be pos, neg,
or neutral. Traps e
-
and h during device
operation. Density of Q
IT
and Q
F
usually
correlated-similar mechanisms. Cure
is H anneal at the end of the process.
Oxide charges measured with C-V methods
ECE 663
Effect of Fixed Oxide Charges
ECE 663
ECE 663
Surface Recombination
Lattice periodicity broken at surface/interface mid-gap E levels
Carriers generated-recombined per unit area
ECE 663
Interface Trapped Charge - Q
IT
Surface states R-G centers caused by disruption of lattice
periodicity at surface
Trap levels distributed in band gap, with Fermi-type distributed:




Ionization and polarity will depend on applied voltage (above or
below Fermi level
Frequency dependent capacitance due to surface recombination
lifetime compared with measurement frequency
Effect is to distort CV curve depending on frequency
Can be passivated w/H anneal 10
10
/cm
2
in Si/SiO
2
system

kT E E
D D
D
D F
e g N
N
/ ) (
1
1

+
+
=
ECE 663
Effect of Interface trapped charge on C-V curve
ECE 663
a ideal
b lateral shift Q oxide, |
ms
c distorted by Q
IT
ECE 663
Non-Ideal MOS capacitor C-V curves
Work function difference and oxide charges shift CV curve in
voltage from ideal case

CV shift changes threshold voltage

Mobile ionic charges can change threshold voltage as a function of
time reliability problems

Interface Trapped Charge distorts CV curve frequency
dependent capacitance

Interface state density can be reduced by H annealing in Si-Si0
2

Other gate insulator materials tend to have much higher
interface state densities
ECE 663
All of the above.
For the three types of oxide charges the CV curve is shifted
by the voltage on the capacitor Q/C




When work function differences and oxide charges are
present, the flat band voltage shift is:
(

d
i
e ch oxide FB
dx x x
d C
V
0
arg _
) (
1 1
( )
i
ot m f
ms FB
C
Q Q Q
V

| =
Some important equations in the
inversion regime (Depth direction)
V
T
= |
ms
+ 2
B
+
ox
W
dm
= \[2c
S
(2
B
)/qN
A
]
Q
inv
= C
ox
(V
G
- V
T
)

ox
= Q
s
/C
ox
Q
s
= qN
A
W
dm
V
T
= |
ms
+ 2
B
+ (\[4c
S

B
qN
A
] - Q
f
+ Q
m
+ Q
ot
)/C
ox
Substrate
Channel
Drain
Insulator
Gate
Source
x